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Ardet. . .Instat. . . Aperte jugulat. 

SCAL. in Juv. 











S A T I R JE. 








The Poefs design in this Satire, which deservedly holds the 
first rank among all performances of the "kind, is to repre- 
sent the various wishes and desires of mankind, and to 
shew the folly of them. He mentions riches, honours, elo- 
quence,^ fame for martial achievements, long life, and beauty, 
and gives instances of their having proved ruinous to the 

OMNIBUS in terris, quee sunt a Gadibus usque 

Auroram et Gangem, pauci dignoscere possunt 

Vera bona, atque illis multum diversa, remota 

Erroris nebula : quid enim ratione timemus, 

Aut cupimus? quid tarn dextro pede concipis, ut te 5 

* This Satire has been always ad- Line 1 . Gcules.~] An island without the 

mired ; Bishop Burnet goes so far, as to Straits of Gibraltar in the south part of 

recommend it (together with Persius) to Spain, divided from the continent by a 

the serious perusal and practice of the small creek. Now called Cadiz, by 

divines in his diocese, as the best com- corruption Cales. 

mon places for their sermons, as the 2. The East.'] Aurora, (quasi aurea 

storehouses and magazines of moral vir- hora, from the golden-coloured splendour 

tues, from whence they may draw out, of day-break,) metonym. the East, 

as they have occasion, all manner of as- Ganges.] The greatest river in the 

sistance for the accomplishment of a vir- East, dividing India into two parts, 

tuous life. The tenth Satire (says Cru- 3, 4. Claud of error.'} That veil of 

sius in his Lives of the Roman Poets) darkness and ignorance which is over 

is inimitable for the excellence of its the human mind, and hides from it, as 

morality, and sublime sentiments. it were, the faculty of perceiving our 







possessors of them. He concludes, therefore, that we should 
leave it to the gods to make a choice for us, they knowing 
what is most for our good. All that we can safely ask is 
health of body and mind: possessed of these, we have enough 
to make us happy, and therefore it is not much matter what 
we want beside. 

IN all lands, which are from Gades to 

The East and the Ganges, few can distinguish 

True good things, and those greatly different from them, the 


Of error removed : for what, with reason do we fear, 
Or desire \ what do you contrive so prosperously, that you 5 

real and best interests, as distinguished derter-a-um, therefore, signifies lucky, 

from those which are deceitful and ima- favourable, fortunate, propitious as 

ginary. laevus-a-um, unlucky, inconvenient, un- 

4. What, u-ith reason, $fe.] According seasonable. 

to the rules of right and sober reason. Tarn dextro pede is equivalent to tarn 

5. So prosperously, fyc.~] Tarn dextro fausto secundo prospero pede. 

pede on so prosperous a footing with I pede fausto go on and prosper, 

ever such hope and prospect of success, HOR. lib. ii. epist. ii. L 37. So VIRO. 

that you may not repent your endeavour JEn. viii. 1. 302. 

(conatus) and pains to accomplish it, Et nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra se- 

and of your desires and wishes being cundo. 

fully completed and answered ? votique " Approach us, and thy sacred rites, 

peracti. " with thy farourabie pretence.'''' 

The right and left were ominous PCS lit. a foot, that member of the 



Conatus non poeniteat, votique peracti ? 

Evertere domos totas optantibus ipsis 

Di faciles. Nocitura toga, nocitura petuntur 

Militia. Torrens dicendi copia multis, 

Et sua mortifera est facundia. Viribus ille 

Confisus periit, admirandisque lacertis. 

Sed plures nimia congesta pecunia cura 

Strangulat, et cuncta exsuperans patrimonia census, 

Quanto delphinis balsena Britannica major. 

Temporibus diris igitur, jussuque Neronis, 

Longinum, et magnos Senecse prsedivitis hortos 

Clausit, et egregias Lateranorum obsidet sedes 

Tota cobors : rarus venit in coenacula miles. 

Pauca licet portes argenti vascula puri, 

Nocte iter iugressus, gladium contumque timebis, 

Et motas ad lunam trepidabis arundinis umbram. 


Prima fere vota, et cunctis notissima templis, 

body on which we stand sometimes 
means the foundation of any thing a 
plot for building ; so, in a moral sense, 
those conceptions and contrivances of 
the mind, which are the foundations of 
human action, on which men build for 
profit or happiness : this seems to be 
its meaning here. 

7. The easy gods, #c.] The gods, by 
yielding to the prayers and wishes of 
mankind, have often occasioned their 
ruin, by granting such things as in the 
end proved hurtful. So that, in truth, 
men, by wishing for what appeared to 
them desirable, have, in effect, them- 
selves wished their own destruction. 

8. By the gown, fyc.~] Toga here being 
opposed to militia, may allude to the 
gown worn by the senators and magis- 
trates of Rome ; and so, by meton. 
signify their civil offices in the govern- 
ment of the state. <j. d. Many have 
wished for a share in the government 
and administration of civil affairs, others 
for high rank and post of command in 
the army, each of which have been 
attended with damage to those who 
have eagerly sought after them. 

9. A fluent copiousness, &;<?.] Many co- 
vet a great degree of eloquence ; but 
how fatal has this proved to possessors 
of it ! Witness Demosthenes and Cicero, 
who both came to violent deaths ; the 

former driven, by the malice of his ene- 
mies, to poison himself ; the latter slain 
by order of M. Antony. See KKYS- 
LER'S Travels, vol. ii. p. 342, note. 

10. To his strength, %c.~\ Alluding to 
Milo, the famous wrestler, born at Cro- 
ton, in Italy, who, presuming too much 
on his great strength, would try whether 
he could not rend asunder a tree which 
was cleft as it grew in the forest ; it 
yielded at first to his violence, but it 
closed presently again, and, catching 
his hands, held him till the wolves de- 
voured him. 

12. Destroys.'] Lit. strangles. Met. 
ruins, destroys. 

The poet is here shewing, that, of all 
things which prove ruinous to the pos- 
sessors, money, and especially an over- 
grown fortune, is one of the most fatal 
and yet, with what care is this heaped 
together ! 

1 3. Exceeding, fyc.] t. e. Beyond the 
rate of a common fortune. 

14. A British whale.'] A whale found 
in the British seas. 

16. Lonffinus.'] Cassius Longinus, put 
to death by Nero : his pretended crime 
was, that he had, in his chamber, an 
image of Cassius, one of Julius Caesar's 
murderers ; but that which really made 
him a delinquent was his great wealth, 
which the emperor seized. 


May not repent of your endeavour, and of your accomplished 

wish 'i 

The easy gods have overturned whole houses, themselves 
Wishing it. Things hurtful by the gown, hurtful by warfare, 
Are asked : a fluent copiousness of speech to many 
And their own eloquence is deadly. He, to his strength 10 
Trusting, and to his wonderful arms, perished. 
But money, heaped together with too much care, destroys 
More, and an income exceeding all patrimonies, 
As much as a British whale is greater than dolphins. 
Therefore in direful times, and by the command of Nero, 15 
A whole troop Longinus, and the large gardens of wealthy 

Seneca, [rani 

Surrounded, and besieged the stately buildings of the Late- 
The soldier seldom comes into a garret. 
Tho 1 you should carry a few small vessels of pure silver, 
Going on a journey by night, you will fear the sword and the 

pole, 20 

And tremble at the shadow of a reed moved, by moon-light. 


Commonly the first things prayed for, and most known at 
all temples, 

Seneca, 5fc.] Tutor to Nero sup- 
posed to be one in Pise's conspiracy, but 
put to death for his great riches. Sylva- 
nus the tribune, by order of Nero, sur- 
rounded Seneca's magnificent villa, near 
Rome, with a troop of soldiers, and then 
sent in a centurion to acquaint him with 
the emperor's orders, that he should put 
himself to death. On the receipt of this, 
he opened the veins of his arms and legs, 
then was put into a hot bath ; but this 
not finishing him, he drank poison. 

1 "t.Surrotmded.] Beset encompassed. 

Laterani.] Plautius Lateranus 

had a sumptuous palace, in which he 
was beset by order of Nero, and killed 
so suddenly, by Thurius the tribune, 
that he had* not a moment's time allowed 
him to take leave of his children and 
family. He had been designed consul. 

18. The soldier, Qc.~] Coenaculum signi- 
fies a place to sup in an upper cham- 
ber also a garret, a cockloft in the top 
of the house, commonly let to poor peo- 
ple, the inhabitants of which were too poor 
to run any risk of the emperor's sending 
soldiers to murder them for what they 

19. 5TS>.v/.;/A/,v7iTw. *,-.] Though 

not so rich as to become an object of the 
emperor's avarice and cruelty, yet you 
can't travel by night, with the paltry 
charge oF a little silver plate, without 
fear of your life from robbers, who may 
either stab you with a sword, or knock 
you down with a bludgeon, in order to 
rob you. 

20. Pole.] Contus signifies a long pole 
or staff also a weapon, wherewith they 
used to fight beasts upon the stage. It 
is probable that the robbers about Rome 
armed themselves with these, as ours, 
about London, arm themselves with 
large sticks or bludgeons. 

21. Tremble, $e.] They are alarmed 
at the least appearance of any thing 
moving near them, even the trembling 
and nodding of a bulrush, when its sha- 
dow appears by moonlight. 

22. Empty traveller, <Jc.] Having no- 
thing to lose, he has nothing to fear, and 
therefore has nothing to interrupt his 
jollity as he travels along, though in the 
presence of a robber. 

23. Temples, $c.] Where people go 
to make prayers to the gods, and to im- 
plore the fulfilment of their desires and 


Divitiae ut crescant, ut opes ; ut maxima toto 
Nostra sit area foro : sed nulla aconita bibuntur 
Fictilibus : tune ilia time, cum pocula sumes 
Gemmata, et lato Setinuui ardebit in auro. 
Jamne igitur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter 
Ridebat, quoties a limine moverat unum 
Protuleratque pedem : flebat contrarius alter I 
Sed facilis cuivis rigidi censura cachinni : 
Mirandum est, unde ille oculis suffecerit humor. 
Perpetuo risu pulmonem agitare solebat 
Democritus, quanquam non essent urbibus illis 
Praetexta, et trabese, fasces, lectica, tribunal. 
Quid, si vidisset Prsetorem in curribus altis 
Extantem, et medio sublimem in pulvere circi, 
In tunica Jovis, et pictae Sarrana ferentem 
Ex humeris aulaea togse, magnaeque corona? 
Tantum orbem, quanto cervix non sufficit ulla? 
Quippe tenet sudans hanc publicus, et sibi consul 

25. The greatest, $c.] The forum, or 
market-place, at Rome, was the place 
where much money-business was trans- 
acted, and where money-lenders and 
borrowers met together ; and he that 
was richest, and had most to lend, was 
sure to make the greatest sums by in- 
terest on his money, and perhaps was 
most respected. Hence the poet may 
be understood to mean, that it was the 
chief wish of most people to be richer 
than others. Or, he may here allude to 
the chests of money belonging to the se- 
nators, and other rich men, which were 
laid up for safety in some of the build- 
ings about the forum, as the temple of 
Castor, and others. Comp. sat xiv. L 
258, 9. 

No poisons, fyc.~] The poorer sort 

of people might drink out of their coarse 
cups of earthen ware, without any fear 
of being poisoned for what they had. 

26. Them,] Poisons. 

27. Set u-ith gems.] See sat. v. L 37 
45. This was a mark of great riches. 

Sctine wine.'] So called from Se- 

tia, a city of Campania, It was a most 
delicious wine, preferred by Augustus, 
and the succeeding emperors, to all 
other. Glows with a fine red colour, 
and sparkles in the cup. 

Wide gold.'] Large golden cups. 

Those who were rich enough to afford 

these things, might indeed reasonably 
fear being poisoned by somebody, in 
order to get their estates. 

28. Do you approve.'] Laudas praise 
or commend his conduct ; for while these 
philosophers lived, many accounted them 

One of the vise men, f<\] Mean- 
ing Democritus of Abdera, who always 
laughed, because he believed our actions 
to be folly: whereas Heraclitus of Ephe- 
sus, the other of the wise men here 
alluded to, always wept, because he 
thought them to be misery. 

29. As oft as, 4fe.] Whenever he went 
out of his house as oft as he stepped 
over his threshold. 

30. The other.] Heraclitus. See note 
on line 28. 

31 . The censure, fyc.~\ It is easy enough 
to find matter for severe laughter. Ri- 
gidi here, as an epithet to laughter, seems 
to denote that sort of censorious sneer 
which condemns and censures, at the 
same time that it derides the follies of 

32. The iconder is, gee.'] How Heracli- 
tus could find tears enough to express his 
grief at human wretchedness, guilt, and 
woe, the occasions of it are so frequent. 

34. In ttutse cities."] As there is at 
Rome. The poet here satirizes the ridi- 
culous appendages and ensigns of office, 


A re, that riches may increase, and weal th ; that our chest may be 
The greatest in the whole forum : but no poisons are drunk 
From earthen ware: then fear them, when you take cups 26 
Set with gems, and Setine wine shall sparkle in wide gold. 
Nor therefore do you approve, that one of the wise men 
Laughed, as oft as from the threshold he had moved, and 
Brought forward one foot ; the other contrary, wept ? 30 
But the censure of a severe laugh is easy to any one, 
The wonder is whence that moisture could suffice for his eyes. 
With perpetual laughter, Democritus used to agitate 
His lungs, tho 1 there were not, in those cities, 
Senatorial gowns, robes, rods, a litter, a tribunal. 35 

What, if he had seen the praetor, in high chariots 
Standing forth, and sublime in the midst of the dust of the 


In the coat of Jove, and bearing from his shoulders the Tyrian 
Tapestry of an embroidered gown, and of a great crown 
So large an orb, as no neck is sufficient for ? 40 

For a sweating officer holds this, and lest the consul should 

which were so coveted and esteemed by 
the Romans, as if they could convey 
happiness to the wearers. He would 
also insinuate, that these things were 
made ridiculous by the conduct of the 
possessors of them. 

35. Senatorial Browns.] Praetexta so 
called because they were faced and bor- 
dered with purple worn by the patri- 
cians and senators. 

Robes.] TrabeiE robes worn by 
kings, consuls, and augurs. 

Rods.] Fasces bundles of birchen 
rods carried before the Roman magis- 
trates, with an axe bound up in the 
middle of them, so as to appear at the 
top. These were ensigns of their official 
power to punish crimes, either by scourg- 
ing or death. 

A litter.'] Lectica. Sat. i. 32, note. 

Tribunal.] A seat in the forum, 
built by Romulus, in the form of an half- 
moon, where the judges sat, who had 
jurisdiction over the highest offences : 
at the upper part was placed the sella 
curulis, in which the praetor sat. 

36. The praetor, %c.] He describes and 
derides the figure which the praetor made, 
when presiding at the O'iivensiaii games. 

In hif/h elm riots.] In a triumphal 
car, which was gilt, and drawn by four 
white horses perhaps, by the plur. cur- 

ribus, we may understand that he had 
several for different occasions. 

37. Dust of the circus.] He stood, by 
the height and sublimity of his situation, 
fully exposed to the dust, which the 
chariots and horses of the racers raised. 

38. Coat of Jove.] In a triumphal 
habit ; for those who triumphed wore a 
tunic, or garment, which, at other times, 
was kept in the temple of Jupiter. 

38, 9. Tlie Tyrum tapestry, $c.~\ Sarra, 
a name of Tyre, where hangings and 
tapestry were made, as also where the 
fish was caught, from whence the purple 
was taken with which they were dyed. 
This must be a very heavy material for 
a gown, especially as it was also em- 
broidered with divers colours ; and such 
a garment must be very ciunbersome to 
the wearer, as it hung from his shoulders. 

40. So large an orb, <Sfe.] Add to this, 
a great heavy crown, the circumference 
of which was so large and thick, that no 
neck could be strong enough to avoid 
bending under it. 

41. .4 su-eatiny officer.] Publicus signi- 
fies some official servant, in some public 
office about the praetor on these occa- 
sions, who sat by him in the chariot, in 
order to assist in bearing up the crown, 
the weight of which made him sweat 
with holding it up. 



Ne placeat, curru servus portatur eodem. 
Da nunc et volucrem, sceptro quae surgit eburno, 
Illinc cornicines, hinc prsecedentia longi 
Agminis officia, et niveos ad freena Quirites, 
Defossa in loculis quos sport ula fecit amicos. 
Tune quoque materiam risus invenit ad omnes 
Occursus hominum ; cujus prudentia inonstrat, 
Summos posse viros, et magna exempla daturos, 
Vervecum in patria, crassoque sub acre nasci. 
Ridebat curas, necnon et gaudia vulgi, ' 
Interdum et lachrymas ; cum fortunse ipse minaci 
Mandaret laqueum, mediumque ostenderet unguem. 
Ergo supervacua haec aut perniciosa petuntur, 
Propter quse fas est genua incerare Deorum. 

Quosdam prsecipitat subjecta potentia magnse 
Invidiae ; mergit longa atque insignis honorum 


41. Lest the consul, <Sfc.] The ancients 
had an institution, that a slave should 
ride in the same chariot when a consul 
triumphed, and should admonish him to 
know himself, lest he should be too vain. 
This was done with regard to the prae- 
tor at the Circensian games, who, as we 
have seen above, appeared like a victo- 
rious consul, with the habit and equipage 
of triumph Juvenal seems to use the 
word consul, here, on that account. 

43. Add the bird, Sfe.] Among other 
ensigns of triumph, the praetor, on the 
above occasion, held an ivory rod, or 
sceptre, in his hand, with the figure of 
an eagle, with wings expanded, as if 
rising for flight, on the top of it. 

44. The trumpeters.} Or blowers of 
the horn, or cornet. These, with the 
tubicines, which latter seem included 
here under the general name of corni- 
cines, always attended the camp, and, 
on the return of the conqueror, preceded 
the triumphal chariot, sounding their in- 

Tlie preceding offices, <5fc.] Of- 

ficium signifies sometimes a solemn at- 
tendance on some public occasion, as on 
marriages, funerals, triumphs, &c. (see 
sat. ii. 1. 132.) Here it denotes, that 
the praetor was attended, on this occa- 
sion, by a long train of his friends and 
dependants, who came to grace the so- 
lemnity, by marching in procession be- 
fore his chariot. 

45. Snowy citizens, $fc.] Many of the 

citizens, as was usual at triumphs, dressed 
in white robes, walking by the side of 
the horses, and holding the bridles. 

46. The sportida.~\ The dole-basket. 
See sat. i. 1. 95. 

Buried in his co/'crs.} The mean- 
ing of this passage seems to be, that 
these citizens appeared, and gave their 
attendance, not from any real value for 
him, but for what they could get. 

He is supposed to have great wealth 
hidden, or buried, in his coffers, which 
this piece of attention was calculated to 
fetch out, in charity to his poor fellow- 
citizens that attended him on this occa- 
sion q. d. All this formed a scene 
which would have made Uemocritus 
shake his sides with laughing. Comp. 
1. 3. 34. 

47. Then also he.~\ Democritus in his 

47, 8. At all meetings of men.] Every 
time he met people as he walked about 
or, in every company he met with. 

48. Whose prudence.'] Wisdom, dis- 
cernment of right and wrong. 

50. Of blockheads.'] Vervex literally 
signifies a wether-sheep, but was pro- 
verbially used for a stupid person: as 
we use the word sheepish, and sheepish- 
ness, in something like the same sense, 
to denote an awkward, stupid shyness. 

The poet therefore means, a country 
of stupid fellows. Plaut. Pers. act ii. 
has, Am' vero vervecum caput ? 

Thick air.] Democritus was born 


Please himself, a slave is carried in the same chariot. 
Now add the bird which rises on the ivory sceptre, 
There the trumpeters, here the preceding offices of a long 
Train, and the snowy citizens at his bridles, 45 

Whom the sportula, buried in his coffers, has made his friends. 
Then also he found matter of laughter at all 
Meetings of men ; whose prudence shews, 
That great men, and those about to give great examples, 
May be born in thecountry of blockheads, and under thick air. 
He derided the cares, and also the joys of the vulgar, 51 
Andsometimestheirtears; when himself could present a halter 
To threatening fortune, and shew his middle nail. 
Therefore, these (are) unprofitable, or pernicious things, 

(which) are ask'd, 

For which it is lawful to cover with wax the knees of the gods. 
Power, subject to great envy, precipitates some, 56 

A long and famous catalogue of honours overwhelms, 

at Abdera, a city of Thrace, where the 
air, which was foggy and thick, was sup- 
posed to make the inhabitants dull and 

So Horace, speaking of Alexander the 
Great, as a critic of little or no discern- 
ment in literature, says, Boeotum in cras- 
so jurarcs acre natuiu. Epist. i. lit), ii. 
1. 'Jt-l. By which, as by ivnny other 
testimonies, we find that the inhabitants 
of B-eotn were stiirui-itized also in the 
same manner. Hence Bteoticum inge- 
nium was a phrase for dulness and stu- 

5'2. Prexfnt a halter, $<-.] Mandare 
laqueum alicui, was a phrase made use 
of to signify the utmost contempt and 
indifference," like sending a halter to a 
person, as if to bid him hang himself. 
Democritus is here represented in this 
light as continually laughing at the cares 
and joys of the general herd, and as 
himself treating with scorn the frowns 
of adverse fortune. 

53. His middtr nail.} i. e. His middle 
finger, and point at her in derision. To 
hold out the middle finger, the rest being 
contracted, and bent downwards, was an 
act of great contempt ; like pointing at 
a person among us. This mark of con- 
tempt is very ancient. See Is. Iviii. !). 

54. Tkerefort, fc.] It follows, there- 
fore, from the example of Demoeritus, 
who was Ir.ippy without the tilings which 
people so anxiously seek after, and peti- 

tion the gods for, that they are super- 
fluous and unnecessary. It likewise 
follows, that they are injurious, because 
they expose people to the fears and dan- 
gers of adverse fortune ; whereas De- 
moeritus, who had them not, could set 
the frowns of fortune at defiance, pos- 
sessing a mind which carried him above 
world! v cares or fears. 

55. 'Lairful.] Fas signifies that which 
is permitted, therefore lawful to do. 

To cover with K-OJ-, #r.] It was the 
manner of the ancients, when they made 
their vows to the gods, to write them on 
paper, (or waxen tables,) seal them up, 
and, with wax, fasten them to the knees 
of the images of the gods, or to the 
thighs, that being supposed the seat of 
mercy. When their desires were grant- 
ed, they took away the paper, tore it, 
and offered to the gods what they had 
promised. Sec sat ix. 1. 139. The gods 
permit us to ask, but the consequences of 
having our petitions answered are often 
fatal. Comp. 1. 7, 8. 

5fi. Precipitates some.] riz. Into ruin 
and destruction. 

57. Catalogue, v.] Pagina, in its pro- 
per and literal sense, signifies a page of 
a book, but here alludes to a plate, or 
table of brass, fixed before the statues of 
eminent persons, and containing all the 
titles and honours of him whose statue 
it was. 

Overwhelm*.] With ruin, by ex- 



Pagina : descendant status, restemque sequuntur ; 

Ipsas delude rotas bigarum impaeta securis 

Csedit, et immeritis franguntur crura caballis. 60 

Jam strident ignes, jam follibus atque caminis 

Ardet adoratum populo caput, et crepat ingens 

Sejanus : deinde ex facie toto orbe secunda 

Fiunt urceoli, pelves, sartago, patellae. 

Pone domi lauros, due in Capitolia magnum G5 

Cretatumque bovem ; Sejanus dueitur unco 

Spectandus : gaudent omnes : quse labra ? quis illi 

Vultus erat ? nunquam (si quid mihi credis) aniavi 

Hunc hominem : sed quo cecidit sub crimine I quisnam 

Delator ? quibus indiciis ? quo teste probavit 2 70 

Nil horum : verbosa et grandis epistola venit 

A Capreis bene habet ; nil plus interrogo : sed quid 

Turba Remi ? Sequitur fortunam, ut semper, et odit 

posing them to the envy and malice of 
those, in whose power and inclination it 
may be to disgrace and destroy them. 

58. Statues descend.] Are pulled down. 

Follow tlie rope.] With which the 
populace (set on work by a notion of 
doing what would please the emperor, 
who had disgraced his prime-minister 
Sejanus) first pulled down all the statues 
of Sejanus, of which there were many 
set up in Rome, and then dragged them 
with ropes about the streets. 

5,9. The driven axe] Impacta driven 
forced cigainst. There were some sta- 
tues of Sejanus, by which he was repre- 
sented on horseback ; others in a trium- 
phal car, drawn by two horses (comp. 
sat. viii. 1. 3.) ; all which were broken 
to pieces, the very chariots and horses 
demolished, and, if made of brass, car- 
ried to the fire and melted. 

60. Undeserving horses, <Sfc.] Their 
spite against Sejanus, who could alone 
deserve their indignation, carried them 
to such fury, as to demolish even the 
most innocent appendages to his state 
and dignity. 

61. The fires roar, fyc.] From the force 
of the bellows, in the forges prepared 
for melting the brass of the statues. 

Stoves.'] Or furnaces. 

62. The head adored, $c] Of Sejanus, 
once the darling of the people, who once 
worshipped him as a god. 

63. Cracks.] By the violence of the 

Second face, Qc.] Sejanus was so 
favoured by Tiberius, that he raised 
him to the highest dignity next to him- 

64. Water-pots, <3fc.] The meanest 
household utensils are made from the 
brass, which once conferred the highest 
honour on Sejanus, when representing 
him in the form of statues. 

65. Laurels, [c.] Here the poet shews 
the malicious triumph of envy. It was 
customary to adorn the doors of their 
houses with crowns, or garlands of lau- 
rel, on any public occasion of joy ; such 
was the fall of poor Sejanus to his ene- 

66. A icJiitebull.] The beasts sacrificed 
to the celestial gods were white (creta- 
tum, here, lit. chalked, whited) ; those 
to the infernal gods were black. This 
offering to Jupiter, in his temple on the 
capitol hill, must be supposed to have 
been by way of thanksgiving for the 
falj of Sejanus. A lively mark of the 
hatred and prejudice which the people 
had conceived against him, on his dis- 
grace ; as it follows 

Dratffd by a hook, #c.] To the Sca- 
lae Gemoniae, and then thrown into the 

67. To be looked upon.] As a spectacle 
of contempt to the whole city. 

All rejoice.] At his disgrace and 
misery the people triumph. 

" What fy," $c.] The poet here 
supposes a language to be holden, which 



Statues descend and they follow the rope ; 
Then, the driven axe, the very wheels of two-horse cars 
Demolishes, and the legs of the undeserving horses are broken. 
Now the fires roar, now with bellows and stoves, 61 

The head adored by the people burns, and the great Sejanus 
Cracks : then, from the second face in the whole world, 
Are made water-pots, basons, a frying-pan, platters. 
Place laurels at your house, lead to the capitol a large 65 
White bull ; Sejanus is dragged by a hook 
To be looked upon : all rejoice : " what lips ? what a coun- 

" He had \ I never (if you at all believe me) loved 
" This man : but under what crime did he fall \ who was 
"The informer? from what discoveries? by what witness 
u hath he prov'd it f 70 

" Nothing of these : a verbose and great epistle came from 
" Capreae :" " It is very well, I ask no more : but what did 
" The mob of Remus T " It follows fortune, as always, and 

is very natural for a prejudiced, igno- 
rant people to utter on such an occasion, 
as they saw him dragging along by the 
hands of the executioner, or perhaps as 
they viewed him lying dead on the bank 
of the Tiber, (coinp. 1. 86.) before his 
body was thrown into it. 

What a blubber-lip'd, ill-looking fel- 
low ! say they. 

69. What crime, #c.] What was 
charged against him (says one) that he 
should be brought to this. 

70. Infurmer.] Delator his accuser 
to the emperor. 

What discoveries, #<:.] Of the fact, 
and its circumstances? and on what 
evidence hath he (i. e. the informer) 
proved the crime alleged against him ? 

71. "Nothing of these."] Says the an- 
swerer t. e. there was no regular form 
of conviction. 

A great epistle, $c.] It, some how 
or other, came to the ears of Tiberius, 
that his favourite Sejanus had a design 
upon the empire, on which he wrote a 
long pompous epistle to the senate, who 
had Sejanus seized, and sentenced him 
to be punished, as is mentioned above : 
riz. that he should be put to death, then 
have an hook fixed in him, be dragged 
through the streets of Rome to the Scalse 
Gemonia?, and thrown at last into the 

Tiberius was at that time at Capreae, 
an island on the coast of Naples, about 
twenty-five miles south of that city, in- 
dulging in all manner of excess and de- 

The Scalse Gemoniae was a place ap- 
pointed either for torturing criminals, or 
for exposing their bodies after execution. 
Some derive the name Gemoniae from 
one Gemonius, who was first executed 
there ; others from gemere, to groan, 
because the place rang with the groans 
and complaints of those who were put to 
death. It was on the hill Aventinus, 
and there were several steps led up to it, 
whence the place was called Scalae Ge- 
moniae The dead bodies of those who 
died under the hands of the executioner 
were dragged thither by an iron hook, 
and after they had been some time ex- 
posed to public view, were thrown into 
the Tiber. See ANT. Univ. Hist voL 
xii. p. 214, note/ 

73. Mob of Memus, &c.] i. e. The 
people in general ; so called because 
descended from Romulus and Remus. 
"How did they behave ?" says the 

"It follows fortune," fc.] It is an- 
swered The common people behaved 
as they always do, by changing with the 
fortune of the condemned, and treating 
them with the utmost spite. 



Damnatos. Idem populus, si Nurscia Tusco 
Favisset, si oppressa foret secura senectus 
Principis, hac ipsa Sejanura diceret hora 
Augustum. Jampridem, ex quo suffragia nulli 
Vendimus, efFudit curas nam qui dabat olim 
Imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se 
Continet, atque duas tantum res anxius optat, 
Panem et Circenses. Perituros audio multos : 
Nil dubium : magna est fornacula : pallidulus mi 
Brutidius meus ad Martis fuit obvius aram 
Quam timeo, victus ne pcenas exigat Ajax, 
Ut male defensus ? curramus prsecipites, et, 
Dum jacet in ripa, calcemus Ca?saris hostem. 
Sed videant servi, ne quis neget, et pavidum in jus 
Cervice astricta dominum trahat. Hi sermones 

74. Nurscia, fyc.~\ Sejanus was a Tus- 
can, born at Volscinium, where the god- 
dess of Nurscia, the same as fortune, was 
worshipped, q. d. If fortune had fa- 
voured Sejanus. 

75. Secure old age, $c.] If Tiberius 
had thought himself secure from any 
plot against him,and therefore had taken 
no measures to prevent the consequences 
of it. 

76. Oppressed.] By death, from the 
hands of Sejanus. q. d. If the plot of 
Sejanus had succeeded, and the emperor 

Would, 8fc.~\ That very populace 
who now treat the poor fallen Sejanus so 
ill, would have made him emperor, and 
have changed his name to the imperial 
title of Augustus. 

This very hour.'] Instead of his being 
put to death, dragged by the hook, and 
insulted by the populace, they would, at 
that, very hour, have been heaping the 
highest honours upon him. So preca- 
rious, fluctuating, and uncertain, is the 
favour of the multitude ! 

77. We sell, 4'c.] The poorer sort of 
plebeians used to sell their votes to the 
candidates for public offices, before Ju- 
lius Cssar took from them the right of 
electing their magistrates. Since that 

78. It.] The populace. 

Done with-sxires.] Effudit, literally, 
has poured out, as a person empties a 
vessel bv pouring out the liquor. The 
poet means, that since the right of elect- 

ing their magistrates was taken from 
them, and they could no longer sell their 
votes, they had parted with all their 
cares about the state. 

For it.~\ That same populace. 

Which once gave, $c.] By their 
having the right of election, conferred 
public offices on whom they chose. 

79. Attthority.~\ Power, or govern- 
ment ; this alludes to the great offices 
in the state, which were once elective 
by the people. 

Fasces.} Consuls and praitors, who 
had the fasces carried before them. 

- Legions.] Military prefectures. 

All things.'} All elective offices. 

79. 80. Itself refrains.'] From con- 
cerns of state. 

80. Only u-Mies, $<*.] Now they care 
for nothing else, at least with any 
anxiety, but for bread to be distributed 
to them as usual, by the command of the 
emperor, to satisfy their hunger; and 
the games in the circus to divert them : 
of these last the populace were very 
fond. Sec sat. xi. 53. 

81. " / hear many,' 1 '' $fe.] Here begins 
a fresh discourse on the occasion and 
circumstance of the time. 

I hear, says one of the slanders by, Sejanus is not the only one who is 
to suffer ; a good many more will be cut 
off, as well as he, about this plot. No 
doubt, says the other 

82. The furnace, is hin/fj] And made 
to hold more statues for melting than 
those of Sejanus. See 1. (> 1 . 



" The condemned The same people, if Nurscia had favoured 
" The Tuscan if the secure old age of the prince had been 75 
" Oppressed, would, in this very hour, have called Sejanus, 
" Augustus. Long ago, ever since we sell our suffrages 
" To none, it has done with cares ; for it, which once gave 
" Authority, fasces, legions, all things, now itself 
w ' Refrains, and anxious only wishes for two things, so 

u Bread and the Circenses." " I hear many are about to 

" perish " 

" No doubt : the furnace is large : my friend Brutidius 
" Met me, a little pale, at the altar of Mars" 
" How I fear lest Ajax conquered should exact punishment, 
" As defended badly ! let us run headlong, and, while he 85 
" Lies on the bank, trample on the enemy of Cassar. 
" But let the slaves see, lest any should deny it, and drag into 
" Law their fearful master with shackled neck:" these were 


82, 3. Brutidius met me.] This was a 
rhetorician and famous historian, a great 
friend of Sejanus, and therefore was 
horridly frightened, lest it should be his 
turn next to be apprehended and put to 
death, as concerned in the conspiracy. 

84. Lent Aju.r cmit/ner^d, Sfc.] Allud- 
ing to the story of Ajax, who, being 
overcome in his dispute with Ulysses 
about the armour of Achilles, (see OVID. 
Met. lib. xiii.) went mad, fell upon man 
and beast, and afterwards destroyed 

These seem to be the words of Bruti- 
dius, expressing his fears of being sus- 
pected to have been concerned in the 
conspiracy with Sejanus ; and, in order 
to wipe oiT all imputation of the kind, 
not only from himself, but from the 
person lie is speaking to, he advises 
that no time should be lost, but that 
they should hasten to the place where 
the corpse of Sejanus was exposed, and 
do some act which might be construed 
into an abhorrence of Sejanus, and con- 
sequently into a zeal for the honour and 
service of the emperor. 

" How I fear," says Brutidius, looking 
ajihast, "lest the emperor, thinking his 
cause not cordially espoused, and that 
he was badly defended, should wreak 
his vengeance on such as he suspects 
to have been too remiss, and, like the 
furious Ajax, when overcome, like an- 
other \icttis Ajax, destroy nil that lie 

" takes to be his enemies, as Ajax de- 
" stroyed the sheep and oxen, when he 
"ran mad on his defeat, taking them 
" for the Grecians on whom he vowed 
" revenge." Other expositions are given 
to this place, but I think this suits best 
with 1. 82, 3. 

85. Let us run, fyc.] As precipitately, 
as fast as we can ; let us lose no time 
to avoid the emperor's suspicion of our 
favouring Sejanus, and wreaking his 
vengeance upon us. 

While he.] Sejanus t. e. his corpse. 

86. Lies 071 the bank.] i. e. Exposed on 
the bank, before it is thrown into the 
river Tiber. 

Trample, fe.] Set our feet upon his 
corpse, to shew our indignation against 
this supposed enemy of Tiberius. 

87. Let the slaves gee, $c.] That they 
may be witnesses for their masters, in 
case these should be accused of not hav- 
ing done it, or of having shewn the least 
respect to Sejanus, and so be brought 
under the displeasure of the emperor, 
and hurried to judgment. 

88. " Shackled neck:" 1 ] Those who 
were dragged to punishment had a chain 
or halter fastened about the neck ; this 
was the condition of some when brought 
to trial ; so, among us, felons, and others 
accused of capital offences, are usually 
brought to their trial with gyves or fet- 
ters upon their legs. 

88, 9. The difcoitrsrs, &>:] Thus do 



Tune de Sejano : secreta haec murmura vulgi. 
Visne salutari sicut Sejanus ? habere 
Tantundem, atque illi summas donare curules? 
Ilium exercitibus prseponere \ tutor haberi 
Principis, augusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis 
Cum grege Chaldseo ? vis certe pila, cohortes, 
Egregios equites, et castra domestica quidni 
Hsec cupias? et qui nolunt occidere quenquam, 
Posse volunt. Sed quse prseclara, et prospera tanti, 
Cum rebus Isetis par sit mensura malorum \ 
Hujus, qui trahitur, praetextam sumere mavis, 
An Fidenarum, Gabiorumque esse potestas, 
Et de mensura jus dicere, vasa minora 
Frangere pannosus vacuis aedilis Ulubris? 
Ergo quid optandum foret, ignorasse fateris 
Sejanum : nam qui nimios optabat honores, 
Et nimias poscebat opes, numerosa parabat 
Excelsse turris tabulata, unde altior esset 
Casus, et impulse prseceps immane ruina?. 



the people talk about poor Sejanus, the 
remembrance of his greatness being all 
passed and gone, and his shameful suf- 
ferings looked upon with the most igno- 
minious contempt. 

90. Saluted, fe,] You, who think hap- 
piness to consist in the favour of the 
prince, in great power, and high prefer- 
ment, what think you ? do you now 
wish to occupy the place which Sejanus 
once held, to have as much respect paid 
you, to accumulate as many riches, to 
have as many preferments and places of 
honour in your gift ? 

91. Chief chairs, fc.] Summas curu- 
les. The poet speaks in the plural num- 
ber, as each of the great offices of Rome 
had a chair of state, made of ivory, 
carved, and placed in a chariot curru 
in which they were wont to be carried 
to the senate ; so the praetor had his sella 
curulis, in which he was carried to the 
forum, and there sat in judgment. See 
before, 1. 35, n. No. 4. When an aedile 
was a person of senatorial dignity, he 
was called curulis, from the curule chair 
in which he was carried. 

Summas curules, here, is used in a 
metonymical sense, like curule ebur, 
HOR. lib. i. epist. vi. 1. 53, 4. to denote 
the chief offices in the state, which had 
all been in the disposal of the once- 

prosperous Sejanus. See the last n. ad 

92. Guardian, 3fc.] Who, in the ab- 
sence of Tiberius, at his palace on the 
rock at Capreae, (see note on 1. 71, 2, ad 
fin.) amidst a band of astrologers from 
Chaldaea, (who amused the prince with 
their pretended knowledge oY the stars, 
and their government of human affairs,) 
governed all his affairs of state, and ma- 
naged them, as a tutor or guardian 
manages the affairs of a youth under age. 
Thus high was Sejanus in the opinion 
and confidence of Tiberius ;'but do you 
envy him ? 

94. Javelins.'] Pila were a kind of 
javelins with which the Roman foot 
were armed : therefore the poet is here 
to be understood as saying to the person 
with whom he is supposed to discourse, 
"You certainly wish to be an officer, 
" and to have soldiers under your com- 
" mand." 

Cohorts.] A cohort was a tenth part 
of a legion. 

95. Domestic tents, #e.] The castra 
domestica were composed of horse, who 
were the body-guards of the prince or 
praetor; hence called also praetoriani. 
These seem to have been something like 
our life-guards. 

" Why should you not," flu] What 


Discourses then about Sejanus ; these the secret murmurs of 

the vulgar. 

Will you be saluted as Sejanus ? have so 

As much and give to one chief chairs of state 
Set another at the head of armies ? be accounted guardian 
Of a prince, sitting in the august rock of Capreae, 
With a Chaldsean band ? you certainly would have javelins, 


Choice horsemen, domestic tents. " Why should you not 9.5 
" Desire these things T Even those who would not kill anyone 
Would be able. But what renowned and prosperous things 

are of so much 
Value, since to posterity there may be an equal measure of 

evils ? 

Had you rather take the robe of this man, who is dragged 
Along, or be the power of Fidense, or Gabii, 100 

And judge about a measure, and lesser vessels 
Break, a ragged aedile at empty Ulubra3 ? 
Therefore, what was to be wished for, you will confess Sejanus 
To have been ignorant : for he who desired too many honours, 
And sought too much wealth, was preparing numerous 105 
Stories of an high tower, from whence his fall might be 
Higher, and the precipice of his enforced ruin be dreadful. 

harm, say you, is there in such a de- the burghs of Italy, was an officer who 

sire ? " I don't desire this for the sake had jurisdiction over weights and mea- 

" of hurting or killing any body." sures, and if these were bad, he had 

" Aye, that may be, but still, to know authority to break them. He was an 

" that such a thing may be in your officer of low rank, and though, like all 

" power, upon occasion, gives you no magistrates, he wore a gown, yet this 

" small idea of self-importance." having been delivered down from his 

97. What renmmed, 6fc.] But, to con- predecessors, was old and ragged, very 

sider coolly of the matter, what is there unlike the fine robe of Sejanus, and other 

so valuable in dignity and prosperity, chief magistrates at Rome. See PKRS. 

since, amid the enjoyment of them, they sat. i. 1. 130, and note, 
are attended with an equal measure of Empty Ulubrce.] A small town of 

uneasiness, and when a fatal reverse, Campania, in Italy, very thinly inha- 

even in the securest and happiest mo- bited. Comp. sat. iii. 1. 2. 
ments, may be impending? the evil, 103. Therefore, fyc.] In this, and the 

therefore, may be said, at least, to coun- four following lines, the poet very finely 

terbalance the good. applies what he has said, on the subject 

99. Of this man, #c.] Of Sejanus. of Sejanus, to the main argument of 
Had you rather be invested with his this Satire ; viz. that mortals arc too 
dignity ? short-sighted to see, and too ignorant to 

1 00. The potvcr.~\ The magistrate of know, what is best for them, and there- 
some little town, like Fidenae, or Gabii. fore those things which are most coveted, 
See sat. vi. 1. 56, 7. Called in Italy, often prove the most destructive ; and 
Podesta. Something like what we should the higher we rise in the gratification of 
call a country justice. our wishes, the higher may we be raising 

102. A rcuiyed <sdile.~\ Pannosus sig- the precipice from which we may fall, 
nifips patched or ragged. The aedile, in 107. Enforced ruin.'] Impulsce ruinae, 



Quid Grasses, quid Pompeios evertit, et ilium, 
Ad sua^qui domitos deduxit flagra Quirites ? 
Summus nempe locus, nulla non arte petitus, 
Magnaque numim'bus vota exaudita malignis. 
Ad generum Cereris sine csede et vulnere pauci 
Descendunt reges, et sicca morte tyranni. 

Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis, aut Ciceronis 
Incipit optare, et totis Quinquatribus optat, 
Quisquis adhuc uno partam colit asse Minervam, 
Quern sequitur custos angustse vernula capsas : 
Eloquio sed uterque perit orator : utrumque 
Largus et exundans letho dedit ingenii fons : 
Ingenio maims est et cervix caesa ; nee nnquam 

Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli. 

O fortunatam natam, me consule, Romam ! 
Antoni gladios potuit contemnere, si sic 
Omnia dixisset : ridenda poemata malo, 
Quam te conspicuse, diviua Philippica, fama3. 



into which he was driven, as it were, by 
the envy and malice of those enemies, 
which his greatness, power, and prospe- 
rity, had created. Impulsse, metaph. 
alluding to the violence with which a 
person is thrown, or pushed, from an 
high precipice. Immane dreadful 
immense h uge great. 

108. The Crassi.] M. Crassus making 
war upon the Parthians for the sake of 
plunder, Surena, general of the enemy, 
slew him, and cut off his head and his 
hand, which he carried into Armenia to 
his master. 

The Pompeys.] Pompey the Great, 
being routed at the battle of Pharsalia, 
fled into Egypt, where he was perfidi- 
ously slain. He left two sons, Cneius 
and Sextus ; the first was defeated in 
a land battle in Spain, the other in a 
sea-fight on the coast of Sicily. We are 
not only to understand here Crassus and 
Pompey, but, by Crassos et Pompeios, 
plur. all such great men who have fallen 
by ill-fated ambition. 

109. Brought down, $c.] t. e. Julius 
Caesar, who, after he had obtained the 
sovereignty, partly by arms and violence, 
partly by art and intrigue, was publicly 
assassinated in the senate-house, as a 
tyrant and enemy to the liberty of his 
country. His scourges i. e. made them 
slaves, as it were, and subject to his will, 

liable to be treated in the most humi- 
liating manner. 

110. Chief place.} The ambition of 
reigning absolutely. The poet here 
shews the fatal source of misery to the 
aspiring and ambitious ; namely, a rest- 
less desire after greatness, so as to leave 
no stone unturned to come at it nulla 
non arte, &c. 

111. Great vows.] i. e. Wishes and 
prayers for greatness, honours, riches, 

Hi/ malignant yods ] Who, pro- 
voked by the unreasonable and foolish 
wishes of mortals, punish them, with 
accepting their vows, and with granting 
their desires. Comp. 1. 7, 8. 

112. Son-in-law of Ceres.'] Pluto, the 
fabled god, and king of the infernal re- 
gions: he stole Proserpina, the daughter 
of Jupiter and Ceres, and carried her to 
his subterranean dominions. 

The poet means here to say, that few 
of the great and successful ambitious 
die, without some violence committed 
upon them. 

113. A dry death.'] Without blood- 

115. The whole, fyc.~\ Minerva was the 
goddess of learning and eloquence ; her 
festival was celebrated for five days, 
hence called Quinquatria ; during this 
the school-boys had holidays. 



What overthrew the Crassi, the Pompeys, and him who 
Brought down the subdued Romans to his scourges? 
Why truly, the chief place, sought by every art, no 

And great vows listened to by malignant gods. 
To the son-in-law of Ceres, without slaughter and wound, few 
Kings descend, and tyrants by a dry death. 

For the eloquence and fame of Demosthenes or of Cicero, 
He begins to wish, and does wish during the whole Quin- 
quatria, 115 

Whoever reveres Minerva, hitherto gotten for three farthings, 
Whom a little slave follows, the keeper of his narrow satchel : 
But each orator perish VI by eloquence ; each 
A large and overflowing fountain of genius consigned to death. 
The hand and neck was cut off by a genius ; nor ever 120 
Were rostra wet with the blood of a weak lawyer. 
O fortunatam natam, me consule, Romam ! 
He might have contemn'd the swords of Antony, if thus 
He had said all things. I like better laughable poems, 
Than thee, divine Philippic of conspicuous fame, 125 

116. Whoever reveres, $e.] The poor 
school-boy, who has got as much learn- 
ing as has cost him about three far- 
things ; i. c, the merest young beginner 
at the lower end of the school. 

117. A little slave, $<.] This is a na- 
tural image of little master going to 
school, with a servant-boy to carry his 
satchel of books after him, and heightens 
the ridiculous idea of his coveting the 
eloquence of the great orators. 

118. Each orator, #c.] See note on 
1. 9. t. e. Both Demosthenes and Cicero. 
Demosthenes, to avoid the cruelty of 
Antipater, poisoned himself. 

120. Hand and neck, #c.] Of Cicero, 
which were cut off by the emissaries of 
Antony, when they attacked and mur- 
dered him in his litter on the road. 
They, i. e. Tully's head and hand, were 
afterwards fixed up at the rostra, from 
whence he had spoken his Philippics, by 
order of Antony. 

Cut ojfly ijcniiisJ} i. e. His capacity 
and powers of eloquence, which he 
used against Antony, brought this upon 

121. Rostra.] A place in the forum, 
where lawyers and orators harangued. 
See AINSW. Rostra, No. 2. No weak 
lawyer, or pleader, could ever make him- 
self nf consequence enough to be in 

vol.. n. 

danger of any design against his life, by 
what he was capable of saying in 

122. O fortimatam, $<?.] Mr. Dryden 
renders this line, 

Fortune fore-tun'd tlte dying notes of 

Till I, thy consul sole, consi.l'd tJiy 


and observes, that " the Latin of this 
" couplet is a verse of Tully's, (in which 
w he sets out the happiness of his own 
" consulship,) famous for the vanity and 
" ill poetry of it." 

It is bad enough ; but Mr. Dryden 
has made it still worse, by adding more 
jingles to it. However, to attempt 
translating it is ridiculous, because it 
disappoints the purpose of the passage, 
which is to give a sample of Tully's bad 
poetry in his own words. 

123. If thus, <3fc.] q. d. If Tully had 
never written or spoken better than 
this, he needed not to have dreaded any 
mischief to himself ; he might have de- 
fied the swords which Antony employed 
against him. 

124. Laughable poems.] Ridenda ri- 
diculous, that are only fit to be laughed 

125. Divine Phili } >pic.] Meaning Ci- 



Volveris a prima qua; proxima. Srevus et ilium 
Exitus eripuit, quern mirabantur Athenaa 
Torreritem, et pleni moderantem frsena theatri. 
Dis ille adversis genitus, fatoque sinistro, 
Quern pater ardentis massse fuligine lippus. 
A carbone et forcipibus, gladiosque parante 
Incude, et luteo Vulcano ad rhetora misit. 
Bellorum exuviae, truncis affixa trophzeis 
Lorica, et fracta de casside buccula pendens, 
Et curtum temone jugum, victseque trireinis 
Aplustre, et summo tristis captivus in arcu, 
Humanis majora bonis creduntur : ad hsec se 
Bomanus, Graiusque ac Barbarus induperator 
Erexit : causas discriminis atque laboris 


PR^EMIA si TOLLAS ? patriam tamen obruit olim 




cero's second Philippic, which, of all the 
fourteen orations which he made against 
Antony, was the most cutting and se- 
vere, and this probably cost him his 

He called these orations Philippics, as 
he tells Atticus, because in the freedom 
and manner of his speech he imitated 
the Philippics ($iAiinrifco( \oyoi) of 
Demosthenes, whose orations against 
Philip were so called. 

126. RoWd up, fy.] Volveris. The 
books of the ancients were rolled up in 
volumes of paper or parchment ; this 
famous Philippic stood second in the 
volume. See sat. xiv. 1. 102. 

127. Athens admired.] Demosthenes. 
See note on 1. 9. 

128. Rapid.] Torrentem, his eloquence 
rapid and flowing, like the torrent of a 

Moderating ] Or governing the 
full assembly of his hearers as he 
pleased, as a horse is governed and 
managed by a rein ; so Demosthenes 
regulated and governed the minds of 
his auditory. 

129. Gods adverse, <:.] It was a cur- 
rent notion among the ancients, that 
where people were unfortunate in their 
lives, the gods were displeased at their 
birth, and always took a part against 

130. His father.] Demosthenes is said 

to have been the son of a blacksmith at 

Of a burning mass.'] Large masses 
of iron, when red-hot out of the forge, 
are very hurtful to the eyes of the 
workmen, from their great heat. 

131. Coal and pincers, %c.] His father 
at first thought of bringing up his son 
Demosthenes to his own trade ; but he 
took him from this, and put him to a 
rhetorician to be taught eloquence. 

132. Dirty Vulcan.] Vulcan was the 
fabled god of smiths, whose trade is 
very filthy and dirty. Sat. xiii. 1. 44, 

133. Maimed trophies.] The trophy 
was a monument erected in memory of 
victory. The custom came from the 
Greeks, who, when they had routed 
their enemies, erected a tree, with all 
the branches cut off, on which they sus- 
pended the spoils of armour which they 
had taken from them, as well as other 
ensigns of victory : several of which the 
poet here enumerates; but as nothing 
was entire, the poet calls them maimed 

134. A bearer.] Buccala, from bucca, 
the cheek, seems to have been that part 
of armour which was fastened to the 
helmet, and came down over the cheeks, 
and fastened under the chin. 

135. Beam.] Temo was the beam of 
the wain, or the draught-tree, whereon 



Who art rolFd up next from the first. Him also a cruel 

Death snatched away, whom Athens admired, 

Rapid, and moderating the reins of the full theatre. 

He was begotten, the gods adverse, and fate unpropitious, 

Whom his father, blear-eyed with the reek of a burning mass, 

From coal and pincers, and from the anvil preparing 131 

Swords, and from dirty Vulcan, sent to a rhetorician. 

The spoils of war, to maimed trophies a breast-plate 
Fixed, and a beaver hanging from a broken helmet, 
A yoke deprived of its beam, the flag of a conquered 135 
Three-oarM vessel, and a sad captive at the top of an arch, 
Are believed to be greater than human goods : for these 
The Roman, Greek, and Barbarian commander hath 
Exerted himself : the causes of danger and labour hath had 
From thence. So much greater is the thirst of fame than 140 
IF YOU TAKE AWAY ITS REWARDS ? yet formerly the glory of 
a few 

the yoke hung : by this the chariot was 
supported and conducted, while drawn 
by the yoke. 

136. A sad captive, tyc."] On the top 
of the triumphal arch, which was built 
upon these occasions, they made some 
wretched captive place himself, and 
there sit bemoaning his wretched fate, 
while the conquerors were exulting in 
their victory. So DRYDKN : 

an arch of victory, 
On irhose high convex sits a captive foe, 
And siyliiny casts a mournful look be- 

1 37. To be greater, be.] Such is the 
folly of mankind, that these wretched 
trifles are looked upon not only as bear- 
ing the highest value, but as something 
more than human. 

For these, tyc.] Commanders of all 
nations have exerted themselves, through 
every scene of danger and fatigue, in 
order to get at these ensigns of fame 
and victory. Ererit se hath roused 
himself to mighty deeds. 

138. The Roman.} By the Roman, 
perhaps, we may understand Julius 
Caesar, M. Antony, and others, who, 
while they were greedily following 
military glory, were preparing ruin for 
themselves, as well as many sad ca- 
lamities to their country. 

Greek.} Here Miltiades and The- 
mistnclos, the two Athenian generals, 

may be alluded to, who, while they were 
catching at military fame, perished mi- 

Barltarian.~\ A name which the 

Greeks and Romans were fond of fixing 
on all but themselves. 

Here may be meant Hannibal, the 
great Carthaginian general, who, while he 
vexed the Romans with continual wars, 
occasioned the overthrow of his country, 
and his own miserable death. 

139. Causes of danger, $c.~\ These 
things have been the grand motives of 
their exertions, in the very race of diffi- 
culty, and even of death. 

140. So much greater, 8fc.] i. e. All 
would be great ; how few wish to be 

142. If you take away,^c.} Who is 
so disinterestedly virtuous, as to love 
and embrace virtue, merely for the sake 
of being and doing good ? indeed, who 
would be virtuous at all, unless the fame 
and reputation of being so brought 
something with them to gratify the pride 
and vanity of the human heart ? Virtue 
seldom walks forth, saith one, without 
vanity at her side. 

The glory of a few.'} As Marius, 
Sylla, Pompey, Antony, &c. q. d. Ma- 
ny instances have there been, where a 
few men, in search of fame, and of the 
gratification of their ambition, have l>een 
the destroyers of their country. 



Gloria paucorum, et laudis, titulique cupido 
Haesuri saxis cinerum custodibus ; ad quse 
Discutienda valent sterilis mala robora ficus, 
Quandoquidem data sunt ipsis quoque fata sepulchris. 
Expende Hannibalem : quot libras in duce summo 
Invenies? hie est, quern non capit Africa Mauro 
Perfusa oceano, Niloque admota tepenti. 
Rursus ad yEthiopum populos, aliosque elephantos 
Additur imperils Hispania ; Pyrenseum 
Transilit : opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque : 
Diduxit scopulos, et montem rupit aceto. 
Jam tenet Italiam, tamen ultra pergere tendit ; 
Actum, inquit, nihil est, nisi Pceno milite portas 
Frangimus, et media vexillum pono Suburra. 
O qualis facies, et quali digna tabella, 




144. A title, 3fc.] An inscription to 
be put on their monuments, in which 
their remains were deposited ; this has 
often proved a motive of ambition, and 
has urged men to the most dangerous, as 
well as mischievous exploits. 

145. Evil strength, <Sfe.] There was a 
sort of wild fig-tree, which grew about 
walls and other buildings, which, by 
spreading and running its roots under 
them, and shooting its branches into 
the joinings of them, in length of time 
weakened and destroyed them, as we 
often see done by ivy among us. See 
PERS. sat. i. 1. 25. Evil here is to be 
understood in the sense of hurtful, mis- 

A poor motive to fame, then, is a 
stone monument with a fine inscription, 
which, in length of time, it will be in 
the power of a wild fig-tree to demolish. 
: 146. Fates are given, &c.} Even sepul- 
chres themselves must yield to fate, and, 
consequently, the fame and glory, which 
they are meant to preserve, must perish 
with them ; how vain then the pursuit, 
how vain the happiness, which has no 
other motive or foundation ! 

147. Weigh Hannibal.} Place him in 
the scale of human greatness ; i. e. con- 
sider him well, as a great man. 

Hannibal was a valiant and politic 
Carthaginian commander ; he gave the 
Romans several signal overthrows, par- 
ticularly at Cannae, a village of Apulia, 
in the kingdom of Naples. 

How many pounds, $fc.~\ Alas, how 
little is left of him ! a few inconsiderable 
ashes ! which may be contained within 
the compass of an urn, though, when 
living, Africa itself was too snmll for 
him ! So DHYDEN : 

Great Hannibal iriihin flu balance lay, 

And tell flow many pounds his ashes 

WhomAfric was not able to contain,&;c. 

148. Washed, $c.} By the Moorish 
sea. The poet describes the situation of 
Africa, the third part of the globe then 
known. From Asia it is separated by 
the Nile ; on the west it is washed by 
the Atlantic ocean, which beats upon the 
shores of Ethiopia and Libya, joining to 
which were the people of Mauritania, or 
Moors, conquered by Hannibal. 

149. Warm Nile.} Made so by the 
great heat of the sun, it lying under the 
torrid zone. 

150. Again.} Rursus i, e. insuper, 
moreover ; as sat. vi. 1 54. 

Other elephants.} Other countries 
where elephants are bred ; meaning, 
here, Libya and Mauritania, which were 
conquered by Hannibal. 

151. Spain is added, <3fe.] To the em- 
pires he had conquered he added Spain, 
yet was not content. 

The Pyrenean.} The Pyrenees, as 
they are now called, that immense range 
of high mountains which separate France 
from Spain. 

152. Nature opposed, <Sfc.] For nature, 



Has ruined a country, and the lust of praise, and of 

A title to be fixed to the stones, the keepers of their ashes; 


To throw down, the evil strength of a barren fig-tree is able, 
Since fates are given also to sepulchres themselves. 146 

Weigh Hannibal how many pounds will you find in that 
Great general? this is he, whom Africa washed by the Moorish 
Sea, and adjoining to the warm Nile, does not contain : 
Again, to the people of Ethiopia, and to other elephants, 150 
Spain is added to his empires : the Pyrenean 
He passes : nature opposed both Alps and snow : 
He severed rocks, and rent the mountain with vinegar. 
He now possesses Italy, yet endeavours to go farther : 
" Nothing is done," says he, " unless, with the Punic army, 

" we break 1.55 

" The gates, and I place a banner in the midst of Suburra." 
O what a face ! and worthy of what a picture ! 

as Pliny says, raised up the high moun- 
tains of the Alps as a wall, to defend 
Italy from the incursions of the Barba- 
rians. These are constantly covered 
with snow. 

153. Severed rocks, v.] By immense 
dint of labour and perseverance he cut a 
way in the rocks, sufficient for his men, 
horses, and elephants to pass. 

With vinegar."] Livy says, that, in 
order to open and enlarge the way above 
mentioned, large trees were felled, and 
piled round the rock, and set on fire ; 
the wind blowing hard, a fierce flame 
soon broke out, so that the rock glowed 
like the coals with which it was heated. 
Then Hannibal caused a great quantity 
of vinegar to be poured upon the rock, 
which piercing into the veins of it, which 
were now cracked by the intense heat of 
the fire, calcined and softened it, so that 
he could the more easily cut the path 
through it 

Polybius says nothing of this vinegar, 
and therefore many reject this incident 
as fabulous. 

Pliny mentions one extraordinary qua- 
lity of vinegar, viz. its being able to break 
rocks and stones which have been heated 
by fire. But, admitting this, it seems 
difficult to conceive how Hannibal could 
procure a quantity of vinegar sufficient 
tat siu-li a purpose, in so mountainous 
and barren a country. Sec ANT. Univ. 

Hist. vol. xvii. p. 597, 8. 

154. Possesses Italy, $<.] f. e. Arrives 
there, comes into Italy, which for six- 
teen years together he wasted and de- 
stroyed, beating the Roman troops 
wherever he met them ; but he was not 
content with this, he determined to go 
further, and take Rome. 

155. Nothiny is done, c\c.] This is the 
language of an ambitious mind, which 
esteemed all that had been done as no- 
thing, unless Rome itself were conquered. 

Punic army.] The Poeni (quasi 
Phoeni a Phcenicibus unde orti) were a 
people of Africa, near Carthage : but 
being united to them, Poeni is used, per 
synec, for the Carthaginians in general. 

156. Suburra."] One of the principal 
streets in Rome. See before, sat. iii. 5. 

1 57. What a face .'] What a figure was 
he all this while ; how curious a picture 
would he have made, mounted on his 
elephant, and exhibiting his one-eyed 
countenance above the rest ? 

When Hannibal came into Etruria 
(Tuscany) the river Arno was swelled to 
a great height, insomuch that it occa- 
sioned the loss of many of his men and 
beasts, particularly of the elephants, of 
which the only one remaining was that 
on which Hannibal was mounted. Here, 
by the damps and fatigue, he lost one of 
his eyes. 



Cum Gfetula ducem portaret bellua luscum ! 
Exitus ergo quis est 2 O gloria ! vincitur idem 
Nempe, et in exilium prseceps fugit, atque ibi magnus 
Mirandusque cliens sedet ad prsetoria regis, 
Donee Bithyno libeat vigilare tyranno. 
Finem animse, quae res humanas miscuit olim, 
Non gladii, non saxa dabant, non tela, sed ille 
Cannarum vindex, et tanti sanguinis ultor, 
Annulus. I, demens, et saevas curre per Alpes, 
Ut pueris placeas, et declamatio fias. 

Unus Pellseo juveni non sufficit orbis : 
^Estuat infelix angusto limite mundi, 
Ut Gyarse clausus scopulis, parvaque Seripho. 
Cum tamen a figulis munitam intraverat urbem, 
Sarcophago contentus erat. MORS SOLA FATETUR 
QUANTULA SINT HOMiNUM coRPUscuLA. Creditur olim 
Velificatus Athos, et quicquid Grsecia mendax 
Audet in historia ; constratum classibus isdem, 


158. Gettilian 'beast.'] i. e. The ele- 
phant The Getulians were a people of 
Libya, bordering on Mauritania, where 
many elephants were found. 

159. His exit.} What was the end of 
all his exploits, as well as of himself? 

O glory!'] Alas, what is it all ! 

160. Is subdued, Sfc.'J He was at last 
routed by Scipio, and forced to fly for 
refuge to Prusias king of Bithynia. 

ifL Client.] Cliens signifies a re- 
tainer, a dependant, one who has put 
himself under the protection of a patron, 
to whom he pays all honour and observ- 

This great and wonderful man was 
thus reduced, after all his glorious 

Sits, Sfc.] Like a poor and mean 

162. Till it miffht please, #c.] The 
word tyrant is not always to be taken, 
as among us it usually is, in a bad sense. 
It was used in old time in a good sense 
for a king, or sovereign. 

To auyakeJ] When he came to prefer 
his petition for protection, he could gain 
no admission till the king's sleeping 
hours were over : Hannibal was now in 
too abject and mean a condition to de- 
mand an audience, or even to expect one, 
till the king was perfectly at leisure. 

It is the custom of the eastern princes 

to sleep about the middle of the day 
(2 Sam. iv. 5.) when the heats are in- 
tense, and none dare disturb them. This 
was the occasion of the deaths of many 
in our time at Calcutta, where, when 
taken by the Subah Surajah Dowlah, a 
number of gentlemen were put into a 
place called the Black-hole, where the 
air was so confined, that it suffocated 
the greatest part of them : but they could 
not be released while their lives might 
have been saved ; for being put there 
by order of the Subah, who alone could 
order their release, the officers of that 
prince onl} r answered their cries for de- 
liverance, by saying, that the Subah was 
lain down to sleep, and nobody dared to 
wake him. 

163. Disturbed human ajfuirs.'] Mis- 
cuit, disordered, put into confusion, a 
great part of the world, by his ambi- 
tious exploits and undertakings. 

166. A ring^c.] When he overthrew 
the Romans at Cannae, he took above 
three bushels of gold rings from the dead 
bodies, which, says the poet, were fully 
revenged by his ring, which he always 
carried about him, and in which he con- 
cealed a dose of poison ; so that when 
the Romans sent to Prusias to deliver 
him up, Hannibal, seeing there were no 
hopes of safety, took the poison and 
died. Thus fell that great man, who 



When the Getulian beast carried the one-eyed general ! 
Then what his exit I O glory ! for this same man 
Is subdued, and flies headlong into banishment, and there a 
great 160 

And much to be admired client sits at the palace of the king, 
Till it might please the Bithynian tyrant to awake. 
The end of that life, which once disturbed human affairs, 
Nor swords, nor stones, nor darts gave, but that 
Redresser of Canme, and avenger of so much blood, 165 
A ring. Go, madman, and run over the savage Alps, 
That you may please boys, and become a declamation. 

One world did not suffice the Pellsean youth ; 
He chafes unhappy in the narrow limit of the world, 
As one shut up in the rocks of Gyaras, or small Seriphus. 170 
Yet when he had entered the city fortified by brickmakers, 
He was content with a Sarcophagus. DEATH ONLY DISCOVERS 


that, formerly, 

Athos was sailed thro', and whatever lying Greece 
Adventures in history ; the solid sea strowed with 175 

had so often escaped the swords, and 
the darts, and stones hurled by the 
enemy, as well as the dangers of the 
horrid rocks and precipices of the Alps ! 
See sat iL 155, and note 2. 

Go, madman.] For such wert thou 
and such are all who build their great- 
ness and happiness on military fame. 

167. Please boys, $c.] The boys in 
the schools used to be exercised in mak- 
ing and speaking declamations, the sub- 
jects of which were usually taken from 
histories of famous men. A fine end, 
truly, of Hannibal's Alpine expedition, 
to become the subject of a school-boy's 
theme or declamation ! well worthy so 
much labour, fatigue, and danger ! 

168. Pcllccan youth.] Alexander the 
Great, born at Pella, a city of Macedon, 
died of a fever, occasioned by drinking 
to excess at Babylon, lie had lamented 
that, after having conquered almost all 
the East, all Greece, and, in short, t!;e 
greatest part of the world, there were no 
more worlds for him to conquer. He 
died three hundred and twenty- three 
year- before Christ, set thirty-three. 

170. Gyaras.] One of the Cyclades 
(islands in the ./Egean sea) whereto cri- 
minals wen- kmished : it was full of 
rocks. Sat L 73. 

Seriphus.'] See sat. vi. 563, and 

171. The city.] Babylon. 

Brickmakers.] This city was sur- 
rounded by a wall of brick, of an im- 
mense height and thickness. Ov. Met. 
iv. L 68. Figulus signifies any worker 
in clay ; so a maker of bricks. 

172. Sitri-t>j>/i>t>tH!'.] A grave, tomb, or 
sepulchre. A <rap, flesh, and tyayfiv, to 
eat, because bodies there consume and 
waste away. 

Death only, ffc.] Death alone 
teaches us how vain and empty the pur- 
suits of fame and earthly glory are ; and 
that, however the ambitious may swell 
with pride, yet, in a little while, a small 
urn will contain the hero, who, when 
living, thought the world not sufficient 
to gratify his ambition. 

174. Athos, <?fc.] A mountain in Ma- 
cedon, running like a peninsula into the 
JEgean sea. Xerxes is said to have 
digged through a part of it to make a 
passage for his fleet. 

175. Adrvntures in history.] Le. Dares 
to record in history. The Grecian his- 
torians were very fond of the marvel- 
lous, and, of course, were apt to intro- 
ducegrvat impii.lKibilitiesund falsehoods 
in their n;uration& 



Suppositumque rotis solidum mare : credimus altos 
Defecisse amnes, epotaque flumina Medo 
Prandente, et madidis cantat quse Sostratus alis. 
Hie tamen qualis rediit Salamine relicta, 
In Corum atque Eurum solitus saavire flagellis 
Barbarus, ^Eolio nunquam hoc in carcere passos, 
Ipsum compedibus qui vinxerat Ennosigseum ? 
Mitius id sane, quod non et stigmate dignum 
Oedidit : huic quisquam vellet servire deorum. 
Sed qualis rediit ? nempe una nave cruentis 
Fluctibus, ac tarda per densa cadavera prora. 
Has toties optata exegit gloria poenas. 

Da spatium vitse, multos da, Jupiter, annos : 
Hoc recto vultu, solum hoc et pallidus optas. 
Sed quam continuis et quantis longa senectus 
Plena rnalis ! deformem, et tetrum ante omnia vultum, 




Stroked.'] Covered, paved, as it 

were, for Xerxes is said to have had 
twelve thousand ships with him in his 
expedition, with which he formed the 
bridge after mentioned. 

176. Those very ships.'] Which had 
sailed through the passage at mount 

Put under wheels.'] He, in order to 
march his forces from Asia into Europe, 
made a bridge with his ships over the 
sea, which joined Abydus, a city of Asia, 
near the Hellespont, to Sestos, a city of 
the Thracian Chersonesus, which was op- 
posite to Abydus, and separated by an 
arm of the sea : this part is now known 
by the name of the Dardanelles. The 
sea being thus made passable by the 
help of the bridge, the army, chariots, 
horses, &c. went over, as if the sea had 
been solid under them ; therefore the 
poet says, sepositum rotis solidum mare, 
the firm sea. Hot. 

We believe] i.e. If we give credit 
to such historians. 

177. Rivers failed, $c.] It is said that 
Xerxes's army was so numerous, as to 
drink up a river at once, whenever they 
made a meal. HERODOT. lib. ii. 

The Mede.} The Medes and Per- 
sians composed the army of Xerxes. 

178. Sostratus.~\ A Greek poet, who 
wrote the Persian expedition into 

Wet intigs.] The fancy of a poet 
may be compared to wings, for it is by 

this he takes his flight into the regions 
of invention. The fancy of Sostratus is 
here supposed to have been moistened 
with wine ; in short, that no man who 
was not drunk, which is signified by ma- 
didus, could ever have committed such 
improbabilities to writing. 

179. What, <;.] What manner of 
man qualis how wretched, how for- 
lorn, how changed from what he was ! 
Comp. 1. 185. 

Tliat barbarian.'] Xerxes. See sat 
vi. 1. 157, note. 

Salamis being left.'] When he left 
and fled from Salamis, an island and city 
in the ./Egean sea, near whick Themis- 
tocles, the Athenian general, overcame 
him in a sea-fight, and forced him to fly. 

180. Rage u-ith whips, $c.~\ When he 
found the sea raging, and, being raised 
by those winds, to have destroyed his 
bridge, he was mad enough to order the 
Hellespont to be scourged with three 
hundred lashes. I don't read any where, 
but in this passage of Juvenal, of his 
whipping the winds. 

181. Never suffered, <5fr.] The poet 
here alludes to JEn. i. 1. 56 67. where 
.flSolus is represented as holding the 
winds in prison, and giving them liberty 
to come forth as he pleased. 

182. Who bound Ennosiyarus, $c.\ 
Xerxes was mad enough also to cast iron 
fetters into the sea, as if to bind Nep- 
tune in chains ; who was called Enno- 
sigaeus, the earth-shaker, from the notion 



Those very ships, and put under wheels : we believe deep 
Rivers to have failed, and their waters drunk up when the 


Dined, and what things Sostratus sings with wet wings. 
Hut what did that barbarian return, Salamis being left, 179 
Who was wont to rage with whips, against the north-west and 
East wind, (which never suffered this in the ^Eoliau prison,) 
Who bound Ennosigseus himself with fetters ? 
That indeed was rather mild, that not worthy a mark also 
Rethought him. Any of thegods would be willingtoservehim. 
But what manner of man returned he ? Truly with one vessel 

in the 185 

Bloody waves, and, with slow prow, thro 1 thick carcasses. 
Glory so often wished for exacted this punishment. 
Give length of life, give, O Jupiter, many years ! 
This with upright countenance, and this, pale, alone you wish. 
But with what continual, and with how great evils is old age 
Full ! See the countenance defornVd, and hideous beyond 

every thing, 191 

that he presided over the waters of the 
sea, which made their way into the earth, 
and caused earthquakes. From Gr. 
evvoffis, concussio, and yaia, terra. See 

183. Rather mild, <|-c.] The poet iro- 
nically says, " that, to be sure, all this 
" was very gentle in Xerxes, and that he 
" did not carry the matter farther, must 
u be considered as very gracious in a 
" man who might have thought proper 
" to have marked him as his slave." 
Stigma signifies a brand or mark set on 
the forehead of fugitive slaves, to which, 
no doubt, this passage alludes. 

184. Any of the gods.'] As well as 
Neptune, would, doubtless, without 
murmuring, have served so mild and 
gracious a prince ! Still speaking ironi- 
cally, in derision of the pride and folly 
of Xerxes. 

185. What manner, tyc.] After all this 
extravagance of pride. See note on 
1. 179. 

Oneve$sel.~\ Navissignifiesany vessel 
of the sea or river. The vessel in which 
Xerxes made his escape, after his defeat 
near Salamis, was a poor fishing-boat. 

186. Bloody waves.'] Made so by the 
slaughter of such numbers of the Persian 

Slutv jinitc, <$r.] The sea was so 
crowded with the floating carcasses of 

the slain, that the boat could hardly 
make its way. 

187. Glory, fyr.] This haughty prince, 
who had collected so vast a force toge- 
ther, in order to carry on the war with 
the Athenians, begun by his father Da- 
rius, and invading Greece with seven 
hundred thousand men of his own king- 
doms, three hundred thousandauxiliaries, 
and with twelve thousand ships, after 
beating Leonidas and taking Sparta, is 
defeated by Themistocles, his army cut 
to pieces, his fleet destroyed, and himself 
forced to escape in a wretched fishing- 
boat All this might well be called the 
just demand of vengeance against his 
pride, and mad thirst after glory. 

188. G'u-e,<5fc.] The poet now" satirizes 
the folly of wishing for long life : he 
supposes one praying for it. 

189. Upright countenance, fe.] '. e. 
Looking up to heaven pale, with fear 
of death, or lest the petition should be 

But, perhaps, recto vultu may here be 
a phrase to express one in youth and 
health ; and the following pallidus may 
denote a state of old age and sickness : 
comp. 1. 191. 

" /A /// sick and healthful, old and youny, 

"" In ihis one silly, mischicrous desire." 


Dissimilemque sui, deformem pro cute pellem, 

Pendentesque genas, et tales aspice rugas, 

Quales, urnbriferos ubi pandit Tabraca saltus, 

In vetula scalpit jam mater simia bucca. 195 

Plurima sunt juvenum discrimina, pulchrior ille 

Hoc, atque ille alio : multum hie robustior illo : 

Una senum facies, cum voce trementia membra, 

Et jam Igeve caput, madidique infantia nasi. 

Frangendus misero gingiva panis inermi : 200 

Usque adeo gravis uxori, gnatisque, sibique, 

Ut captatori moveat fastidia Cosso. 

Non eadem vini atque cibi, torpente palato, 

Gaudia : nam coitus jam longa oblivio : vel si 

Coneris, jacet exiguus cum ramice nervus ; -205 

Et quamvis tota palpetur nocte, jacebit. 

Anne aliquid sperare potest haec inguinis aegri 

Canities ? quid, quod merito suspecta libido 'est, 

Quse venerem affectat sine viribus. Aspice partis 

Nunc damnum alterius ; nam quse cantante voluptas, 210 

Sit licet eximius, citharcedo, sive Seleuco, 

Et quibus aurata mos est fulgere lacerna? 

Quid refert, magni sedeat qua parte theatri, 

Qui vix cornicines exaudiat, atque tubarum 

Concentus? Clamore opus est, ut sentiat auris, 215 

192. Itself.'] Its former self, he speaks of, especially when old, is in a 
Unsightly hide.] Here is a distinc- wrinkled state. 

tion between cutis and pellis, the former Dryden has well preserved the humour 

signifying the skin of a man, the other of this simile : 

the hide of a beast ; to the last of which, Suchwrinkles as a skilful handwould draw 

by an apt catachresis, the poet compares for an old grandam-aj)e, when, with a 

the coarse and rugged appearance of an grace, 

old man's skin. She sits at squat, and scrubs her leathern 

193. Pendent checks.'] It is observable, face. 

that, in old persons, the cheeks, not only 196. The differences, $c.~] The poet is 

in that part of them which is immediately here to be understood as observing, that, 

below the eyes, hang in purses down- however, in the days of youth, one is 

wards, but also in that part which, in distinguishable from another by ditferent 

youth, forms the roundness, and contri- beauties of countenance, and strength 

butes so much to the beauty and come- of body, old age renders all distinctions 

liness of the face, hang downwards in a void ; and, in short, one old man is too 

relaxed and pendent state. like another, to admit of them, both 

194. Tabraca, 3fc.] Now called Tunis, with respect to countenance, and bodily 
on the Mediterranean, near which was a strength. 

wood, wherein was a vast quantity of 199. Smooth head.} Bald with the loss 

apes. of hair. 

195. Her old chetk.] Bucca properly Infancy, tyc.] A running and drivel- 
signifies the cheek, or that part of it ling nose, like a young child. 

which swells out in blowing ; but here 200. Unarmed gum.'] Having lost all 
it seems (by synec.) to denote the whole his teeth, he has nothing left but his 
face, every part of which, in the animal bare guins to mumble his food withal. 


And unlike itself, an unsightly hide instead of a skin : 

And pendent cheeks, and such wrinkles, 

As, where Tabraca extends its shady forests, 

A mother-ape scratches in her old cheek. 195 

The differences of youths are very many, one is handsomer 


This, and he than another : this far more robust than that : 
The face of old men is one, the limbs trembling with the voice, 
And now a smooth head, and the infancy of a wet nose. 
Bread is to be broken by the wretch with an unarm 1 d gum : 
So very burthensome, to wife, and children, and himself, 201 
That he would move the loathing of the flatterer Cossus. 
The palate growing dull, the joys of wine and food are not 
The same : a long oblivion of those pleasures, 
Which are in vain invited to return, 205 

Tho 1 every means be used to restore them. 
Has this important state any thing to hope for ? 
What, but that the desire be deservedly suspected, 
Which, without power, affects gallantry. Now see 
The loss of another part for what pleasure (has he) when a 
Harper (tho 1 even the best) or Seleucus performs, 211 

And those whose custom it is to shine in a golden habit 2 
What signifies it in what part of a great theatre he may sit, 
Who can hardly hear the cornets, and the sounding of the 
Trumpets ? There needs a bawling, that the ear may perceive 

202. The flatterer Cos$tis.~\ Captator in the next line by aurata lacerna, as not 
signifies one who endeavoureth to get or only the case of Seleucus, but of others, 
procure any thing, particularly he who Of this incapacity for relishing music, 
flattereth a man to be his heir. (See Barzillai also speaks, 2 Sam. xix. 35. 
sat. v. 1. !)8, note.) This mean occupa- 214. The cornets.\ Cornicen (from 
tion was frequent in Rome, and this cornu, an horn, and cano, to sing) signi- 
Cossus seems to have been famous for fies a blower on the horn, or cornet, the 
it ; yet old age, like what the poet has sound of which was probably very loud 
been describing, is sufficient, says he, and harsh, as was that of the trumpets, 
even to disgust Cossus himself, so as to If he be so deaf that he cannot hear these, 
keep him away from paying his court. he can't expect to hear the singers, and 

203. The palate^ <|c.] Every thing the softer instruments. 

now grows insipid; all difference of 215. Bau-linfl, $0.] His boy must bawl 

meats and drinks is lost. See this as loud as he can into his ear, when he 

symptom of age mentioned by Barzillai, would tell him who called to visit him, 

2 Sam. xix. 35. or to let him know what o'clock it was. 

210. Another part.~\ The hearing. They had not watches and clocks as we 

211. A harper .] Citharoedus denotes have, but sun-dials and hour-glasses, 
that species of musician, who sung, and which a boy was to watch, and acquaint 
played the harp at the same time. the master how the time went. 

Si;leucus.~\ A noted musician, who, Huras tfitinque pucr nondum tili nun- 
according to the fashion of those times, tint i-t tu 
wore a rich embroidered garment when Jam cunrira mihi,C<Bciliane,venis. 
he sang upon the stage. This is meant MART. lib. viii. ep. 67. 


Quern dicat venisse puer, quot nunciet horas. 

Praeterea minimus gelido jam corpore sanguis 

Febre calet sola: circumsilit agmine facto 

Morborum omne genus, quorum si nomina quseras, 

Promptius expediam, quot amaverit Hippia moechos, 2-20 

Quot Themison segros autumno occiderit uno ; 

Quot Basilus socios, quot circumscripserit Hirrus 

Pupillos : quot longa viros exsorbeat uno 

Maura die, quot discipulos inclinet Hamillus. 

Percurram citius, quot villas possideat nunc, 225 

Quo tondente, gravis juveni mihi barba sonabat. 

Ille humero, hie lumbis, hie coxa debilis, ambos 

Perdidit ille oculos, et luscis invidet : hujus 

Pallida labra cibum capiunt digitis alienis. 

Ipse ad conspectum coeuse diducere rictum 2,30 

Suetus, hiat tantum, ceu pullus hirundinis, ad quern 

Ore volat pleno mater jejuna. Sed omni 

Membrorum damno major dementia, quse nee 

Nomina servorum, nee vultum agnoscit amici, 

Cum quo praeterita coenavit nocte, nee illos, 235 

Quos genuit, quos eduxit : nam codice ssevo 

Hseredes vetat esse suos ; bona tota feruntur 

218. Warm from fever,] The blood is them into the form of a province, which, 

so cold, and circulates so slowly, that being subject to Rome, was governed by 

nothing can warm or quicken it but a Roman praetor, and the inhabitants 

that hectic, feverish habit, which fre- were called socii, allies, and, indeed, 

quently is an attendant on the decays of looked upon, in all respects, as such, 

old age. not daring to refuse a confederacy with 

Gelidus tardante senecta their conquerors. Basilus was one of 

Sanguis hebet, <Sfc. MN. v. 1. 395, 6. these praetors, who shamefully plundered 

Leap around, fc.] Surround him on his province. 

all sides, ready to rush upon him, like Hirrus.] Some read Irus. Whoever 

wild beasts leaping on their prey. this was, his character is here noted, as 

Formed into a troop.] A whole troop a cheater and circumventer of youth, 
of diseases, in array against him. Ag- committed to his care and guardian- 
mine facto. See VIRG. JEn. i. 86. from ship. 

whence our poet borrows this expression. He that had the tuition of a ward 

See sat. iii. 162, and note. was called tutor. The ward was called 

220. Hippia.] See sat. vi. 82. a woman pupillus. The pupilli were orphans, 
famous for her debaucheries. who had lost their parents, and thus 

221. ThemisonJ] A physician much fell under the tuition of guardians, who 
commended by Pliny and Celsus, though frequently, instead of protecting them, 
here spoken of in no very favourable plundered and cheated them out of their 
light. Perhaps Juvenal gives this name patrimony. 

to some empiric, in derision. 223. Maura.'] See sat. vi. 1. 306, note. 

- Autumn.] The autumn was usu- 224. Hamillus] A school-master, fa- 
ally a sickly time at Rome. See sat. mous for unnatural practices with his 
iv. 1. 56, 7, and notes. scholars. 

2-22. Allies, <fr.] When the Romans 226. Who clipping.] Sec sat. i. 25, 

had conquered any people, they reduced and notes. 


Whom his boy may say has come, how many hours lie may 

bring word of. 

Beside, the very little blood, now in his cold body, 
Is only warm from fever : there leap around, formed into a 


All kind of diseases, the names of which were you to ask, 
I could sooner unfold, how many adulterers Hippia has loved, 
How many sick Themison has killed in one autumn : 221 
How many of our allies Basilus, how many orphans Hirrus 
Has cheated. How many gallants the tall Maura can 
Dispense with in a day, how many disciples Hamillus may 

defile. 224 

Sooner run over howmany country-houses he may now possess, 
Who clipping my beard, troublesome to me a youth, sounded. 
One is weak in his shoulder, another in his loins, another in 

his hip, 

Another has lost both his eyes, and envies the blind of one : 
The pale lips of this take food from another's fingers : 229 
He, at the sight of a supper, accustomed to stretch open his 
Jaw, only gapes, like the young one of a swallow, to whom 
The fasting dam flies with her mouth full. But, than all the 


Of limbs, that want of understanding is greater, which neither 
Knows the names of servants, nor the countenance of a friend, 
With whom he supp'd the night before, nor those [will, 
Whom he hath begotten, whom brought up: for, by a cruel 
He forbids them to be his heirs ; all his goods are carried 

Cinnamus was a barber at Rome, 233, 4. Neither knows.'] t. e. Recol- 

who got a knight's estate, and, growing lects ; his memory now felling, 

very rich, had several villas, and lived 234. The names of sen-ants.] The poet 

in a sumptuous manner ; but, at last, he here brings his old man into the last 

broke, and fled into Sicily. See MART, stage of superannuation, when the under- 

vii. epigr. 64. standing and memory feil, which, as he 

'2'27. One is weak, fyc.] That host of says, is worse than all the rest, 

diseases, mentioned 1. 218, 19. are here 236. Brought up.] Though he has not 

represented as making their attacks on only begotten, but brought up his chil- 

difFerent parts of the body. dren, so that they must have lived much 

229. Of this.] Hujus t. e. hominis. with him, yet they are forgotten : he 
Take food, $c.~\ So feeble and makes a will, by which he disinherits 

childish that he can't feed himself, and them, and leaves all he has to some artful 

is forced to be fed by another. strumpet who has got possession of him. 

230. He, at the sight, $c.] As soon as A cruel tedt] Codex, or caudex, 
supper is served, he, as it were mecha- literally means, the trunk, stem, or body 
nically, stretches open his jaws ; but, of a tree. Hence, by metonym. a table- 
miablo to feed himself, he only gapes, book, made of several boards joined toge- 
like a young swallow in the nest, when ther, on which they used to write ; hence 
it sees the old one flying towards it with any writing, as a deed, will, &c. See 
food in her mouth. This natural image sat vii. 1 10. 

is beautifully expressed. 237. Forbids them.] He excludes them 


Ad Phialen : tantum artificis valet halitus oris, 

Quod steterat multos in carcere fornicis annos. 

Ut vigeant sensus animi, ducenda tamen sunt 240 

Funera natorum, rogus aspiciendus amatse 

Conjugis, et fratris, plenseque sororibus urnse. 

Hsec data poena diu viventibus ; ut renovata 

Semper clade domus, multis in luctibus, inque 

Perpetuo moerore, et nigra veste senescant. 24*> 

Rex Pylius (magno si quicquam credis Homero) 

Exemplum vitse fuit a cornice secundse : 

Felix nimirum, qui tot per ssecula mortem 

Distulit, atque suos jam dextra computat annos, 

Quique novum toties mustum bibit : oro, parumper 250 

Attendas, quantum de legibus ipse queratur 

Fatorum, et nimio de stamine, cum videt acris 

Antilochi barbam ardentem : nam quserit ab omni, 

Quisquis adest, socio, cur haec in tempora duret ; 

from inheriting his estate, i. e, he disin- 
herits them. 

Are carried.] Are disposed of, 

conveyed by the will. 

238. To Phiale] See above, 1. 236. 
note the first. 

So much avails, <Je.] Such an old 
dotard as this may be easily persuaded 
to any thing by an artful strumpet ; so 
great an ascendancy does she acquire 
over him by her artful and insinuating 

239. Prison of a brothel.] Fornix, lit 
an arch or vault in houses ; also, meton. 
a stew or brothel, because these were in 
vaults or wells under ground. Aixsw. 
Hence, from the darkness and filthiness 
of their situation, as well as from the 
confinement of the wretched inhabitants 
therein, who stood ready for every comer, 
Juvenal represents Phialeas having stood 
in carcere fornicis, which is describing 
her as a common prostitute. 

HOB. lib. L sat ii. 1. 30. alluding to 
the filth of these dungeons, says, 

Contra alius nuUam nisi olenti in for- 

mce stantem. 
See Juv. sat vi. L 130, 1. 

Career signifies also a starting-place at 
the chariot-races ; hence, by metonym. a 
beginning: in this sense it may mean 
the entrance of a brothel, where the har- 
lots presented themselves to the view of 
the passers-by. Comp. sat. iii. 1. 65. 
note 1. 

240. The? the senses, fyc] i. e. Yet 
allow him to retain his senses in full 
vigour, what grievous scenes of distress 
has he to go through ! 

Children] So VIRG. /En. vi. 1. 

Impositisque rogis juvcnes ante ora 

241. To be attended] Ducere funera 
is a phrase peculiarly adapted to the 
ceremony of funerals, and probably it is 
derived from a custom of the friends of 
the deceased walking in procession be- 
fore the corpse. Sat i. 146. See 
GRANG. in loc. " Ducere verbura 
" sepulturee. Albinov. ad Liviam. Fu- 
" nera ducuntur Romana per oppida 
" Drusi." 

The pile] The funeral pile, on which 
the body was reduced to ashes. 

242. Urns fitt"d, $c] i. e. With their 
bones and ashes, which it was cus- 
tomary to preserve in pots (after being 
gathered from the funeral pile) called 

243. This pain, fyc] This is the sad 
lot of long-lived people, as it must be 
their fete to out-live many of their 

243. 4. Slaughter of the family, <<:.] 
Some part or other of which is conti- 
nually dropping off. 

244. Many sorrows.] '. e. Bewailings 
of the death of friends. 

245. Black habit] By this we find, 



To Phiale : so much avails the breath of an artful mouth, 
Which has stood for many years in the prison of a brothel. 
Tho 1 the senses of the mind may be strong, yet funerals of 

children 240 

Are to be attended, the pile to be seen of a beloved 
Wife, and of a brother, and urns filPd with sisters. 
This pain is given to long-livers, so that, the slaughter 
Of the family being continually renewed, in many sorrows, 

and in 

Perpetual grief, and in a black habit, they may grow old. 245 
The Pylian king (if you at all believe the great Homer) 
Was an example of life second from a crow : 
Happy, no doubt, who thro 1 so many ages had deferred 
Death, and now computes his years with the right hand, 
And who so often drank new must : I pray, attend 250 
A little How much might he complain of the laws 
Of the fates, and of too much thread, when he saw the beard of 
Brave Antilochus burning : he demands of every friend 
Which is present, why he should last till these times 

that the wearing of mourning for the 
loss of relations is very ancient, and 
that black was the colour which the an- 
cients used on such occasions. See sat. 
iii. 1. 213. 

246. Pylian lnng.~] Nestor, the king 
of Pylos, in Peloponnesus, who, accord- 
ing to Homer, is said to have lived three 
hundred years. 

247. Second from a crow.'] Comix sig- 
nifies a crow, or rook. This species of 
bird is fabled to live nine times the age 
of a man. Nestor (says the poet) stands 
second to this long-lived bird. 

249. With ihe right.} The ancients 
used to count their numbers with their 
fingers ; all under one hundred was 
counted on the left hand, all above on 
the right. 

250. So of ten drank, $<-.] Mustum sig- 
nifies new wine. The vintage, when 
this was made, was in the autumn ; so 
that the poet here means to observe that 
Nestor lived for many returns of this 

Attend.'] The poet calls for attention 
to what he is going to prove, by various 
examples, namely, that happiness does 
not consist in long life. 

251. 2. Laws of the fates.'] The an- 
cients believed all things, even the gods 
themselves, to be governed by the fates. 

Old men, who were from various causes 
afflicted, might be apt to complain of 
their destiny, and Nestor among the 

252. Of too much thread.] The fates 
were supposed to be three sisters, who 
had all some peculiar business assigned 
them by the poets, in relation to the 
lives of men. One held the distaff, 
another spun the thread, and the third 
cut it q. d. How might he complain 
that the thread of his life was too long ! 

253. Antilochus.'] The son of Nestor, 
slain, according to Homer, by Memnon, 
at the siege of Troy ; according to Ovid, 
by Hector. His beard burning, t. e. on 
the funeral pile. This mention of the 
beard implies, that he was now grown 
to man's estate. 

He demands, Sfc.~\ The poet here 

very naturally describes the workings 
and effects of grief, in the afflicted old 
man, who is now tempted to think, that 
his great age was granted him as a pu- 
nishment for some greater crime than he 
could recollect to have committed, as 
he was permitted to live to see so sad an 
event as the death of his brave and be- 
loved son. He is therefore represented 
as inquiring of his friends what could be 
the cause of his being reserved for such 
an affliction. 


Quod facinus dignum tarn longo adnaiserit sevo. 
Hsec eadem Peleus, raptum cum luget Achillem, 
Atque alius, cui fas Ithacum lugere natantem. 
Incolumi Troja Priamus venisset ad umbras 
Assaraci magnis solennibus, Hectore funus 
Portante, ac reliquis fratrum cervicibus, inter 
Iliadum lachrymas, ut prirnos edere planctus 
Cassandra inciperet, scissaque Polyxena palla, 
Si foret extinctus diverse tempore, quo non 
Coaperat audaces Paris sedificare carinas. 
Longa dies igitur quid contulit ? omnia vidit 
E versa, et flammis Asiam ferroque cadentem. 
Tune miles tremulus posita tulit arma tiara, 
Et ruit ante aram summi Jovis, ut vetulus bos, 
Qui domini cultris tenue et miserabile collum 
Praebet, ab ingrato jam fastiditus aratro. 





256. Peleus.'] The father of Achilles, 
slain by Paris, who shot him in the 
heel in the temple of Apollo, the only 
part where he was vulnerable. His 
father Peleus had to lament his untimely 

257. Another.'] Laertes, a prince of 
Ithaca, father of Ulysses. He, during 
his son's absence, and wanderings over 
the seas, wearied himself with daily 
labour in husbandry, having no other 
attendant than an old maid-servant, who 
brought him food : during this period 
his constant petition to Jupiter was, that 
he might die. 

Swimming Ithacus.] Ulysses was 
called Ithacus, from Ithaca, a country 
of Ionia where he reigned. After the 
destruction of Troy, he suffered many 
toils and hardships, for ten years toge- 
ther, before his return home. The word 
natantem perhaps alludes to his ship- 
wreck near the island of Calypso, where 
he was forced to swim to save his life ; 
or perhaps it may allude, in general, to 
the length of time he passed in sailing 
on the sea, 

258. Troy being safe.'] i.e. Had Troy 
stood, and remained in safety. 

Priam.'] The last king of Troy, who 
lived to see the city besieged by the 
Greeks for ten years together, and at 
length taken. 

258, 9. ShadesofAssaracus,$c.'] Had 
joined his ancestors' ghosts, or shades, 
in the infernal regions ; i. e. had died 

in peace, and had been buried with 
the splendid funeral rites belonging to 
his rank. See VIRG. JEn. i. 288 ; and 
AINSW. Assaracus. 

259. Hector carrying, <fc.] Among the 
ancients, the corpse of the parent was 
carried forth to the funeral pile by the 
sons of the deceased. If Troy had re- 
mained in quiet, Priam's son Hector had 
not been slain by Achilles, but had sur- 
vived his father, and have, as the custom 
was, been one of his bearers to the fu- 
neral pile. 

260. The rest of the shoulders, <Sfe.] Re- 
liquis cervicibus for cervicibus reliquo- 
rum, &c. Hypallage. According to Ho- 
mer, Priam had fifty sons and twelve 
daughters ; the former of which would 
have assisted Hector in carrying their 
father's corpse. Pliny says, (lib. vii. 
c. 44.) Quintus Metellus Macedonicus, 
a quatuor filiis illatus est rogo. 

Priam was slain in the siege by Pyr- 
rhus, the son of Achilles, and most of his 
children were destroyed. See JEn. ii. 

261. As soon as, fyc.] This was the 
signal for the funeral procession to move 
forward towards the pile. 

Cassandra, fe.] She was the daugh- 
ter of Priam and Hecuba. It was cus- 
tomary to hire women to mourn at bu- 
rials, who went before the corpse to la- 
ment the dead : the chief of them who be- 
gan the ceremony was called praefica, (a 
prseficio, planctuum princcps. AINSW.) 


What crime lie had committed worthy so long life. 25.5 
The very same does Peleus, while he mourns Achilles 

snatchM away, 

And another, to whom it was permitted to lament the swim- 
ming Ithacus. 

Troy being safe, Priam had come to the shades 
Of Assaracus with great solemnities, Hector carrying 
The corpse, and the rest of the shoulders of his brethren, 
among 260 

The tears of the Trojans, as soon as Cassandra should begin 
To utter the first wail ings, and Polyxena with a rent garment, 
Had he been extinct at another time, in which Paris 
Had not begun to build the daring ships. 
What therefore did long life advantage him? he saw all things 
Overturned, and Asia falling by fire and sword. 266 

Then, a trembling soldier, the diadem being laid aside, he 

bore arms, 

And fell before the altar of high Jove, as an old ox, 
Who, to the master's knife, offers his lean and miserable 
Neck, now despised by the ungrateful plough. 270 

The part must here most naturally 
have been taken by Cassandra, Priam's 
daughter, who would, doubtless, have 
put herself at the head of the mourning 
women. See 2 Chron. xxxv. 25. 

After the taking of Troy, she fell to 
the share of Agamemnon. She was 
married to Chortebus, and debauched by 
Ajax Oileus, in the temple of Minerva. 
See JEn. i. 44. and ii. 1. 4037. 

262. Polyxeaa, $c] The daughter also 
of Priam, who gave her in marriage to 
Achilles ; but he, coming into the tem- 
ple of Apollo to perform the nuptial 
rites, was there treacherously slain by 
Paris. She was afterwards sacrificed at 
the tomb of Achilles. See before, L 256, 

Rent garment.] Rending the gar- 
ments, in token of grief, was very an- 

263. Being extinct] i. e. If he had 

At another time. $c] t. e. Before 
Paris prepared to sail into Greece, in 
order to ravish Helen from her husband 
Menelaus. Had this been the case, 
Priam would have been borne to the 
grave by his sons, and his funeral solem- 
nized by the public lamentations of his 

VOL. n. 

264. Daring ships.] So called from 
the daring design they were em ploy 1 
in ; the execution of which occasioned 
the Trojan war, and the destruction of 
the country by the Greeks. 

265. What therefore, ffc] The poet 
here applies this instance of old king 
Priam to his main argument against 
wishing to live to old age, seeing with 
how many sorrows it may be accom- 

266. Asia fulling.] See VIRG. JEn. iii. 
1. 1. By Asia is here meant the Lesser 
Asia, containing the Greater and Lesser 
Phrygia, the kingdom of Priam. 

267. Trembling soldier] Priam, now 
trembling, and almost worn out by age. 

Diadem being laid aside] Having 
laid aside all ensigns of royalty. 

Bore amis] In defence of his coun- 
try. See JEn. ii. 507 558. where these 
parts of Priam's history are described. 

268. Fell before Hie altar.] Of Jupiter 
Herceus, erected by Priam in an open 
court belonging to the palace: hither 
he fled for succour and protection, but 
was slain by Pyrrhus. JEn. ii. 501, 2. 

270. Ungrateful plough] Prosopopeia. 
The plough is here represented as un- 
grateful, as forgetting the labours of the 
old worn-out ox, and despising him as 



Exitus ille utcumque hominis : sed tovva canino 
Latravit rictu, qua? post hunc vixerat, uxor. 
Festino ad nostros, et regem transeo Poiiti, 
Et Croesum, quern vox justi facunda Solonis 
Respicere ad longae jussit spatia ultima vita?. 
Exilium et career, Minturnarumque paludes, 
Et mendicatus victa Carthagine panis, 
Hinc causas habuere. Quid illo cive tulisset 
Natura in terris, quid Roma beatius unquam, 
Si circumducto captivorum agmine, et omui 
Bellorum pompa, animam exhalasset opimam, 
Cum de Teutonico vellet descendere curru ? 
Provida Pompeio dederat Campania febres 
Optandas ; sed multse urbes, et publica vota 
Vicerunt ; igitur fortuna ipsius, et urbis 
Servatum victo caput abstulit. Hoc cruciatu 
Lentulus, hac poena caruit, ceciditque Cethegus 
Integer, et jacuit Catilina cadavere toto. 

Formam optat modico pueris, majore puellis 



now useless. Some understand aratro 
for agricola meton. 

271. Exit of a man.'] He died, how- 
ever, like a man this was not the case 
of his wife. 

Fierce wife, ffc.] i. e. Hecuba, wife 
of Priam, who, after the sacking of Troy, 
railed so against the Greeks, that she is 
feigned to have been turned into a bitch. 
OVID. Met. lib. xiii. 1. 5679. 

273. To our own.~\ To mention in- 
stances and examples among our own 

The king of Pontus.] Mithridates, 
who maintained a long war with the 
Romans, but was at last routed by 
Pompey. He would have shortened his 
days by poison, but had so fortified him- 
self by an antidote, invented by him, 
and which still bears his name, that none 
would operate upon him. See sat. vi. 
1. 660, and note. 

274. Crcestis, whom, $e.] Crresus was 
the last king of Lydia, so rich, that 
Cro3si divitiae was a proverbial saying. 
He asked Solon (one of the wise men of 
Greece, and lawgiver of the Athenians) 
who was the happiest man ? The philo- 
sopher told him, " no man could be said 
" to be happy before death." This, af- 
terwards, Croesus found to be true ; for, 
being taken prisoner by Cyrus, and or- 

dered to be burned, he cried out, " po- 
" Ion ! Solon! Solon!" Cyrus asked the 
reason of this, and was told what So- 
lon had said ; whereupon, considering it 
might be his own case, he spared his 
life, and treated him with much respect. 
Respicere to consider mind regard. 

276. Marshes o/Minturnte, ^c.] Caius 
Marius being overcome in the civil war 
by Sylla, was forced to skulk in the 
marshes of Minturnas, a city by the river 
Liris, where he was found, taken, and 
imprisoned ; he then escaped into Africa, 
where he lived in exile, and begged 
his bread in the streets of Carthage, 
which had been conquered by the Ro- 

278. Hence had their causes.'] All these 
misfortunes were owing to Marius's liv- 
ing so long ; he died in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. 

Than that citizen.'] i. e. Than Ma- 

' 2802. Ifichen, c.] If when, in 
his triumph after conquering the Cimbri, 
he had numbers of captives led around 
his triumphal car, and amidst all the 
pomp and glory of victory, he had 
breathed out his mighty soul, as he de- 
scended, after the triumph was over, 
from his chariot, he had been the hap- 
piest man in nature, or that Rome ever 

SAT. x. 



However, that was the exit of a man : but his fierce wife, 
Who outlived him, barked with a cauine jaw. 
I hasten to our own, and pass by the king of Pontus, 
And Cro?sus, whom the eloquent voice of just Solon 
Commanded to look at the last period of a long life. 275 
Banishment and a prison, and the marshes of Minturnae, 
And bread begged in conquered Carthage, 
Hence had their causes what, than that citizen, had 
Nature on the earth, or Rome ever borne, more happy, 
If, the troop of captives being led around, and in all 280 
The pomp of wars, he had breathed forth his great soul, 
"When he would descend from the Teutonic chariot ? 
Provident Campania had given Pompey fevers 
To be wished for ; but many cities, and public vows 
Overcame them : therefore his own fortune, and that of the 
city, 285 

Took offhis preserved head from him conquered: this torment, 
This punishment Lentulus was free from ; and Cethegus fell 
Entire, and Catiline lay with his whole carcase. 
With moderate murmur, the anxious mother desires beauty 

bred, and have escaped the miseries 
which afterwards befel him. 

282. Teutonic chariot."} The Teutones 
were a people bordering on the Cimbri, 
conquered by Marius ; the chariot in 
which Marius rode in his triumph over 
these people is therefore called Teuto- 
nic, as used on that occasion. 

283. Provident Camjxinia.'] When first 
Pompey engaged in the civil war against 
Caesar/he had a violent fever at Naples, 
and another at Capua, of which he was 
like to have died : these seem to have 
been provided against the miseries which 
afterwards befel him. 

284. To be wished for.'] In order to 
take him out of life, while he was great 
and happy. 

285. Overcame them.'} The united 
wishes and prayers of so many cities and 
people, for his recovery, prevailed against 
the effects of his sickness, and saved his 

His own fortune.] Which reserved 
him to be slain in his flight to Egypt, 
after his defeat by Caesar. 

That of the city."] Doomed to fall 
under the dominion of Pompey 's enemy, 
after suffering so much by a civil war. 

286. Took of, <r.] That life which 
had been preserved in a dangerous sick- 

ness (see note on L 285.) was destroyed 
after his defeat, and his head severed 
from his body by Achillas and Salvius, 
sent for that purpose from Ptolemy, who 
intended it as a present to Caesar. 

Of Pompey's death, see ANT. Univ. 
Hist. voL xiiL p. 217. 

287. Lentulus Cethegus.] These were 
in the conspiracy with Catiline, and 
being put into prison, by order of Cicero, 
then consul, were strangled, so that their 
bodies were not dismembered. 

288. Catiline, Sfc.] The famous con- 
spirator, whose designs were detected 
and frustrated by Cicero, died in battle, 
without the loss of any part of his body. 
See SALLCST. All these died young 
men, and thus were taken away from 
the miseries which those meet with who 
live to old age. 

289. Moderate murmur.'} The word 
murmur here implies that sort of mut- 
tering which they used at their prayers 
to the gods ; this was louder, and more 
distinct, on some occasions than on 
others, according to the degree of fer- 
vency in the suppb'ant Comp. PKKS. 
sat. ii. 68. 

Anxious mother, $c.] The poet here 
represents another popular folly, in sup- 
posing a mother anxious for having 


Murmure, cum Veneris fanum videt anxia mater, 
Usque ad delicias votorum : cur tamen, inquit, 
Corripias ? pulchra gaudet Latona Diana. 
Sed vetat optari faciem Lucretia, qualem 
Ipsa habuit. Cuperet Rutilse Virginia gibbum 
Accipere, atque suam Rutilse dare. Filius autem 
Corporis egregii miseros trepiclosque parentes 
ATQUE PUDICITI.E ? Sanctos licet horrida mores 
Tradiderit domus, ac veteres imitata Sabinos. 
Prseterea, castum ingenium, vultumque modesto 
Sanguine ferventem tribuat natura benigna 
Larga manu : (quid enim puero conferre potest plus 
Custode, et cura natura potentior onmi ?) 
Non licet esse viros : nam prodiga corruptoris 
Improbitas ipsos audet tentare parentes : 
Tanti in muneribus fiducia. Nullus ephebum 
Deformem sseva castravit in arce tyrannus : 
Nee praetextatum rapuit Nero loripedem, vel 
Strumosum, atque utero pariter, gibboque turneiitem. 
I nunc, et juvenis specie laetare tui, quern 
Majora expectant discrimina. Fiet adulter 





handsome children, and praying for this 
at the shrine of Venus, the" fabled god- 
dess of beauty. 

291. Even to the. delight, %c.] So that 
the highest and fondest of them might 
be gratified, and the delight of their ac- 
complishment be equal to that which she 
felt in making them. 

292. Blame me ?] A question supposed 
from the mother to the poet, on his find- 
ing fault with her for what she did. 

Latona rejoices, $c.~] She defends 
what she does by quoting an example. 
Latona, daughter of Cceus, one of the 
Titans, bore, to Jupiter, Apollo and 
Diana at the same birth. 

293. Lucretia forbids, #c.] The poet 
answers the example brought for asking 
beautiful children, by the instance of 
Lucretia, whose beauty proved her un- 
doing. She was a beautiful Roman 
lady, the daughter of Lucretius, prefect 
of the city, and wife of Tarquinius Col- 
latinus, ravished by Sextus Tarquinius, 
son of Tarquinius Superbus, which she 
so resented, that she sent for her father 
and husband, and stabbed herself before 
them. The people of Rome, on this, 

rose in arms, expelled the Tarquins. and 
changed the monarchy to a common- 

294. Virginia.'] A Roman virgin ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, whom her own fa- 
ther, to prevent her being exposed to 
the lust of Appius, one of the Decemviri, 
stabbed in the middle of the forum. 

RutiUi."] An ugly deformed old 

woman, above seventy-seven years old, 
as Pliny says, was in no danger of such 
a death, and therefore happier in her 
deformity than Virginia in her beauty ; 
.so that the latter might have gladly 
changed her person for that of Rutila. 

295. But a son, #c.] f. e. A son with 
an accomplished and beautiful person 
makes his parents unhappy, and keeps 
them in perpetual fear, so very rarely do 
beauty and modesty meet together. 

296. Person.] The word corporis, 
which literally signifies the body, is here 
used for the whole person of the man, 
per synec. 

298. Homely house, &;c.] i. e. Though 
the plain family, rough and honest, 
should have furnished him with the best 
morals, and brought him up in all the 


For her boys with greater for her girls, when she sees the 1 
temple of Venus, 290 

Even to the delight of her wishes. Yet, why, says she, 
Should you blame me ? Latona rejoices in fair Diana. 
But Lucretia forbids a face to be wished for, such 
As she had. Virginia would desire to accept the hump of Rutila, 
Aud give her (shape) to Rutila. But a son, with a 295 
Remarkable person, always has miserable and trembling 
AND CHASTITY ! Tho 1 the homely house chaste morals should 
Have transmitted, and imitated the old Sabines. 
Beside, a chaste disposition, and a countenance glowing 300 
With modest blood, let bounteous nature give him 
With a kind hand, (for what more upon a boy can 
Nature, more powerful than a guardian, and than all care, 

bestow ?) 

They must not be men ; for the prodigal improbity 
Of a corrupter dares to tempt the parents themselves : 305 
So great is confidence in bribes. No tyrant ever 
Castrated a defornVd youth in his cruel palace : 
Nor did Nero ravish a noble youth club-footed, or one 
With a wen, and swelling equally in his belly and hump. 
Go now, and delight in the beauty of your young man, 310 
Whom greater dangers await. He will become a public 

plain and virtuous simplicity of the old will carry their point. 
Sabines, (see sat vi. 1. 162, 3.) trans- No tyrant, $c.] The poet shews 

mining modesty and chastity by their another danger arising from beauty, 

own examples also. namely, that of being taken into the 

300. Glou-ing, #c.] Easily blushing at palaces of princes and great men, where 

every species of indecency. they were kept for unnatural purposes, 

303. Afore powerful, "e.] t. e. Who is and castrated, in order to make their 
more powerful than all outward re- voices like those of women ; now this 
straints. q. d. Natural good dispositions might be the consequence of being hand- 
are more powerful preservatives against some, but no deformed and ugly youth 
vice, than all the watchfulness and care was ever served so. See sat. vi. 368 72. 
of guardians and parents. 308. Nero ravish, $c.~] Alludes to the 

304. Must not be men.'] If they are to horrid amours of Nero with Sporus, 
escape " the pollutions that are in the whom he dressed in woman's apparel, 
" world through lusts," they must die and is said to have married. See sat. i. 
young, and not be men. 60, note. 

The prodigal improbity, &r.] The 309. A u-en.] Struma signifies a swel- 

offers of those who would corrupt their ling, or wen, arising from a scrofulous 

chastity, and who think no prodigality habit, like what we call the king's evil, 

too great to seduce youth, will even at- Strumosus, one that has this disorder, 
tempt to corrupt the parents themselves, Swelling, <|"e.] t. e. Pot-bellied and 

by bribing them, at any price, over to hump-backed. 

their side. Such is their extravagant 310. Go now, <c.] An ironical apo- 

wickedness. strophe to the mother (see 1. 289 91.) 

30(>. Confidence in biiltes.] So tho- who is wishing for beautiful children, 
roughly persuaded are they that a bribe 311. Greater dangers, #c.] The older 


Publicus, et poenas metuet, quascunque maritus 

Exigit iratus : nee erit felicior astro 

Martis, ut in laqueos nunquam incidat : exigit autem 

Interdum ille dolor plus, quam lex ulla dolori 

Concessit. Necat hie ferro, secat ille cruentis 

Verberibus, quosdam moechos et mugilis intrat. 

Sed tuus Endymiou dilectse net adulter 

Matronae : mox cum dederit Servilia nummos, 

Fiet et illius, quam non amat : exuet omnem 

Corporis ornatum : quid enim ulla negaverit udis 

Inguinibus, sive est base Hippia, sive Catulla 2 

Deterior totos habet illic foemina mores. 

Sed casto quid forma nocet 2 quid profuit olim 

Hippolyto grave propositum 2 quid Bellerophonti 2 

Erubuit nempe haec, ceu fastidita repulsa : 

Nee Sthenoboea minus quam Cressa excanduit, et se 

Concussere ambse. Mulier saBvissima tune est, 




he grows, the more dangers will he be 
exposed to, even greater than those 
already mentioned. 

311. He wiU become, #c.] He will 
intrigue with married women, and, on 
detection by the husbands, be exposed 
to all the suffering which their rage and 
jealousy may inflict 

313. Happier than the star, $c.~\ As 
all destiny was supposed to be governed 
by the stars, so the word star (per me- 
tonym.) may signify destiny. Will he 
have better luck than Mars, who, when 
in an amour with Venus, was surprised 
by her husband Vulcan, who enclosed 
them with a net, and exposed them to 
the sight of all the gods. 

315. That 'pain.'] Which an adulterer 
may have inflicted on him by an enraged 

Tfian any law, <^c.] i. e. The pain 
which the gallant may suffer from the 
husband may possibly exceed any that 
the law would inflict, or has allowed, for 
such an offence. 

316. With a sword.] Ferrum means 
any tool or weapon made with iron. 
There seems here to be an imitation of 
HOR. lib. i. sat. ii. 1. 4046. 

, 316, 17. With bloody scourges.'] i. e. 
Most barbarously flogs the gallant with 
scourges, the blood following the 
strokes : 


Ad mortem ceecus. HOR. ubi supr. 

317. The mullet, Qc.] This was a 
punishment sometimes inflicted on adul- 
terers, when caught in the fact, and must 
be attended with the most excruciating 
pain. It was done by thrusting the fish 
up the fundament, and then drawing it 
out, with the fins laying hold of and 
tearing the part. 

318. But your Endymion.'] Another 
ironical apostrophe to the mother. See 
before, note on 1. 310. 

Endymion was a shepherd, fabled to 
have been fallen in love with by Cynthia, 
or the moon, who, that she might kiss 
him, laid him asleep on mount Latmus, 
in Caria, near the coast of the Archipe- 

The poet uses the name Endymion 
here in derision of the mother, whom he 
supposes to be so fond of her son, and so 
pleased with his beauty, as to think him 
as handsome, at least, as Endymion him- 
self, and as likely to excite the love of 
some favourite lady, as Endymion was 
to excite the love of Cynthia, and who 
will think to have him all to herself. 
No, says the poet, this will only last till 
some lucrative temptation comes in his 
way, and then he will be as bad as others, 
and just as profligate for 

319. When Sen-ilia, $c.] This name 
may here be put for any lewd and pro- 
fligate adulteress, who hired lovers for 
her pleasures. There may probably be 
an allusion to Servilia, the mother of 



Adulterer, and will fear whatsoever punishment an angry 
Husband exacts : nor will he be happier than the star 
Of Mars, that he should never fall into snares: but sometimes 
That pain exacts more than any law to pain 315 

Has granted. One kills with a sword, another cuts with bloody 
Scourges, and some adulterers the mullet enters. 
But your Endymion will become the adulterer of some beloved 
Matron : presently when Servilia shall give him money, 
He will become hers too whom he loves not : she will put off 
Every ornament of her body : for what will any woman deny to 
Those she likes, whether she be Hippia or Catulla I 
There a bad woman has her whole manners. 
But how does beauty hurt the chaste ? what, once on a time, 
did 324 

A solemn resolution benefit Hippolytus \ what Bellerophou ? 
Truly this reddened as if scorned by a repulse : 
Nor was Sthenobo3a less on fire than the Cretan, and both 
Vexed themselves. A woman is then most cruel 

Brutus, and sister of Cato, with whom 
Caesar lived in illicit commerce. 

When such a one pays him well, how- 
ever he may dislike her person, he will 
be at her service. 

320. Put off", %c.~] She will strip her- 
self of all her jewels and finery, part 
with every thing that's valuable, to sup- 
ply the means of rewarding her lover. 
. 322. Hippiu.] See sat. vi. 82112. 
A prodigal adulteress. 

Catulla.] See sat. ii. 49. A poor 

q. d. However different in their cir- 
cumstances, they will all meet in this 
point, viz. to spare nothing where a lover 
is in question. 

323. There a Ixid woman."] On that one 
principle of self-gratification she forms 
all her conduct ; there she shews her- 
self kind, generous, and liberal, how- 
ever worse in general than others. 

324. How does beatify, $e.] Granting 
that beauty may be pernicious, in in- 
stances like those above mentioned, yet 
how can it injure the chaste and vir- 
tuous ? 

32.5. A solemn resolution, $c.] This 
was the solemn resolve of Hippolytus, 
to refuse the love of his step-mother 
Phaedra, who, for this, accused him of 
tempting hereto incest. He nod away 
in a chariot by the sea side, but the 

horses taking fright at the sea-calves 
lying on the shore, overturned the cha- 
riot, and killed him. 

BeUerophmi.] Sthenoboea (the wife 
of Foetus, king of the Argives) falling in 
love with him, he refused her ; at which 
she was so incensed, that she accused 
him to her husband : this forced him 
upon desperate adventures, which he 
overcame. Sthenoboea, hearing of his 
success, killed herself. 

326. These reddened, ^e.] Phaedra red- 
dened with anger and resentment, as 
thinking herself despised. 

327. Sthenobaia, $<.] See note on 
1. 325. 

The Cretan.] Phsedra was the 
daughter of Minos, king of Crete. 
Both.] Phaedra and Sthenoboea. 

328. Vexed themselves.'] Concussere. 
The verb concutio literally signifies to 
shake, jog, or stir ; and, when applied 
to the mind, to trouble, vex, or disquiet. 
Here it intimates, that these women 
shook, or stirred themselves, into a fit of 
rage and vexation. It seems to be used 
metaphorically, from the custom of the 
wrestlers and boxers at the theatres, who, 
before they engaged, gave themselves 
blows on the breast, or sides, to excite 
anger and fury. Thus the lion is said to 
shake his mane, and lash himself with 
his tail, when he would be furious. 



Cum stimulos odio pudor admovet. Elige quidnam 
Suadendum esse putes, cui nubere Cffisaris uxor 
Destinat : optimus hie, et formosissimus idem 
Gentis patricise rapitur miser extinguendus 
Messalinse oculis : duduin sedet ilia parato 
Flammeolo ; Tyriusque palam genialis in hortis 
Sternitur, et ritu decies centena dabuntur 
Antique : veniet cum signatoribus auspex. 
Haec tu secreta, et paucis commissa putabas ? 
Non nisi legitime vult nubere. Quid placeat, die : 
Ni parere velis, pereundum est ante lucernas : 
Si scelus admittas, dabitur mora parvula, duni res 
Nota urbi et populo, contingat principis aures : 
Dedecus ille domus sciet ultimus. Interea tu 
Obsequere imperio, si tanti est vita dierum 
Paucorum ; quicquid melius, leviusque putaris, 
Praebenda est gladio pulchra hscc et Candida cervix. 





328. Most cruel, #c.] A woman is 
then most savage and relentless, when, 
on being disappointed, the fear of shame 
adds spurs to her resentment, and her 
passion of love is changed to hatred. 
See Gen. xxxix. 720. 

Virgil represents Juno as stirred up 
to her relentless hatred to ./Eneas, and 
the Trojans, from several motives ; among 
the rest, from the contempt which had 
been shewn her by Paris, in his judg- 
ment against her at mount Ida. 

Necdum etiam causes irarum, seevique 

Ei-ciderant animo, manet alta mente 

Jndicium Paridis, spretaeque injuria 

forma, <8fc. $c. JEn. i. 2931. 
See also jEn. v. 5 7. 

329. Choose, #c.] i. c. Think it over, 
and determine, all things considered, 
what advice you would give. 

330. To him whom, $c.} Silius is meant 
here, a noble Roman, whom the empress 
Messalina so doated upon, that she made 
him put away his wife Julia Syllana, 
and resolved to marry him in the ab- 
sence of her husband, the emperor Clau- 
dius, who was gone no farther than 
Ostia, a city near the mouth of the 

333. By the eyes, #e.] By her having 
fixed her eyes upon him, so as to be- 
come enamoured with him. Of the 

horrid lewdness of this empress, see sat. 
vi. 11531. 

Long site sits, 6fc.] The time seems 
long to her, while waiting for Si- 

333. 4. Prepared bridal veil.'] Which 
she had prepared for the ceremony. See 
sat. ii. 1. 124, note on the word flam- 
mea ; and sat. vi. 224. 

334. Openly, #c.] She transacts her 
matter openly, without fear or shame ; 
accordingly she omits nothing of the 
marriage ceremony: she puts on the 
flame-coloured marriage veil ; the con- 
jugal bed was sumptuously adorned with 
purple, and prepared in the Lucullan 
gardens, a place of public resort. See 
note on 1. 338. 

335. Ten times an hundred.'] She had 
her portion ready, according to ancient 
custom. On this instance it amounted 
to the vast sum of one thousand- sester- 
tia. See sat. i. 1. 406, note. This was 
supposed to be given to the husband, in 
consideration of the burdens of matri- 

336. Soothsayer signers, <$fr.] The 
soothsayer, who always attended on such 
occasions. VALER. lib. ii. says, that 
among the ancients, nothing of conse- 
quence was undertaken, either in private 
or public, without consulting the au- 
spices ; hence a soothsayer attended on 
marriages. Auspex quasi avispex 



When shame adds goads to hatred. Choose what 3-20 

You think to be advised, to him whom Cesar's wife destines 
To marry : this the best and most beautiful too 
Of a patrician family is hurried, a wretch, to be destroyed 
By the eyes of Messalina : long she sits in her prepared 
Bridal veil, and openly the Tyrian marriage-bed is strowed 
In the gardens, and ten times an hundred will be given by 

ancient 335 

Rite : the soothsayer, with the signers, will come. 
Do you think these things secret, and committed to a few? 
She will not marry unless lawfully. Say what like you ? 
Unless you will obey, you must perish before candle-light. 
If you commit the crime, a little delay will be given, till ,the 

thing, 340 

Known to the city and to the people, reaches the prince's ears, 
(He will last know the disgrace of his house.) In the mean 


Do thou obey the command, if the life of a few days is 
Of such consequence; whatever you may think best and easiest, 
This fair and white neck is to be yielded to the sword. 345 

because they divined from the flight and 
other actions of birds. 

The signatories were a sort of public 
notaries, who wrote and attested wills, 
divds, marriage-settlements, &c. These 
also were present ; for, before the mar- 
riage, they wrote down in tables, (tabu- 
lis, see sat. ii. 58, note,) by way of re- 
cord, the form of the contract, to which 
they, with the witnesses, set their seals. 

337. T/tcse t/tiiif/s secret, #c.] That she 
does things privately, so that only a few 
chosen secret friends should know them? 
by no means. 

338. Unless lawfully.] She determines 
to marry publicly, with all the usual 
forms and ceremonies ; and this, says 
Tacitus, in the face of the senate, of the 
equestrian order, and of the whole peo- 
ple and soldiery. See ANT. Univ. Hist, 
vol. xiv. p. 344, note i. 

Say, it-hat like you ?] Quid placeat 
what it may please you to do. Say, Si- 
lius, what part will you tike in such a 
situation? what do you think best to do, 
under so fatal a dilemma ? 

339. Unless, #c.] If you refuse this 
horrid woman's offer, she will have you 
murdered before night. 

340. // you commit the ,-rime.] Of 

marrying the wife of another. 

A little delay, $c.~] You will pro- 
bably live for a few days ; the public ru- 
mour will reach the prince's ears, though 
later than the ears of others, as he will 
probably be the last who hears the dis- 
honour due to his family, few, perhaps, 
daring to break such a thing to him. 

343. The command.] Of Messalina. 

If the life of a fete days, $c.] If you 
think that living a few days more or less 
is of so much consequence, that you will 
sooner commit a crime of such magni- 
tude to gain a short respite, than risk an 
earlier death, by avoiding the commis- 
sion of it, then to be sure you must 
obey ; but whichever way you deter- 

345. Neck, |r.] This beautiful person 
of yours will be sacrificed, either to Mes- 
salina's resentment, if you don't comply, 
or to the emperor's, if you do. How- 
ever, the took place, and they 
pleased themselves in all festivity that 
day and night; afterwards Silius was 
seized, by the emperor's command, ;m<l 
put to death ; thus exhibiting a striking 
example of the sad consequences which 
often ;itt<-n<l bfinir remarkable for beauty. 
Mcssalina, soon after, was killed in the 



Nil ergo optabunt homines ? si consiJium vis, 
Nam pro jucundis aptissima quseque dabunt Di. 
Impulsu, et caeca magnaque cupidine ducti, 
Conjugium petimus, partumque uxoris : at illis 
Notum, qui pueri, qualisque futura sit uxor. 
Ut tamen et poscas aliquid, voveasque sacellis 
Exta, et candiduli divina tomacula porci ; 
Fortem posce animum, et mortis terrore carentein ; 
Qui spatium vitas extremum inter munera ponat 
Naturae, qui ferre queat quoscunque labores ; 
Nesciat irasci ; cupiat nihil ; et potiores 




gardens of Lucullus, whither she had 
retired. See ANT. Univ. Hist. voL xiv. 
p. 348, 9. 

346. Shall men therefore, tfc.] If all 
you say be considered, the consequence 
seems to be, that it is wrong to wish, or 
pray, for any thing. 

Have advice.] If you will be advised 
what is best to do, I answer 

347. Permit the gods, frc.~] Leave aU 
to the gods ; they know what is best for 
us, and what is most suitable to our cir- 
cumstances and situations. 

349. Instead of pleasant things, 4fc.] 
They can, though we cannot, foresee all 
consequences which will arise, and there- 
fore, instead of bestowing what may be 
pleasing, they will give what is most 
proper, most suitable, and best adapted 
to our welfare ; and this, because mor- 
tals are dearer to them than we are to 
ourselves. Comp. 1 Pet. v. 7. 

350, 1. By the impulse, #<:.] We are 
impelled to wish for things, merely from 
the strong desire we have to possess 
them ; and do not reflect, as we ought, 
on the blindness of our minds, which 
cannot see farther than present things, 
and therefore are led to judge amiss of 
what may be for our good in the end. 

352. Wedlock, and the bringing forth, 
tyc.] We pray for a wife, and that that 
wife may bring forth children ; but the 
gods only can foresee how either the 
wife or children may turn out, conse- 
quently, whether the gratification of our 
wishes may be for our happiness. 

354. Ask something.] In the former 
part of this fine passage the poet speaks 
of leaving all to the gods, in such an 
absolute and unreserved manner, as 
seemingly to exclude the exercise of 
prayer: as to outward things, such as 
power, riches, beauty, and the like, he 
certainly does, inasmuch as these matters 
ought to be left entirely to Providence, 
we not being able to judge about them ; 
and, indeed, as he has shewn throughout 
the preceding part of this Satire, the 
having of these things may prove ruin- 
ous and destructive, therefore are not 
proper subjects either of desire or prayer: 
but now the poet finely shews, that 
there are subjects of prayer, which are 
not only desirable, but to be petitioned 
for, as conducive to our real good and 

Vow in chapels.] Sacellum signifies 
a chapel, a little temple, or perhaps any 
place consecrated to divine worship. 
Here it may signify the sacred shrines 
of their gods, before which they offered 
their vows, prayers, and sacrifices. 

355. Entrails.'] Thebowels, or inwards, 
of animals, which were execta, (unde 
exta,) cut out, and offered in sacrifice. 

Divine puddings, $fc.] Tomacula, or 
tomacla, fromGr. re/jusce, to cut, were pud- 
dings, or sausages, made of the liver and 
flesh of the animal, chopped and mixed 
together, and were called also fammina, 
gut-puddings ; and, like our sausages, 
were made by stuffing a gut taken from 
the animal with the above ingredients. 



Shall men therefore wish for nothing ? If you will have 


For instead of pleasant things, the gods will give whatever 

are fittest. 


the 350 

Impulse of our minds, and by a blind, and great desire, 
Ask wedlock, and the bringing forth of our wife : but to 


Is known, what children, and what sort of a wife she may be. 
However, that you may ask something, and vow in chapels 
Entrails, and the divine puddings of a whitish swine, 355 


Ask a mind, strong, and without the fear of death ; 
Which puts the last stage of life among the gifts of 
Nature ; which can bear any troubles whatsoever ; 
Knows not to be angry; covets nothing; and which thinks 360 

These accompanied the sacrifices, and 
were therefore called divine. 

Whitish su-ine.] This was offered 

to Diana, under the name of Lucina, in 
order to make her propitious to child- 
bearing women, as also on other occa- 
sions. See HOR. lib. iii. ode xxiL 

356. You must pray, S^c."] As if the 
poet had said, " I by no means object 
" either to sacrifices or prayers to the 
" gods, provided what is asked be rea- 
" sonable and good, we cannot be too 
" earnest." 

A sound mind, $e.] q. d. Health of 
body and mind is the first of blessings 
here below ; without a sound mind we 
can neither judge, determine, or act 
aright ; without bodily health there can 
be no enjoyment. 

357. A mind strong, $<] Fortitude, 
by which, unmoved and undismayed, you 
can look upon death without terror. 

358. The last stage, Sfc.] Ultiinum 
spatium, in the chariot and horse-racing, 
signified the space between the last 
bound or mark, and the goal where the 
race ended. Hence, by an easy meta- 
phor, it denotes the latter part of life, 
when we are near our end, and are about 
to finish our course of life. 

So St. Paul, 2 Tim. iv. 7. says, tov Spo- 

Hov TereXeKo, T have finished my course. 

358. 9. Gifts of nature.'] The word 
munus either signifies a gift, or a duty, 
or office. If we take munera, here, in 
the former sense, we must understand 
the poet to mean, that true fortitude, so 
far from fearing death as an evil, looks 
on it as a gift or blessing of nature. So 

A soul that can securely death defy, 
And count it nature's privilege to die. 
In the other sense, we must understand 
the poet to mean, that death will be 
looked upon, by a wise and firm mind, 
as an office, or duty, which all are to 
fulfil, and therefore to be submitted to 
as such, not with fear and dismay, but 
with as much willingness and compla- 
cency, as any other duty which nature 
has laid upon us. 

359. Any troubles, fy\] Any misfor- 
tunes, without murmuring and repining, 
much less sinking under them. 

360. Knou-s not to be angry.~\ Can so 
rule the tempers and passions of the 
soul, as to control, on all occasions, 
those perturbations which arise within, 
and produce a violence of anger. 

Covets notki(j.~\ Being content and 
submissive to the will of Providence, 
desires nothing but what it has, neither 



Herculis serumnas credat, saevosque labores, 
Et Venere, et coenis, et plumis Sardanapali. 
Monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare : SEMITA CERTE 
Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia : sed te 
Nos facimus, Fortuna, deam, coeloque locamus. 

coveting what others have, or uneasy to 
obtain what we ourselves have not. 

361. The toils of Hercules, fy.] Allud- 
ing to what are usually called, the 
twelve labours of Hercules. 

362. Than the lasciviousness, 3fc.] Such 
a mind as has been described esteems 
the greatest sufferings and labours, even 
such as Hercules underwent, more eligi- 
ble than all the pleasures and enjoyments 
of sensuality. 

Sardanapalus.~] The last king of As- 
syria, whose life was such a scene of 
lasciviousness, luxttry, and effeminacy, 
that he fell into the utmost contempt in 
the eyes of his subjects, who revolted ; 
and he, being overcome, made a pile, 
set it on fire, and burnt himself, and his 
most valuable moveables, in it : " The 
" only thing." says Justin, " he ever 
" did like a man." 

As the word venere, in this line, is 
metonymically used for lewdness, or 
lasciviousness, Venus being the goddess 
of these, and cosnis for all manner of 
gluttony and luxury, so plumis may here 
be used to denote softness and effemi- 
nacy of dress. 

Plumae, in one sense, is used some- 
times to denote plates, scales, or span- 
gles, wrought on the armour or accoutre- 
ments of men or horses, one whereof 
was laid upon another. Garments also 
were adorned with gold and purple 
plumage, feather-work. AINW. See 
JEn. xi. L 770, 1. 

363. What yourself may give, SfcJ] 
While others are disquieting themselves, 
and asking for the gratification of their 
foolish and hurtful desires, let me tell 
you the only way to solid peace and 
comfort, and' what it is in your own 
power to bestow upon yourself ; I mean, 
and it is most certainly true, that there 
is no other way to happiness, but in the 
paths of virtue. Comp. Eccl. xiL 13, 
14. The heathen thought that every 
man was the author of his own virtue 
and wisdom ; but there were some at 

Rome, at that time, who could have 
taught Juvenal, that EVERY GOOD 


Jer. x. 23. 

HOR. lib. i. epist. xviii. 1. Ill, 12, 

Sed satis est orare Jovem qui donat et 

Det vitam, del opes, tequum m'l animitm 
ipse parabo. 

Cic. Nat. Deorum, lib. iii. c. xxxvi. 
declares it as a general opinion, that man- 
kind received from the gods the outward 
conveniences of life, virtutem autem 
nemo unquam acceptam Deo retulit ; 
" but virtue none ever yet thought they 
" received from the Deity." And again, 
" this is the persuasion of all, that for- 
" tune is to be had from the gods, wis- 
" dom from ourselves." Again, " who 
" ever thanked the gods for his being a 
" good man ? men pray to Jupiter, not 
" that he would make them just, tempe- 
" rate, wise, but rich and prosperous." 
Thus " they became vain in their ima- 
" gination, and their foolish heart was 
" darkened ; professing themselves to 
" be wise, they became fools." Rom. 
i. 21, 2. 

36'5. You have no deity, %c.~\ If men 
would act prudently and wisely, we 
should no more hear of good or ill luck, 
as if the ciffairs of men were left to the 
disposal of Fortune, or chance, who 
manages them in a way of sport and 
caprice, independently of any endea- 
vours of their own ; ludum insolentem 
ludere pertinax. (See HOR. lib. iii. ode 
xxix. 1. 4952.) The goddess Fortune 
would no longer be a divinity in the eyes 
of mortals, if they were themselves pru- 
dent and careful in the management of 
themselves and their affairs. 

It is not easy to do justice to the word 
numen, in this place, by any single one 
in the English language ; at least I am 
not acquainted with any that can at 



The toils of Hercules, and his cruel labours, better 

Than the lasciviousness, and luxury, and plumes of Sardana- 

I shew what yourself may give to yourself: SURELY THE 



You have no deity, O Fortune, if there be prudence ; but 
Thee AVC make a goddess, and place in heaven. 

once comprehend all its meanings : it 
includes the will, pleasure, and determi- 
nation or decree of a deity; power, au- 
thority; a divine impulse; divine pro- 
tection and favour ; influence ; also a 
deity, a god ; all this the heathen at- 
tributed to their goddess FORTUNE. 

366. Thee we make a goddess, $0.] The 
ancient Greeks and Romans made a 
goddess of Fortune, which is, in reality, 
nothing more than a sudden and unex- 
pected event of things, from FORS, luck, 
chance, hazard. These the heathen, 
who knew not GOD, deified in the ima- 
ginary being FORTUNE, which they sub- 
stituted in the place of that wise, though 
mysterious, government of the world, 
and all things in it, by HIM " whose judg- 
" ments are unsearchable, and whose 
" ways are past finding out ! " He has 
"given to man that wisdom which is 
" profitable to direct" (Eccl. x. 10.) in 
the affairs and concerns of common life ; 
the due and proper exercise of wbich is 
the duty of man towards himself. This 
neglected, leaves him without excuse, 
whatever evil may happen : yet, under 
the strictest exercise of human wisdom 
and prudence, let us remember, that 
disappointment may defeat the ends 
proposed ; this ought to awaken our 
confidence in the SUPREME DISPOSER OF 
ALL EVENTS, who knows what is best 
for us : 

" And that should teach us 

" There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 

u Rough-hew them how we tdll." 

HAMLET, act v. sc. ii. 

The Greeks had many temples dedi- 
cated to fortune, under the name of 
TTXH. Pindar makes her one of the 
destinies, the daughter of Jupiter. An- 
cus Martius, king of the Romans, first 
built a temple at Rome to this deity. 
Servius Tullus also built one at the 
capitol. Afterwards the Romans conse- 
crated temples to her under various 

titles, as Fortuna libera, redux, publica, 
equestris, &. See BROUGHTON, Bibl. 
Hist. Sacr. tit. FORTUNE. 

Horace's description of this goddess, 
and her great power, forms one of the 
most beautiful of his odes. See lib. i. 
ode xxxv. 

O Diva gratum qua regis Antium, 

Pr&sens, S[c. c. 

366. Place in heaven.'] Give her a 
place among the gods. q. d. As things 
are, men are foolish enough to erect 
temples to Fortune, make her a goddess, 
worship her as such, and attribute all 
their miscarriages and troubles, not to 
their own neglect, folly, and mismanage- 
ment, but to the power and influence of 
this imaginary deity. 

For the ideas which the Romans en- 
tertained about the goddess Fortune, 
see sat iii. 1. 39, 40. Sat. vi. 1. 604 

I should observe, that some copies 
read, 1. 365, 

Nullum numen alest, fyc. 

No deity is absent, Sfc. 
As if it were said, that if there be pru- 
dence, that is, if a man acts wisely and 
prudently, all the gods are present with 
him, not one absents himself from him ; 
or, prudence is all-sufficient, and no 
other deity can be wanting. But the 
sense first above given, on the reading 
nullum numen habes, appears to be most 
consonant to the intention of the two 
lines taken together. 

I know not how to end my observa- 
tions on the Tenth Satire of Juvenal, 
without calling it the finest piece, in 
point of composition, matter, and senti- 
ment, which we have derived from hea- 
then antiquity. I should call it inimi- 
tably fine, had not the late Dr. SAMUEL 
OF HUMAN WISHES," appeared ; such 
a copy, of such an original, is rarely to 
be met with. 



The poet takes occasion, from an invitation which he glees to 
his friend Per sicus to dine with him, to commend frugality, 
and to expose and reprehend all manner of intemperance 
and debauchery ; out more particularly the luxury used 

tices at their feasts, and reproves the nobility for making 

ATTICUS eximie si ccenat, lautus habetur : 

Si Rutilus, demens : quid enim majore cachinno 

Excipitur vulgi, quam pauper Apicius ? omnis 

Convictus, thermae, stationes, omne theatrum 

De Rutilo. Nam dum valida ac juvenilia membra 5 

Sufficiunt galese, dumque ardens sanguine, fertur 

(Non cogente quidem, sed nee prohibente Tribune) 

Scripturus leges, et regia verba lanistae. 

Multos porro vides, quos ssepe elusus ad ipsum 

Creditor introitum solet expectare macelli, 10 

Line 1. If Atticus, tyc.] The name of estate in eating and drinking: growing 

a very eminent person in Rome ; but poor and despised, he hanged himself, 

here it is meant to signify any one of See sat. iv. 1. 23. 

great wealth and quality. If such a one 4. Company.'] Convictus signifies a 

gives a great entertainment, it being living together in one house, or at one 

agreeable to his rank and fortune, de- table, and, perhaps, what we call clubs, 

serves not any other name than that of or ordinaries, 

splendour and munificence. Baths.] Thermae, hot baths. These 

2. If Rutilus, $fc.] One, who, by his were much resorted to, and were places 

extravagant gluttony, was reduced to of great gossipping and tattling. See 

the most shameful degree of poverty. sat. vii. 1. 233, and note. 

This, likewise, is here made use of as The stations.] Particular places in 

a common name for all such characters, the city, where idle people used to meet 

If such a one make a splendid feast, and talk together, perhaps about the 

we must call him mad. market-place, or forum ; as in our towns, 

2, 3. A greater laugh, fyc.~] What can where there are commonly a number of 
be a greater subject of ridicule among idle people standing and talking toge- 
the vulgar, than Apicius in rags ? ' ther, in and near the market-place. See 

3. Apicius.] A noted epicure in the AINSW. Statio, No. 6. 

time of Nero ; he spent an immense 5. Of Rutilus.] De about or con- 



lewdness and debauchery the chief est of their pleasures. He 
opposes the temperance and frugality of the greatest men in 
former ages, to the riot and intemperance of the present. 
He concludes with repeating his invitation to his friend, 
advising him to a neglect of all care and disquiet for the 
present, and a moderate use of pleasures for the future. 

IF Atticus sups sumptuously, he is accounted splendid ; 
If Rutilus, inad : for what is received with a greater 
Laugh of the vulgar, than poor Apicius ? every 
Company, the baths, the stations, every theatre, [talk] 
Of Rutilus. For while his strong and youthful limbs 5 
Suffice for a helmet, and while ardent in blood, he is re- 

(The tribune not compelling indeed, but neither prohibiting) 
To be about to write the laws, and princely words of a fencer. 
Moreover, you see many, whom the often-eluded creditor is 

To wait for at the very entrance of the shambles, 10 

cerning Rutilus. q. d. He is the com- 7. The tribune not compelling, &?.] 

mon subject of conversation at all these Hinting, that, though he was not com- 

places. pelled to such a practice of fencing, by 

Youthful limbs, &jc.] While in the the magistracy, as many had been by 
prime of life, and fit to bear arms in the Nero for his inhuman diversion, yet it 
laudable service of his country, he is so was a shame that he was suffered to un- 
reduced to poverty, by his luxury and dertake it, and not advised, or corn- 
extravagance, as to apply himself to the manded, by the magistracy, to the con- 
wretched trade of a fencer, or prize- trary. See sat viii. 193. 
fighter, for bread. 9. You see many, fc.] Such fellows as 

6. He is reported.] Or fertur may Rutilus. 

mean, he is carried, by the necessity of Often-eluded creditor.] Who had 
his circumstances, to copy out the laws, been often promised payment, but de- 
rules, words of command (regia verba), ceived over and over again ; and who 
and other matters of knowledge, neces- in vain had pursued them to coine at 
wry to make him a fencer, that he may his money, 
be thoroughly qualified for the art, 10. Wait for, #<-.] Knowing no place 




Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato est. 
Egregius coenat, meliusque miserrimus horura, 
Et cito casurus jam perlucente ruina. 
Interea gustus elementa per omnia quserunt, 
Nunquam ammo pretiis obstantibus : interius si 
Ergo baud difficile est perituram arcessere summam 
Lancibus oppositis, vel matris imagine fracta ; 
Et quadringentis nummis condire gulosum 
Fictile : sic veniunt ad miscellanea ludi. 
Refert ergo quis hsec eadem paret : in Rutilo nam 
Luxuria est ; in Ventidio laudabile nomen 
Sumit, et a censu famam trahit. Ilium ego jure 
Despiciam, qui scit quanto sublimior Atlas 
Omnibus in Libya sit montibus, hie tamen idem 
Ignoret, quantum ferrata distet ab area 
Sacculus : e coelo descendit, <yv<aQi creaurov, 

so likely to find them at, as in their 
way to market for provisions, at the en- 
trance to which he places himself, in 
hopes to catch th*m, before they had 
spent the little remains of his money 
that he had lent them. 
. 11. The purpose, #<?.] Who have no 
other design, or end of living, but eating 
and drinking. 

12. The most u-retcked, $c.] When 
they are visibly falling into ruin, even 
the most wretched of them will live 
more expensively than ever, thinking, 
perhaps, to put a good face on the mat- 
ter, the better to conceal their situation, 
and thus to maintain their credit some 
little time longer ; or, perhaps, from 
mere desperation, seeing it is too late to 
retrieve their affairs. And they can be 
but ruined. This is no uncommon thing 
in our day. 

14 Meantime,'] While they have any 
thing left 

They seek, &c.] They ransack, as it 
were, earth, air, and water, for flesh of 
beasts, fowl, and fish, for dainties to 
please their taste. 

15. The prices, c.] They never con- 
sider or scruple the price which they are 
to pay ; these do not stand in their 

16. More intimately, fy;.] More closely 
to the dispositions of such. 

Please more, c.] The dish pleases 
best that is dearest bought ; therefore, 

i. e. to gratify their gluttony 

17. It is not difficult.] They make no 
sort of difficulty of procuring money, by 
pawning what they have. 

Be wasted, Sfc.] Which will soon be 
gone, squandered away presently. 

18. Dishes being pawned.] Lanx signi- 
fies, literally, a great broad plate, a deep 
dish, or platter, to serve meat up in. 
Here, by lancibus, perhaps, is to be un- 
derstood his plate in general, his family- 
plate, per synec. This he sends to the 
pawnbrokers to raise money upon for 
the present supply of his extrava- 

Broken image, 8fc.~] A family bust, 
or statue, broken in pieces that it may 
not be known, and pawned for the value 
of the gold or silver only. 

19. Four hundred sesterces, $c.~] When 
so many nunimi are mentioned, sesterces 
(sestertii) are usually understood ; the 
sestertius is often called absolutely num- 
mus, because it was in most frequent 
use.- Also, sestertius nummus, about 
\%d. of our money. See KENNETT, 
book v. part ii. p. 13. Four hundred of 
these (about 21. 10s.) were laid out in 
seasoning a single dish. 

20. Earthen disk.] Having pawned 
their plate, they arc reduced to earthen 
ware. This dish is put here, by meton. 
for its contents. 

To the diet, #c.] Miscellanea a 
mixture of things without any order, a 


And to whom the purpose of living is in the palate alone. 
The most wretched of these, and now soon to fall, (his 
Ruin already being clear,) sups the more elegantly, and the 


Meantime, they seek a relish thro" 1 all the elements, 
The prices never opposing their inclination: if you attend 15 


Therefore it is not difficult to procure a sum that will be 


Dishes being pawned, or a broken image of their mother, 
And, for four hundred sesterces, to season a relishing 
Earthen dish : thus they come o the diet of a prize-fighter. 20 
It importeth, therefore, who may prepare these same things 

for, in Rutilus, 

It is luxury ; in Ventidius a laudable name 
It takes, and derives its fame from his income. I should, 

by right, 

Despise him, who knows how much higher Atlas is 
Than all the mountains in Libya, yet this same person 25 
Be ignorant, how much a little bag differs from an 
Iron chest : KNOW THYSELF descended from heaven, 

gallimawfry, an hotchpotch, such as the tion which is justly bestowed upon it 

sword-players and prize-fighters used to its praise. 

eat. From their dainties they are at last From his income.] From the great 

reduced to the coarse diet, as well as to estate of the giver, who only lives in a 

the mean occupation, of a common prize- magnificence suitable to his income, 
fighter. See 1. 5, and note 2. 23, 4. By right, despise, fie.] Or justly, 

Ludi, for ludii, the gen. of ludius, a for he deserves it 

stage-player, dancer, sword-player, and 24. Atlas.] See sat. viii. 1. 32, note, 
the like, who plays on a stage. 26. A little bag.] Sacculus a little bag, 

21. It importeth, therefore.] q. d. pouch, or purse, in which money is put. 
Therefore, that we may judge aright, 27. Iron chest.] The rich used to keep 
and not indiscriminately, it importeth their money in large chests armed with 
us to consider, who gives the entertain- iron, to prevent their being broken open 
ment, what are his circumstances ; for and robbed. 

that may be praiseworthy in those who The poet means, that if a man has 
can afford it, which is highly vicious, sense enough to distinguish the size of 
and blameable, in those who cannot. Atlas from that of other mountains which 
In Rutilus.] Above mentioned. See are inferior in size, and, at the same time, 
note on 1. 2. To live splendidly, would, is foolish enough not to see the difference 
in such a one as Rutilus, deserve the between his own narrow circumstances 
name of extravagance and luxury, be- and the fortunes of the rich, so as to re- 
cause he is poor, and can't afford it. gulate his manner of living accordingly, 

22. Ventidius.] A noble Roman, who he is very deserving of the utmost con- 
lived hospitably. tempt. 

A laudable name.] The entertain- Know thyself.] rvtaOt fffavrof. This 

ments given by such a one are deservedly was a saying of Chilon the Lacedaemo- 

stylod generous and magnificent. nian, and a very important one ; for on 

23. Derives its fame.] The commenda- self-knowledge depends all other that 
VOL. n. E 



Figendum, et meinori tractandum pectore, sive 
Conjugium quseras, vel sacri in parte senatus 
Esse velis. Nee enim loricam poscit Achillis 
Thersites, in qua se traducebat Ulysses 
Ancipitem. Seu tu magno discrimine causam 
Protegere affectas ; te consule, die tibi quis sis ; 
Orator vehemens, an Curtius, an Matho. ISuccae 
Noscenda est mensura tuse, spectandaque rebus 
In summis, minimisque ; etiam cum piscis emetur : 
Nee mullum cupias, cum sit tibi gobio tantum 
In loculis : quis enim te, deficiente crumena, 
Et crescente gula, manet exitus ; a?re paterno, 
Ac rebus mersis in ventrem, foenoris atque 
Argenti gravis, et pecorum agrorumque capaccm \ 
Talibus a dominis post cuncta novissimus exit 
Annulus, et digito mendicat Pollio nudo. 
Non prsematuri cineres, nee funus acerbum 

can contribute to the right management 
and direction of human life : for no man, 
endowed with this, would plunge himself 
into difficulties, by undertaking what is 
beyond the reach of his abilities, either of 
mind, body, or estate. This apophthegm 
of Chilo's was, with others, written up in 
golden letters at the temple of Apollo, at 
Delphos, and was therefore believed to 
come from heaven. Not but it is very 
sound theology, to say, that, to have the 
veil of pride and self-love taken away, 
so that we know ourselves aright, is the 
gift of God, and the foundation of all 
true and saving knowledge. See Jer. 
xvii. 9, 10. 

28. Fixed, and revolved, <3fc.] As a con- 
stant maxim, and principle of action, 
and, as such, we should ever be mindful 
of it Tracto lit. signifies to handle, 
which, in a mental sense, by analogy, 
may signify to revolve in the mind. 

29. Wedlock.] This instance of private 
and domestic concern may stand also for 
all others of the like kind, in which self- 
knowledge is highly profitable to direct 

30. Senate.] If you wish to be a se- 
nator, you ought to know yourself, that 
you may be able to judge whether you 
are fit for such an office ; for nothing can 
be more pernicious to the state than un- 
able statesmen, as well as disgraceful to 
those who are so. 

Thersites.] See sat. viii. 1. 269, 

note. Such a fellow as this could never 
think of contending for the armour of 
Achilles, or of making a third with 
Ulysses and Ajax in the dispute r.bont 
it : he knew himself too well. 

31. Exposed himself.] To ridicule, as 
the daw in the fable exposed itself to 
the derision of the other birds, when it 
had dressed itself in the borrowed 
plumes of the peacock. See Aixsw. 
Traduco, No. 5. 

32. Doubtful.] As to his appearance, 
when he had the armour of Achilles on, 
no longer bearing his own semblanc-o. 
Others give this passage another turn, 
and make it express the modesty of 
Ulysses, who shewed himself doubtful 
whether he should demand the armour 
or not, looking upon himself as unworthy 
to wear it. So FARNAB. 

32. 3. Great difficulty.] Where the 
controversy is very hazardous and diffi- 
cult, and the cause requires an able ad- 
vocate to defend it. 

33. Consult thyself.] Before you un- 
dertake, consult well your abilities for it. 

Tell thyself, fyc.] After much self- 
examination, let your own conscience 
answer, and tell you what manner of 
man you are. 

34. A vehement orator.] Eloquent and 

Or Curtius.] Montanus, a man of 
very middling abilities. 

Or Matho.] See sat. i. 1. 32, and 



To be fixed, and revolved in the mindful breast, whether 

You may seek wedlock, or would be in a part of 

The sacred senate. For Thersites does not demand the so 

Breast-plate of Achilles, in which Ulysses exposed himself 

Doubtful. Or whether you may affect to defend acauseingreat 

Difficulty ; consult thyself, tell thyself who thou art, 

A vehement orator, or Curtius, or Matho. The measure of 

Your abilities is to be known, and regarded in the greatest, 35 

And in the least affairs ; even when a fish shall be bought : 

Nor should you desire a mullet when you have only a gudgeon 

In your purse : for what end awaits thee, your purse failing, 

Your gluttony increasing : your paternal fortune. 

And substance, sunk in your belly, capable of containing 40 

Interest and principal, and fields and flocks ? 

From such masters, after all, last goes forth 

The ring, and Pollio begs with a naked finger. 

Ashes are not premature, nor is a funeral bitter 

note ; vii. 129. a fellow of no abilities, 
who, not succeeding at the bar, turned 
spy and informer. 

35. Your abilities, $c.] Buccae lit 
cheek, here (by synec.) put for the 
whole mouth, through which we speak ; 
and this, for speaking itself, by metonym. 
The poet means, that the extent of a 
man's capacity should be considered, if 
he intends to plead at the bar ; he should 
know his own powers of eloquence, and 
act accordingly. 

Regarded.'} This attention to the fit- 
ness of a man for what he undertakes 
should be regarded in all concerns what- 
soever, from the highest to the lowest. 

36. A fid, <fc] When he goes to the 
fish market, if his purse will only afford 
him a gudgeon, he should not think of 
buying so dear a fish as a mullet ; *. e. a 
man should always proportion his ex- 
pences to his pocket. 

38. What end, $c.] What must in- 
creasing expence and gluttony, and a 
decreasing and failing purse, end in ? 

40. In your belly.] Your patrimony, 
both in goods and land, all spent to gra- 
tify your luxury and gluttony, all swal- 
lowed up by your voracious appetite. 

Capable of containing, S[c.] Not only 
the interest and principal of what the fa- 
ther left in personal estate, but also all 
liis land, and stock thereon, into the 

By argenti gravis (joined with foeno- 
ris, which signifies interest upon money 
lent) the principal money itself may be 
understood. Or the epithet gravis may 
here signify the best silver money, in 
contradistinction to the tenue argentum, 
venaeque secundae, sat. ix. 31. 

Many interpret argenti gravis to de- 
note silver in the rude heavy mass. 

42. Such masters.] i. c. Owners, pos- 

After cM, $c.] When all else is 
spent and gone. 

43. The ring.'] The mark of honour 
and distinction wore by Roman knights. 
They must be driven very hard to part 
with this ; but having, by their extrava- 
gance, reduced themselves below the for- 
tune and rank of the equestrian order, 
they have no right to claim it, or to 
wear the badge of it 

Pollio.] He was brought to that 
pass by his gluttony, that he was forced 
to sell his ring, and then beg for a 

Naked finger.'] His finger bare, be- 
reft of the ring which he used to wear . 
upon it 

44. Ashes, 3fc.] Death never comes 
too soon ; the funeral pile, which reduces 
them to ashes, is never bitter to such 
as these, whose maxim is, " a short life 
" and a merry one," or, " let us eat and 
" drink, for to-morrow WP die." 




Luxurise, sed morte magis metuenda senectus. 
Hi plerumque gradus : conducta pecunia Romae, 
Et coram dominis consumitur : inde ubi paulum 
Nescio quid superest, et pallet foenoris auctor, 
Qui vertere solum, Baias, et ad Ostia currunt. 
Cedere naraque foi-o jam non tibi deterius, quam 
Esquilias a ferventi migrare Suburra. 
Ille dolor solus patriam fugientibus, ilia 
Mosstitia est, caruisse anno Circensibus uno. 
Sanguinis in facie non ha?ret gutta ; morantur 
Pauci ridiculum, et fugientem ex urbe pudorem. 

Experiere hodie numquid pulcherrima dictu, 
Persice, non prsestem vita, nee moribus, et re ; 
Sed laudem siliquas occultus ganeo, pultes 
Coram aliis dictem puero ; sed in aure placentas. 
Nam, cum sis conviva mihi promissus, habebis 
Evandrum, venies Tirynthius, aut minor illo 
Hospes, et ipse tamen contingens sanguine coelum ; 
Alter aquis, alter flammis ad sidera missus. 




45. To luxury.] To gluttons and spend- 

More to be feared, $fe.] Because it 
can be attended with nothing but poverty 
and disease. 

46. Ofttimes the steps.] Plerumque 
for the most part, most commonly, the 
degrees by which they proceed. 

Borrowed at Rome.'] They first take 
up money at Rome. 

47. Before the oivners.] Spent before 
the face of the late owners, i. e. of the 
people who lent it. 

When a little, Sfc.] Before it is all 
gone, and they have just enough to carry 
them off, whatever the sum may be I 
don't know 

48. The usurer.'] Lit. the increaser 
of interest ; the money-lender ; who, 
perhaps, may have taken such an ad- 
vantage of their necessities, as to make 
them pay interest upon interest 

Is pale.'] With the fear of losing all 

49. Changed the soil.'] Vertere solum, 
signifies to run one's country. Cic. pro 
domo. Those who have made off. 

Baite, and to Ostia.] See sat. iii. 1. 4. 
and sat. viii. 171, n. 2. from whence 
they might take shipping, and make 
their escape into some other country. 

50. For, to depart, ^c.] To run away 

from Rome for debt is so common, that 
there is no more discredit in it, than 
changing the hot street of the Suburra 
(see sat. iii. v.) for the cool air of the 
Esquilian hill. See sat. v. 1. 77, 8. 
Foro is here put, by synec. for Rome 
itself. Or to depart from the forum, 
may imply their running away from 

53. Circensian games, $c.] These peo- 
ple have no other sorrow, or regret, at 
flying their country, than arises from 
their not being able to partake of the 
public diversions during their absence. 
See sat. iii. 1. 223, note. 

54. Drop of blood, fyc.] They have lost 
all shame, they cannot blush. 

54, 5. Detain modesty, Sfc.] The virtue 
of modesty is laughed at and ridiculed : 
she is, as it were, taking her flight from 
the city, and very few are for stopping 
her, or delaying her retreat. 

56. This day, fycJ] When you are to 
dine with me. 

Eaperience, fyc.~\ i. e. You shall be 
convinced, by your own experience, 
whether I am an hypocrite, saying one 
thing and doing another ; and while I 
have been laying down such fair and 
becoming rules of economy, in what I 
have been saying, I practise them not, 
in fact, neither with respect to my way 



To luxury, but old age more to be feared than death. 45 

These are ofttimes the steps : money is borrowed at Rome, 

And consumed before the owners : then, when a little, 

I don't know what, is left, and the usurer is pale, 

Those who have changed the soil, run to Baise, and to Ostia. 

For, to depart from the forum, is ngt worse to you, than so 

To migrate to Esquilise from the hot Suburra. 

That is the only grief to those who fly their country, that 

The sorrow, to have been deprived of the Circensian games 

for one year. 

Not a drop of blood sticks in the face, few detain 
Modesty, ridiculous and flying out of the city. 55 

You shall this day experience, whether things most fair 
In word, Persicus, I cannot practise, neither in my life, nor 

in my morals, and in deed ; 

But, a secret glutton, I can praise pulse, order water-gruel 
To the servant before others, but, in his ear, cakes. 
For, since you are a promised guest to me, you shall have GO 
Evander, you shall come Tirynthius, or a guest less 
Than he, and yet be akin to heaven in blood, 
The one sent to the stars by water, the other by flames. 

of life, nor my moral conduct Re in 
reality. TER. And. act v. sc. i. 1. 5. 

58. Pulse.] Siliquas denotes bean or 
pea-pods, or the like ; also the pulse 
contained therein ; it stands for frugal 
and homely diet in general. 

Water-ffruel.] Pultes. Puls signi- 
fies a kind of diet which the ancients 
used, made of meal and water sodden 
together. This also stands here for any 
thing of that homely kind. 

59. Cakes.} These were dainties made 
with honey and other sweatmeats. HOR. 
Ep. lib. LxL 11, 12. says, 

l.i'i'i recuso, 

Pane egeojam, metUtis potiore placentis. 

I nauseate honied cakes, and long for 
bread. FRANCIS. 

You shall see, says the poet, whether 
I am a glutton in secret, though profess- 
edly abstemious ; whether I recommend 
a meal of herbs, yet secretly gormandize 
on dainties ; and when before company 
I order my servant to bring some home- 
ly fare, I secretly whisper him to bring 
some very luscious and delicate food. 

60. Promised yuest.] Since you have 
promised to be my guest at dinner. 

You shall have, fy.] i.e. You shall 
find in me 

61. EranderJ] A king of Arcadia, who, 
having accidentally slain his father, sailed 
into Italy, and possessed himself of the 
place where afterwards Rome was built. 
He entertained Hercules, and hospitably 
received TEneas when he landed in Ita- 
ly. See VIRG. JEn. viii. 154, et seq. 

Tirynthius.'] A name of Hercules, 
the son of Jupiter and Alcmena ; he 
being born at Tiryns, a city of Pelopon- 
nesus, he was therefore called Tiryn- 

A ffitest less, %c.] Meaning .flEneas, 
inferior in birth. 

62. Yet he akin, frc.] JEneas was the 
son of Anchises and the goddess Ve- 

63. By water.] jEneas was drowned 
in the Numicus, a river in Italy, which 
on that account was fabulously conse- 

The other hi/ flames.} Hercules burnt 
himself to death on mount (Eta, in 

The poet seems to mean, that Perei- 
cus, his friend, should, on his coining 
to dine with him, find him another 



Fercula nunc audi nullis ornata macellis : 
De Tiburtino veniet pinguissimus agro 
Hcedulus, et toto grege mollior, inscius herbae, 
Necdum ausus virgas humilis mordere salicti ; 
Qui plus lactis habet quam sanguinis ; et montani 
Asparagi, posito quos legit villica fuso. 
Grandia prseterea, tortoque calentia foeno 
Ova adsunt ipsis cum matribus; et servatse 
Parti anni, quales fuerant in vitibus uvse : 
Signinum, Syriumque pyrum : de corbibus isdera 
j^Emula Picenis, et odoris mala recentis, 
Nee metuenda tibi, siccatum frigore postquam 
Autumnum, et crudi posuere pericula succi. 
Hsec olim nostri jam luxuriosa senatus 
Coena fuit : Curius, parvo quse legerat horto, 
Ipse focis brevibus ponebat oluscula : quse nunc 
Squallidus in magna fastidit compede fossor, 
Qui rneminit, calidse sapiat quid vulva popinse. 


Evander with respect to the homeliness 
and simplicity of his entertainment ; and 
that Persicus might consider himself as 
Hercules, or Mneas, or indeed both, 
with regard to the welcome he would 
find, and the hospitable reception he 
would meet with. 

64. Now hear, <3fc.] Now hear your 
bill of fare, not a single article of which 
is furnished from the butcher's or poul- 
terer's. Macellum signifies a market 
for all manner of provisions. 

65. Tiburtinefarm.~] Tibur, a pleasant 
city of Italy, situate on the river Anio, 
about sixteen miles from Rome ; in the 
neighbourhood of this, Juvenal had a 
farm. See Hon. Od. lib. i. ode vii. et 

66. Ignorant of grass.} Never suffered 
to graze, but, like our house-lamb, fatted 
by suckling. 

67. Nor yet da 
browse on the t 

kids are very fond of, but they are apt 
to make the flesh bitter. 

68. 9. Mountain asparaguses.] Some 
wild sorts that grew on the mountains, 
inferior in flavour to the asparagus alti- 
lis, or that which was carefully cultivated 
in garden-beds. Asparagi, plur. may 
mean the young shoots of herbs that are 
to be eaten. See sat. v. 81, note. 

69. Bailiff" 1 ! wife, $fc.] The feminine 

yet dariny.~\ Or attempting to 
he twigs of the willow, which 

of villicus, a steward or bailiff, signifies 
the wife of such a one, a fanner's wife, 
and the like. The asparagus gotten for 
the dinner was not of the sort which is 
raised at a great expence, and gathered 
by people kept for such purposes, but 
the wild sort, and gathered by a woman, 
who at other times was employed in 

70. Eggs warm, $c.~\ Large new-laid 
eggs, brought in the nest, which was 
made of hay twisted together. 

71. Are added.-} i. e. To the bill of 

With the mothers, #c.] The same 
hens that laid them. 

72. Grapes, ^c.] Preserved for some 
time after their being gathered, so as to 
look quite fresh, as much so as when 
they were upon the vines. 

73. The Signian.~] Signia was a town 
in Italy, famous for pears and for rough 
wines : 

Spumans immiti Signia musto. 

SIL. viii. 380. 

Tlie Syrian pear.} These came from 
Tarentum, a city of Calabria, but were 
originally brought from Syria. 

74. Apples, rivals to the PiceneJ] Ho- 
race says, that the apples from Tibur 
were not so good as the Picene. 

Picenis eedunt pornis Tiburtui succo. 
Lib. ii. sat iv. 70. 



Now hear of dishes furnished from no shambles : 
There shall come, from my Tiburtine farm, the fattest 65 
Young kid, and more tender than all the flock, ignorant of 


Nor yet daring to bite the twig of the low willow : 
Which has more of milk than blood. And mountain 
Asparaguses, which my bailings wife gathered, laying her 

spindle aside. 

Great eggs besides, warm in the twisted hay, 70 

Are added, with the mothers themselves ; and, kept for a 
Part of the year, grapes, such as they were upon the vines : 
The Signian and Syrian pear : from the same baskets 
Apples, rivals to the Picene, and of a recent odour, 
Nor to be feared by you, after they have laid aside 75 

The autumn, dried by cold, and the dangers of a crude juice. 
This, a long time ago, was the luxurious supper of the 
Senate : Curius put small herbs, which he had gathered in his 
Little garden, over his small fire : which now 
A dirty digger, in a large fetter, despises, 80 

Who remembers how the sow^s womb of a cook^s hot shop 

can relish. 

Therefore it was a high commendation 
of his apples, to say they rivalled those 
of Picenum. 

Recent odour.] Smelling as fresh 

as if just gathered. 

75. To be feared, .] You need not 
fear to eat them, since the cruder juices 
which they have in autumn are dried 
away, and now they arc mellowed by 
the cold of winter, so that you are in 
no danger from the sour and unripened 
juice of them, as you might be if you 
ate them in autumn, soon after they are 

By autumnum (succum understood) is 
here meant the autumnal juice of the 
apple, which is crude, and apt to offend 
the stomach. See autumnus-a-um. 


77. A long time ago.] Jam olim </. d. 
The senators of Rome would, in old 
times, not only have been content with 
such a supper as the above, but even 
have thought it luxury. 

78. <7n*.] Dentatus. When the 
imiUissadore of the Samnites came to 
him, they found him boiling some pot 
ii< ills over the fire. Sec sat ii. 1. 153, 

80. A dirty digger, $c.] Slaves who 
had committed certain crimes, were put 
in irons, and made to dig in mines, or 
in the fields, or in stone-quarries. See 
sat viii. 179, 80. 

HI. Win, rcmemlj<>rs,tfc.'] Who still re- 
tains the remembrance of his going into 
a cook's shop, and feasting on a sow's 
womb which was dressed there. 

The paps of a sow with pig, together 
with a part of the belly, cut off from the 
animal, and dressed with proper season- 
ing, was a favourite dish among the 
Romans. Another favourite dish was 
the womb of a sow with pig. If this were 
taken from her while pregnant, it was 
called ejectitia: if after she had far- 
rowed, porcaria ; the former was reck- 
oned the most delicious. See HOR. lib. 
i. epist. xv. 1. 41. PLINY, lib. viii. c. 
51, says this was forbidden by the cen- 

Such homely and frugal fare, as 
pleased that great man Curius, is now, 
such is the state of luxury among all 
ranks of people, contemned even by 
the lowest and most abject slaves, who, 
in their better days, remember to have 
tasted fashionable dainties. 



Sicci terga suis, rara pendentia crate, 

Moris erat quondam festis servare diebus, 

Et natalitium cognatis ponere lardum, 

Accedente nova, si quam dabat hostia, carne. 85 

Cognatorum aliquis titulo ter Consulis, atque 

Castorum imperiis, et Dictatoris honore 

Functus, ad has epulas solito maturius ibat, 

Erectum domito referens a monte ligonem. 

Cum tremerent autem Fabios, durumque Catonem, 90 

Et Scauros, et Fabricios, rigidique severos 

Censoris mores etiam collega timeret ; 

Nenio inter curas, et seria duxit habendum, 

Qualis in oceani fluctu testudo nataret, 

Clarum Trojugenis factura ac nobile fulcrum : 95 

Sed nudo latere, et parvis frons aerea lectis 

Vile coronati caput ostendebat aselli, 

82. The back, $&] What we call a 
flitch of bacon. 

Wide rack.} Crates signifies a grate, 
whatever it be made of ; if of wood, we 
call it a rack, which consists of a frame, 
in which are inserted bars of wood at 
distances from each other, and used in 
keeping bacon. The word rani inti- 
mates, that the bars were few, and at 
large distances from each other. 

83. For festal days.} High days and 
holidays, as we say ; as a great treat. 

84. Bacon.~\ Lardum (quasi large ari- 
dum.) Sometimes this signifies bacon, 
sometimes the lard or fat of bacon. 
Here, perhaps, what we call a rasher, i. e. 
a slice of fat bacon broiled. 

Birth-day feast.] Natalitium signi- 
fies a gift, or present, sent to one on his 
birth-day, or an entertainment made for 
one's friends and relations on such an 

85. Fresh meat acceding.'} To this, per- 
haps, some new or fresh killed meat was 

If the sacrifice, fyc.} If they offered 
a sacrifice, and any flesh of the victim 
remained to spare, it was reckoned and 
prized as an accidental rarity. 

86. Sortie one of the kindred.} i. e. Of 
the person's kinsmen who made the 
feast Perhaps he alludes particularly 
here to Curius above mentioned, who 
was thrice consul, and a great general : 
he beat Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, and 

drove him out of Italy ; and was remark- 
able for his courage, honesty, and fru- 
gality. See AINSW. 

87. The honour of dictator.} This was a 
chief magistrate, chosen on some urgent 
occasion, whose power was absolute, 
from whom lay no appeal: his office 
was limited to six months, when there 
was a new election, either continuing 
the same, or choosing a new one. The 
dictator differed in nothing from a king, 
but in his name, and in the duratiowof 
his power. 

88. Went to these feasts.} Homely as 
they were as to a sumptuous treat 

Sooner than usual.} Leaving their 
work before the usual hour. 

89. His erect spade.} Raised high by 
being carried on his shoulder. 

Subdued mountain.} Where he had 
been at work, digging the soil, and sub- 
duing its stubbornness, rendering it fit 
for the purposes of agriculture. 

OVID, Met xi. 31. uses the word 
subigere in this sense : 

Boves presso subigebant vomere terram. 

VIRG. G. ii. 1. 114. uses the word 
domitum to denote the cultivation of 

Aspice et extremis domitum cultoribus 

90. Trembled, $c.} In old time, when 
the people stood in awe of great and 
good men. 

Fabii, fy.} These names stand here 



The back of a dry swine, hanging on a wide rack, 
It was the custom formerly to keep for festal days, 
And to set bacon, a birth-day feast, before relations, 
Fresh meat acceding, if the sacrifice afforded any. 85 

Some one of the kindred, with the title of thrice consul, and 
Who the commands of camps, and the honour of dictator 
Had discharged, went to these feasts sooner than usual, 
Bringing back his erect spade from a subdued mountain. 
But when they trembled at the Fabii, and severe Cato, 90 
And the Scauri, and Fabricii, and the severe manners 
Of a rigid censor, even his colleague feared ; 
Nobody esteemed it to be reckoned among his cares, and se- 
rious concerns, 

What sort of tortoise might swim in the waves of the sea, 
About to make a famous and noble couch for the Trojugenae: 
But with a naked side, and on small beds, a brazen front 96 
Shewed the vile head of an ass wearing a garland, 

not only as personally referring to the 
great men mentioned, but referring also 
to all the grave and virtuous magistrates 
of old times, who, like them, reproved 
and censured vice. 

Fabius was the name of a noble family 
in Rome, many of which had borne great 
offices with the highest credit. They 
are often mentioned by our poet. 

Severe Cato.~\ Cato, called Censorius, 
is here meant, who was so called for his 
gravity and strictness in his censor- 

91. The Scauri.} See sat. ii. 1. 35, 

Fabricii.'] The name of a family, 
of which was C. Fabricius Luscinus, a 
famous consul, who conquered Pyrrhus 
king of Epirus. One of this name was 
also censor. See sat. ix. 142. 

92. His colleague feared.] Alluding to 
Fabius Maximus, who found fault with 
his colleague P. Decius, for being too 
remiss in his office of censor. See sat. 
ii. 1. 121, note 2. 

93. Nobody, $e.] No one thought it 
worth their care, or a matter of serious 

94. What sort of tortoise, fyc.~] Whe- 
ther small or great. But in the days 
of the poet, when luxury was risen to 
a great height, people of fashion were 
very anxious to inlay their furniture, 
and particularly the couches which they 

lay upon at their entertainments, with 
the largest and finest pieces of tortoise- 
shell, to get at which, they spared no 
pains or expence. See sat. vi. 1. 380, 
and note. 

95. Couch, $c.] Fulcrum literally sig- 
nifies a stay or prop ; but, by synec. is 
used for the couch or bed itself, (see 
sat. vi. L 22.) which was inlaid and 
adorned in the most expensive and 
splendid manner. 

The Trojugente.] The nobles whom 
the poet here, and elsewhere, satirically 
calls Trojugenae, because they boasted 
their descent from the ancient Trojans, 
the first founders of the Roman empire 
after the siege of Troy. See sat i. 
1. 100, note. 

96. Naked side.] Their couches had 
plain and ordinary sides, or sides which 
had no backs rising from them, to lean 
upon for their ease. 

Small beds.'] They were frugal even 
in the size of their couches. 

A brazen front, $fe.] Having no 
other ornament than a plain piece of 
brass in front, with an ass's head, 
crowned with a garland, fixed, or, 
perhaps, carved upon it. This, from a 
superstition which prevailed in Tuscany, 
that it operated as a charm to protect 
their lands from damage, and made them 
fruitful, used ordinarily to be hung up 
in their fields and gardens. 



Ad quod lascivi ludebant ruris alumni. 

Tales ergo cibi, qualis domus atque supellex. 

Tune rudis, et Grraias mirari nescius artes, 100 

Urbibus eversis, prsedarum in parte reperta, 

Magnorum artificum frangebat pocula miles, 

Ut phaleris gauderet equus, cselataque cassis 

Roinulese simulacra ferae mansuescere jussio 

Imperii fato, et geminos sub mpe Quirinos, 105 

Ac nudam effigiem clypeo fulgentis et hasta, 

Pendentisque Dei, perituro ostenderet hosti. 

Argenti quod erat, solis fulgebat in armis. 

Ponebant igitur Tusco farrata catino 

Omnia tune ; quibus invideas, si lividulus sis. no 

Templorum quoque majestas prsesentior, et vox 

Nocte fere media, mediamque audita per urbem, 

Littore ab oceani Grallis venientibus, et Dis 

98. Wfiich.] The ass's head, when 
hung out in the fields, &c. 

Boys of the country, <5fc.] Was 
laughed at by the rustic children, who 
made sport at his awkward appearance. 
It may be doubted, whether the orna- 
ment of the ass's head crowned with a 
garland, perhaps of vine leaves, and put, 
or carved it may be, on the ancient 
festal couches, had not some reference to 
Bacchus and his foster-father Silenus, 
the former of which was the supposed 
inventor of wine, and represented with 
a thyrsus, and garlands of vine leaves ; 
the other, as a drunken old man, riding 
upon an ass. 

99. Stick was their food, fc.] *'. e. They 
were all of a piece, as we say. 

100. Then rude.] The soldier in those 
days was rough and hardy, and unskilled 
in the refinements of luxury. 

Unknowing, fc.] The Romans co- 
pied their luxury from the Greeks, the 
imitation of whom was, among them, as 
fashionable as of the French among us. 
See sat. iii. 1. 60, 1. where the poet 
speaks of this with the highest indigna- 

101. Cities being overturned.} When 
besieged towns were taken, and plun- 

A found part, fyc.~] i. e. In some 
part of a heap of spoils which the 
soldier met with in his plundering the 

102. Brake the cups, $<?.] When the 

rude and unpolished soldier possessed 
himself of vessels, curiously embossed or 
engraved by the hands of some of the 
chief Grecian artists, so far from prizing 
them, he brake them to pieces, in order 
to adorn his horse, as with pompous 

103. Embossed Mmct.~] The soldier 
having found some fine large pieces of 
plate, with the designs under mentioned 
wrought upon it, brake out the figures, 
and fastened them to his helmet, that he 
might exhibit them to the eyes of a van- 
quished enemy, whom he was going to 
put to the sword, as ensigns of triumph. 

104. Likenesses, $c.] Of the wolf 
which suckled Romulus and Remus of 
Romulus and Remus, and of the god 

Commanded to grow tame.~\ So as 
not only not to hurt the two children, 
but to nourish them with her milk. 

105. Fate of the empire.] That destiny, 
which had appointed Romulus to be the 
founder of the city and commonwealth 
of Rome, ordered also the means of his 
preservation when an infant, by ordain- 
ing that a savage beast should grow 

Under a rock.} The figures of the 
two brothers were described as lying 
under a rock, and sucking the she- wolf. 

Ticin Quirim, $c.] Romulus and 
Remus are here understood, though the 
name of Quirinus was given to Romulus 
only, after his consecration. The Roman 



At which the wanton boys of the country made a jest. 
Therefore such was their food, as was their house, and the 

furniture ; 

Then rude, and unknowing to admire the Grecian arts, 100 
Cities being overturned, in a found part of the spoils, 
The soldier brake the cups of great artificers, 
That his horse might rejoice in trappings, and that the em- 
bossed helmet 

Likenesses of the Romulean wild-beasts, commanded to grow 
tame 104 

By the fate of the empire, and under a rock the twin Quirini, 
And a naked image of the god (shining with shield and 
Spear, and impending) might shew to the foe about to perish. 
What was of silver, shone in arms alone. 
Therefore, they then put all their food of corn in a Tuscan 
Dish; which you would envy, were you a little envious, no 
The majesty of the temples was also more present, and a voice 
Almost in the midst of the night, and heard thro 1 the midst 

of the city, 
The Gauls coming from the shore of the ocean, and the gods, 

people were also called Quirites. See 
sat. iii. 1. 60, note. 

106. A naked image, $c.] The image 
of Mars, the father and founder of the 
Roman name. 

107. Impending.] Pendentias hang- 
ing or hovering over the children as their 
protector, with his glittering shield and 

Might shew, $c.] q. d. That the 
embossed helmet might exhibit to the 
foe about to die, the likenesses, &c. 

108. What wu of silver, fc.] All the 
silver gotten in war was only made use 
of to adorn their military .accoutrements. 

109. Food of corn.'] Farrata signifies 
all sorts of food made of corn, and here 
stands for the coarse and homely food 
of the ancient Romans, before luxury 
got in among them. 

109, 10. Tuscan dish.] i. e. Earthen 
ware, which was made at Aretum, a city 
of Tuscany ; vessels made of it were 
called, therefore, vasa Aretina. 

A retina nimis ne spernas rasa mone- 


Lautus erat Ttiscis Porserta fictilibus. 
MART. lib. xiv. ep. 98. 

110. Would enry, Sp.] Though the 
luxury of our pnwnt times has taught 
us to despibe such things, yet if we had 

lived then, we should have been ready 
to envy their plain but wholesome fare, 
and the happiness which our ancestors 
derived from their plain, frugal, and 
homely way of living. 

A little envious.] Lividulus. 7. d. If 
you had had a spark of envy in your 
disposition, it would have been excited." 

111. The majesty, <<.] i e. The ma- 
jesty of the gods in the temples. Me- 

More present] More propitious, 
more ready to help. 

A voice, 3fc.] Alluding to the history 
of M. Creditius, a plebeian, who ac- 
quainted the tribunes, that, as he was 
going along by the temple of Vesta, at 
midnfght, he heard a voice, louder than 
human, say, " the Gauls are coming," 
and commanded him to tell the magis- 
trates of this, that they might be warned 
of the danger. 

113. Shore of the ocean.'] i. e. From 
the sea-shore, after having made a de- 
scent upon Italy, under Brennus, who 
was the commander of the Galli Senones, 
they routed the Romans at the river Al- 
lia, marched to Rome, and took it : but 
they were afterwards defeated, and driven 
out of Italy by Camillus, who was called 
from exile, and made dictator. 



Officium vatis peragentibus, his monuit nos. 

Hanc rebus Latiis curam prsestare solebat 115 

Fictilis, et nullo violatus Jupiter auro. 

Ilia domi natas, nostraque ex arbore mensas 

Tempora viderunt : hos lignum stabat in usus, 

Annosam si forte nucem dejecerat Eurus. 

At nunc divitibus coenandi nulla voluptas, i-jo 

Nil rhombus, nil dama sapit : putere videntur 

Unguenta, atque rosse ; latos nisi sustinet orbes 

Grande ebur, et magno sublimis pardus hiatu, 

Dentibus ex illis, quos mittit porta Syenes, 

Et Mauri celeres, et Mauro obscurior Indus, 125 

Et quos deposuit Nabathaeo bellua saltu, 

Jam nimios, capitique graves : hinc surgit orexis, 

Hinc stomacho vites : nam pes argenteus illis, 

Annulus in digito quod ferreus. Ergo superbum 

Convivam caveo, qui me sibi comparat, et res 130 

Despicit exiguas ; adeo nulla uncia nobis 

114. Office of a prophet.] By thus 
warning the Romans of their approach- 
ing danger. This was particularly the 
business of augurs, soothsayers, &c. 

By tJtese.] q. d. The voice gave 
warning of the enemy's approach, by 
these means (his) i. e. by the gods, who 
acted prophetically towards us. 

115. 16. Latian affairs.] The affairs 
of Italy, anciently called Latium. 

116. Fictile.} Fictilis earthen ware. 
In those days of plainness and simpli- 
city, when the images of Jupiter, and of 
the other gods, were made of potters' 

Polluted by no gold.] i. e. Before he 
had fine statues made out of the gold 
which had been taken by rapine and 
plunder. Comp. sat. iii. 1. 20. 

117. These times.] Of ancient simpli- 

Home-born tables, 3fc.] Our ances- 
tors did not send into foreign countries 
for materials to make tables, as it is now 
the fashion to do : they were content with 
the wood of their own trees. 

118. Stood, $c.] Was received and 
applied to make such household furniture 
as was wanted. 

119. Nut-tree.] All fruits that have 
an hard shell are called nuces, such as 
almonds, walnuts, and the like. So the 
nucem, here, may signify any tree bear- 

ing such fruits ; probably a walnut-tree 
is meant 

121. Venison.] Dama signifies a fallow 
deer, either buck or doe: here it denotes 
the flesh which we call venison. 

The ointments.] Of perfume, with 
which they anointed their hair at their 
convivial meetings. See HOR. lib. iii. 
ode xxix. 1. 3, 4, 5. 

122. Roses.] They made garlands and 
wreaths of roses and other flowers, which 
the guests wore on these occasions. 
See HOR. ubi supr. and see ode the last, 
lib. i. 

123. Ivory sustains, fyc.] Unless their 
tables, which were of a round form, 
(orbes) were set on huge pedestals of 
ivory. The circumference meant by 
orbes, is here put for the tables them- 
selves. Synec. 

A lofty leopard, fyc.] The figure of a 
great leopard carved in ivory, put by 
way of pedestal to support the table. 

A great y ape.] His jaws represented 
as stretched wide open. 

124. Those teeth.] Elephants' teeth. 
ThegateofSyene.] Porta is here put, 

as denoting Syene to be the door, or 
gate, as it were, through which, from the 
island, the passage lay into Egypt, and 
thence to Rome. Syene was the metro- 
polis of an island of that name ; and this 
island was called lasula Elephantina, 



Performing the office of a prophet, warned us by these. 

This care Jupiter was wont to afford the Latian U5 

Affairs, fictile, and polluted by no gold. 

Those times home-born tables, and out of our own tree, those 

Times saw : the wood stood for these uses, 

If haply the east- wind had thrown down an old nut-tree. 

But now there is no pleasure of supping, to the rich 120 

The turbot, the venison is tasteless, the ointments 

Seem to stink, and the roses ; unless the wide orbs large 

Ivory sustains, and a lofty leopard, with a great gape, 

Out of those teeth, which the gate of Syene sends, 

And the swift Moors, and the Indian darker than the Moors, 

And which a beast has deposited in a Nabathaean forest, 126 

Now too much and too heavy for his head : hence arises 


Hence strength to the stomach : for a silver foot to them, 
Is what an iron ring would be upon the finger. Therefore 

the proud 

Guest I am aware of, who compares me to himself, and de- 
spises 130 
My little affairs; insomuch that I have not an ounce of ivory, 

from the number of its elephants. It 
belonged to Egypt, and bordered on 
Ethiopia. He uses the word porta here, 
as Horace uses janua, when speaking of 
the city of Cumae, as to be passed in the 
way to Baiae. Sat. iii. 4. 

Janua Baiarum est. 

125. Swift A/bors.] The poet is de- 
scribing the places from whence the ele- 
phants came. Many came from Mau- 
ritania, the inhabitants whereof were 
called Mauri, who were remarkable for 
their swiftness and activity. 

The Indian.] The largest elephants 
came from India. 

Darker, $c.] Of a blacker colour 
or complexion. 

126. A beast has deposited, 3fc.] Bellua 
signifies any great beast ; here, ele- 
phant. These animals shed their teeth, 
which are often found. 

NabatJuean forest.'} Some forest of 
Arabia, which was called Nabathaea, 
from Nebith, the first-born of Ismael, 
the supposed father of the Arabs. 

127. Too much and too heavy, $c.] The 
teeth of elephants grow to an enormous 
size and weight so as to be burthensome 
to the animal when grown old, till they 
drop out through age. 

Hence arises appetite, fc.] Orexis, 
from Gr. opeyu, appeto, cupio. The 
sight of this fine ivory is a sort of whet 
to their appetite, (comp. L 121, 2.) gives 
vigour to the stomach. 

128. A silver foot, <*.] A table set 
upon a foot made of silver they would 
scorn, as much as to wear a ring made 
of iron, instead of gold, upon their fin- 
ger. The Romans were very anxious to 
appear with fine rings, and were so lux- 
urious as to have different sorts for sum- 
mer and winter. See sat L 28, 29. sat 
vii. 140, 1. 

129. 30. Proud guest, $c.] Who 
can't sit down to a plain meal upon a 
plain table, but expects dainties set upon 

130. Who compares, fc.] Who mea- 
sures my fortune and expences by his 
own, and expects me to entertain him as 
he entertains others. 

131. Little a/airs.] My plain and fru- 
gal manner of living, according to the 
smallness of my fortune. 

Insomuch that, 3fe.] I am so much 
(adeo), so totally without a single ounce 
of ivory, that even the squares of my 
chess-board are without it, nor is one of 
the chess-men made of it. 


Est eboris, nee tessellee, nee calculus ex hac 
Materia ; quin ipsa manubria cultellorum 
Ossea : non tamen his nlla unquam opsonia fiunt 
Rancidula ; aut ideo pejor gallina secatur, 
Sed nee structor erit, cui cedere debeat omnis 
Pergula, discipulus Trypheri doctoris, apud quern 
Sumine cum magno lepus, atque aper, atque pygargus, 
Et Scythicse volucres, et Phoenicopterus ingens, 
Et Graetulus orix, hebeti lautissima ferro 
Caeditur, et tota sonat ulmea coena Suburra. 
Nee frustum caprese subducere, nee latus Afrae 
Novit avis noster tirunculus, ac rudis omni 
Tempore, et exiguas frustis imbutus ofellse. 
Plebeios calices, et paucis assibus emptos 
Porriget incultus puer, atque a frigore tutus ; 
Non Phryx, aut Lycius, non a mangone petitus 
Quisquam erit, et magno : cum poscis, posce Latine. 
Idem habitus cunctis, tonsi, rectique capilli, 



Tessella is a small square stone, or 
piece of wood, with which they make 
chequer- work in tables, or boards. Here, 
probably, tessellae means the chequers of 
a chess-board. 

Calculus signifies a little pebble, or 
gravel-stone, with which they marked ; 
hence calculi, chess-men, table-men. 

The game of chess is much more an- 
cient than the days of Juvenal ; it is a 
common opinion that it was invented 
by Palamede at the siege of Troy. See 
CHAMBERS, art. Chess. 

134. Yet by these, $c.] Though the 
handles of my knives are made of bone, 
yet my victuals suffer no damage, but 
taste as well, and are carved as well, 
as if my knife-handles were made of 

136. A carver.] It was, among other 
instances of luxury, a fashion to have an 
artist, who had been taught to carve 
dexterously, at their entertainments : 
he, as well as the sewer who set on the 
dishes, was called structor, from struo, 
to prepare, or make ready. 

School.] Pergula here signifies a 
place where the professors of any art, or 
science, taught their scholars publicly. 
I know not that we have an English 
word which exactly expresses it : in this 
sense of it, school, or academy, may 
come the nearest. 

137. Doctor TrypJierus.] He was emi- 
nent for his skill in carving, which he 
taught in a public school ; hence Juve- 
nal ludicrously calls him doctor. 

138. A large sumen.] The udder of a 
sow, with the paps and part of the 
belly, cut from her the day after she has 
farrowed. See 1. 81, note. 

Pygarg.~] A sort of deer ; perhaps 
a roe-buck. 

139. Scythian birds.] It is thought 
that pheasants are^meant here ; but the 
description is too vague to be certain 
what birds are precisely meant. 

Phcenicopter.] So called from Gr. 
QoiviKtos, crimson, and irrepof, a wing ; 
bird, having its wings of a crimson co- 
lour. The tongue of this bird was 
a great dainty among the Romans. 

Dat mihi penna rubens nomen : sed 

lingua gtilosis 
Nostra sapit. 

MART, epigr.lxxi. lib. xiii. 

140. GeetuUan goat.] Orix, a sort of 
wild goat, from Gsetulia, a country of 

Blunt iron.] Some large knife, or 
some chopping instrument of iron, worn 
blunt with constant use. 

141. Made of elm, $c.] Trypherus had 
all kind of provision for a feast made in 
wood, as the best material for the con- 
veniency of teaching ; the hacking and 



Nor are my squares, nor a chess-man of this 

Material : nay the very handles of my knives 

Are of bone : yet by these no victuals ever become 

Hank ; or is, therefore, a hen cut the worse. 135 

Nor shall there be a carver, to whom every school ought 

To yield, a disciple of doctor Trypherus, at whose house 

An hare with a large sumen, and a boar, and a pvgarg, 

And Scythian birds, and a huge Phomicopter, 139 

And a Gaetulian goat, most delicious things, with a blunt iron 

Are cut, and the feast made of elm sounds thro 1 all the 


Neither to take off a piece of a roe, nor the side of an African 
Bird, does my little novice know, and always rude, 
And accustomed to the broken pieces of a little steak. 
Plebeian cups, and bought for a few pence, 145 

The homely boy, and safe from cold, shall reach forth. 
There shall not be Phrygian or Lycian, nor any bought from 
A slave-merchant, and costly : when you ask, ask in Latin. 
The same habit is to all, the hair cropped and straight, 

hewing of which, among the scholars, 
must have made no small noise. 

Thro" 1 all tfie Suburra.] A very 

public street in Rome, often mentioned 
before. The idea of carving being erected 
into a science, and taught by a public 
professor, but exercising his pupils on 
wooden subjects, is truly ludicrous. See 
sat. v. 121, note. 

142. To take ofc |r.] To carve ac- 
cording to art 

142. 3. The side of an African bird.} 
Tin 1 wing of a turkey. This bird came 
from Xumidia, a country of Africa, 
hence called gallus Numidicus. To take 
off the wing (as we will the pinion, and 
part of the breast) of a roasted bird, with- 
out leaving some part behind, is reckoned 
to require some skill in carving. 

143. My little novice.} Tirunculus 
(dim. from tyro) signifies a young soldier, 
scholar, or a young beginner, in any 
science. Here it describes Juvenal's 
buy ;:> lately come out of the country, 
and beginning to learn his business. 

Always rude.} Untaught from his 
cradle to this hour. 

144. Accustomed.} Used only perhaps 
to cut a piece off a collop, or steak, of 
some plain meat. 

1 4.. Plc'-eian cujts.] Such as the com- 
mon people nsp. 

146. Homely boy, <Sfc.] Incultus here, 
perhaps, rather means meanly dressed, 
not trimmed up, not spruce ; and yet so 
clad as to keep him warm, to secure him 
from the cold A frigore tutus. 

Reach forth.} Porriget here de- 
scribes the act of the servant, when he 
brings what is called for, and reaches or 
holds it forth to the guest, that he may 
take it. See sat. i. 70 ; and sat. v. 1. C>7. 

\^T. Phrygian Lycian, %c.] The no- 
bility of Rome purchased elegant and 
handsome slaves, which were brought 
from Phrygia and Lycia, countries of 
Asia, by merchants who made it their 
business to traffic in slaves, and who, by 
using all arts to set them off to the best 
advantage, sold them at an extravagant 
price. These dealers were called man- 
gones, because they painted the slaves, 
to make them look the better, and sell 
the dearer ; from Gr. na.yyai>ov,a deceit 
by some contrivance, such as witchcraft. 
See Aixsw. Or disguising a thing to 
make it look better than it is. 

148. Ask in Latin.] For my poor boy 
understands no other language ; there- 
fore, when you ask, or call, for what 
you want, do it in Latin, or he won't 
understand vou. 

149. The' same habit, $c.] All my 
servants are dressed and appear alike. 


Atque hodie t'antum propter con vi via pexi. iso 

Pastoris duri est hie filius, ille bubulci ; 

Suspirat longo non visam tempore matrem, 

Et casulam, et notos trisiis desiderat hoedos : 

Ingenui vultus puer, ingenuique pudoris, 

Quales esse decet, quos ardens purpura vestit. 155 

Nee pugillares defert in balnea raucus 

Testiculos, nee vellendas jam prsebuit alas ; 

Crassa nee opposite pavidus tegit inguina gutto. 

Hie tibi vina dabit diffusa in montibus illis, 

A quibus ipse venit, quorum sub vertice lusit : IGO 

Namque una atque eadem est vini patria, atque ministri. 

Forsitau expectes, ut Gaditana canoro 

Incipiat prurire choro, plausuque probatse 

Ad terrain tremulo descendant clune puellse. 

Spectant hoc nuptse, juxta recubante marito, 165 

Quod pudeat narrasse aliquem prsesentibus ipsis ; 

Irritamentum Veneris languentis, et acres 

Divitis urtica3 : major tamen ista voluptas 

Alterius sexus : magis ilia incenditur, et mox 

Auribus atque oculis concepta urina movetur. 170 

Non capit has nugas humilis domus : audiat ille 

Testarum crepitus cum verbis, nudum olido stans 

1 49. Cropped and straight.'] Not long This was called praetexta, and those 
and curled, like the fashionable waiters who wore it praetextati. It was worn 
at table. also by magistrates, and other noble 

150. Combed only, &;c.~] On this occa- persons, as a mark or badge of honour, 
sion, indeed, their hair is combed out, See sat. i. 1. 78, note ; and sat. ii. 1. 
with a little more care than usual, that 170, note ; and sat. x. 99. 

they may appear neat and decent. So 156. Nor, lioarse."] Alluding to the 

HOR. sat. viii. lib. ii. 1. 69, 70. change of the voice in boys at the age 

Ut omnes of puberty. 

Preecincti recte pueri, comptique mini- 157. In the baths.'] Where youths ex- 

strent. posed their naked persons, for purposes 

1 53. Little cottage.'] Where he was too horrid to explain. 

born and brought up. Comp. sat. ix. 159. Give you wine.'] This modest boy 

1. 60, 1. of mine shall wait upon you at supper, 

Known kids.} Which he used to and serve you. 

tend and play with. With wine from his own country 

154. Ingenuous countenance, 3fC.] An brouffht ; and made 

honest countenance, and a genuine un- From the same vines, beneath whose 

affected modesty. fruitful shade 

155. Such as it becomes, $fe.] q. d. It He and his wanton kids have often 
would be well if the same could be said played. CONGREVE. 
of our young nobility. 162. A Gaditanian.~] A Spanish girl 

Glowing purple.] Alluding to the from Gades, now Cadiz. Sat. x. 1, note, 

white robe, faced and trimmed with 162, 3. Tuneful company.] An usual 

purple, which was worn by the young part of the entertainment, when great 

nobility till seventeen years of age. men feasted, was to have wanton women 


And to-day comVd only an account of our feast. 150 

One is the son of an hardy shepherd, the other of an herdsman; 
He sighs after his mother, not seen for a long time, 
And sad, longs for the little cottage, and the known kids. 
Alad of an ingenuous countenance, and of ingenuous modesty, 
Such as it becomes those to be, whom glowing purple clothes. 
Nor, hoarse, does he expose himself, 156 

With indecency, when naked in the baths, 
Nor, fearful, practise means to hide his nakedness. 
He shall give you wine made in those mountains 
From whence himself comes, under the top of which he played: 
For the country of my wine, and of my servant, are one and 
the same. 161 

Perhaps you may expect, that a Gaditanian, with a tuneful 
Company, may begin to wanton, and girls approved with ap- 

Lower themselves to the ground in a lascivious manner. 
Married women behold this, their husbands lying by, 165 
Which it mayshame any one to have related,they being present; 
A provocative of languishing desire, and sharp incentives 
Of a rich man : yet that is a greater pleasure 
Of the other sex, it is most affected by it, and soon 
The eyes and ears are contaminated to a great degree. 170 
An humble house does not contain these follies : let him hear 
The noise of shells, with words, from which a naked slave 

dance and sing in a lascivious manner, incentives to his palled and depraved 

This custom was probably appetites. 

163. Approved.] i. e. Encouraged by 169. The oilier sea-.] Women are most 
the applause of the company. delighted with such scenes as these. 

164. Lower, $c] By degrees, and at Neither here, any more than throughout 
last seat themselves on the ground. the sixth Satire, does Juvenal conceal or 

1 (Jo. TJteir husbands lying by.] The spare the faults of the ladies of his time, 

husband and wife are here supposed to 170. The eyes and ears.] The former, 

be both invited to the entertainment, by beholding the lewd gestures ; the 

and both, from the couches on which latter, by hearing the obscene songs of 

they lay at meals, beholding these inde- the dancing women, 

cencies, which were so great as not even 171. An humble house, $c] A small 

to be related, without shame, (praesen- estate is not capable of throwing away 

tibus ipsis) in their presence. ezpence on such follies. 

Which bridles do by their husband^s side Let tern.] i.c. The rich and luxu- 

betold, rious ; so, ille fruatur, 1. 173. 

Tko* shameful btfore them to be but 172. The noise of shells.] These were, 

told. HOLYDAY. probably, shells jingled together in their 

167. A provocative, Sfc.] To stir up hands as they danced, like the Spanish 

the enfeebled passions. castanets. 

SJiarj) incentives.] See urtica, used With words] With obscene songs 

in a similar sense, sat. ii. 128. accompanying. 

I'M!. A ri,-h mn.] Who can afford From whicb, %c.] i. e. Which a 

the e.\]K'iice of such scene* as these, and common prostitute, standing naked in a 

is profligate enough to use them as brothel, would l>e ashamed to utter. 

VOL. n. F 



Fornice mancipium quibus abstinet : ille fruatur 

Vocibus obscoenis, omnique libidinis arte, 

Qui Laced gemonium pytismate lubricat orbem ; 175 

Namque ibi fortunse veniam damus. Alea turpis, 

Turpe et adulterium mediocribus : hsec tamen illi 

Omnia cum faciant, hilares nitidique vocantur. 

Nostra dabunt alios hodie convivia ludos : 

Conditor Iliados cantabitur, atque Maronis 180 

Altisoni dubiam facientia carmina palmam : 

Quid refert, tales versus qua voce legantur? 

Sed nunc dilatis averte negotia curis, 

Et gratam requiem dona tibi, quando licebit 

Per totam cessare diem : non foenoris ulla 185 

Mentio ; nee, prima si luce egressa reverti 

Nocte solet, tacito bilem tibi contrahat uxor, 

Humida suspectis referens multitia rugis, 

Vexatasque comas, et vultum, auremque calentem. 

Protinus ante meum, quicquid dolet, exue limen: 190 

The common harlots in the brothels were 
slaves, purchased for that purpose by 
the leno, or pander ; they were his 
property, and therefore Juvenal calls 
one of these mancipium, which signifies 
a thing or person bought and made 

175. Who lubricates, <$rc.] Pytisma 
(from Gr. irrva, spuo, to spit) signifies 
a spirting out of wine betwixt the 
teeth when we taste it, or a throwing 
out of the bottom of the cup on the 
floor. AINSW. 

The Lacedaemonian orb.] The Ro- 
mans were very fond of fine pavements, 
or floors, made of marble, and inlaid 
with various kinds of it ; among the 
rest, some came from Sparta, in small 
round forms, which were inserted in 
their proper places by way of ornament. 
When they had an entertainment, it 
was given in a room thus ornamented 
with a fine inlaid marble floor, on which 
the master of the house, and the guests, 
when they met at a feast, scrupled not 
to spirt their wine, or throw out, as the 
custom was, the bottom of the cup. 

This, among the numerous readings 
and comments which learned men have 
given of this much controverted line, 
seems to be the best interpretation, be- 
cause it nearly coincides with a passage 
in Horace to the same purpose : 

Absumet liares ceecuba dignior 
Servata centum clavibus; et mero 

Tinget pavimentum superbum 

Pontificum potiore ccenis, 

Lib. ii. od. xiv. 1. 25, &c. 

Then shall the worthier heir discharge, 
And set tV imprisoned casks at large, 

And dye the floor with wine : 
So rich and precious not the feasts 
Of pontiffs cheer their ravished guests, 

With liquor more divine. FRANCIS. 

The various reading of this line 175, 
as well as the various senses given, may 
be seen by consulting the various com- 
mentators in the Leyden quarto edit. 
1695. See also Hon. Delph. on the 
above ode. 

The poet's meaning is, that such 
scenes of obscenity, and such arts of 
lewdness, are only fit to be enjoyed by 
professed sensualists. 

176. There we give, $c.~] In the case 
of a rich libertine, we make all due al- 
lowance for his large fortune, and don't 
blame his excesses, as we do those of 
people in a lower class of life. 

The die is base, fycJ] Gaming is 
reckoned very scandalous, adultery vile 
and abominable, in plebeians. 

177. When they do,Sfc.'] When people 
of quality and of large fortunes practise 
these things, they are looked upon as 



Standing in a stinking brothel abstains ; let him enjoy 

Obscene expressions, and all the art of lewdness, 174 

Who lubricates the Lacedaemonian orb with spirting wine, 

For there we give allowance to fortune. The die is base, 

Adultery is base in middling people : yet when they do 

All these things, they are called joyous and polite. 

Our feast to-day will give us other sports : 

The author of the Iliad shall be repeated, and of lofty Maro 

The verses making a doubtful palm. 181 

What does it signify with what voice such verses maybe read? 

But now leave oft* business, your cares deferrM, 

And give yourself grateful rest, since you may 

Be idle throughout the whole day : of interest-money 185 

No mention ; nor, if gone forth at day-break, she is wont 

To be returned at night, let your wife provoke you, silent, 

to anger, 

Bringing back her fine garments with suspected wrinkles, 
Her hair disordered and her countenance and ears glowing. 
Immediately put off before my threshold whatever grieves : 

instances of cheerfulness and elegance ; 
in short, as gentlemanlike qualifications. 

179. Other sports.} Amusements of a 
different kind than those above men- 

180. Author of the Iliad, Sfc.] -Homer 
parts of his Iliad shall be repeated. 
Canto may perhaps imply, that the Ro- 
mans read, or repeated verses, in a sort 
of chant or singing. See sat vii. 153, 

Lofty Maro.~\ Virgil. He derived 
the surname of Maro from his father ; 
he was the most sublime of all the Latin 

181. A doubtful palm.'] The palm, or 
chaplet, made of palm-twigs and leaves, 
was a token of victory. 

Juvenal means to say, that it was 
doubtful which of the two excelled, Ho- 
mer or Virgil. See sat. vi. 435, 6. 

182. With rvluit voice, %c.] With what 
tone of voice i. e. so intrinsically valua- 
ble and excellent are the verses of these 
authors, that they can't lose their value, 
though read or repeated by ever so in- 
different a toned voice. This line also 
seems to imply that verses were usually 
chanted or sung. 


// matters not u-ith what ill tone they're 

Verse so srtblimely good, no voice can 

183. Leave off business.'] Lay it quite 
aside ; think not of it. 

Cares deferred.] All cares put off for 
the present. 

185. Idle, <<.] Having nothing else 
to do, but to enjoy yourself all the day 
long at my house. 

Interest-money.] No talk of money 

186. Nor, if, 4-c.] Though, like many 
other husbands, you suffer from the ir- 
regularities of your wife. 

187. Provoke you, $c.] Don't let the 
thoughts of this vex you, or let her 
make you angry, or tempt you to say a 
single word upon the subject, though, as 
the two next lines import, you should 
have found the most evident and unde- 
niable circumstances of her guilt. Con- 
trahat bilem tibi lit. contract, or draw 
together, choler to you. 

188. Fine garments.] Multitia, or 
multicia garments wrought so fine 
that the body might be seen through 
them. See sat ii. 1. 56. 

190. Put off, <Sf<\] Exue ; a meta- 
phorical expression, taken from put- 
ting off clothes, &c. Divest yourself 
of all uneasiness at entering my 

F 2 



Pone domum, et servos, et quicquid frangitur illis, 


Interea Megalesiacae spectacula mappse 

Idseum solenne colunt, similisque triumpho 

Perda caballorum Prsetor sedet : ac (mihi pace 195 

Immensae nimiseque licet si dicere plebis) 

Totam hodie Bomam Circus capit ; et fragor aurem 

Percutit, eventum viridis quo colligo panni. 

Nam si deficeret, moestam attonitarnque videres 

Hanc urbem, veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis 200 

Consulibus. Spectent juvenes, quos clamor, et audax 

Sponsio, quos culta? decet assedisse puellae : 

Nostra bibat vernum contracts cuticula solem, 

Effugiatque togam : jam nunc in balnea salva 

Fronte licet vadas, quanquam solida hora supersit 205 

191. Lay aside, #c.] Pono also signi- 
fies to put off as clothes. He desires 
his friend to lay aside, or put off, all 
his domestic uneasiness, arising from 
the mischief or misconduct of servants. 

192. Ungrateful friends.] Which are 
the bitterest trials of all. 

193. Meantime.'] This invitation of 
the poet to his friend was on a holiday, 
or day of the pubic games beginning. 

Spectacles.] The shows or games. 

Megalesian towel.] At the Circen- 
sian and Megalesian games, they hung 
out a towel (mappa) to shew that the 
sports were going to begin. Nero in- 
troduced this custom ; for hearing, as 
he sat at dinner, how impatiently the 
people expected his coming, he threw 
out at the window the towel with which 
he wiped his hands, to give the people 
notice that he had dined, and would 
soon be at the circus. Ever since this, 
the beginning of these games wai an- 
nounced by hanging out a towel. 

The Megalesian games were in honour 
of Cybele, the mother of the gods. She 
was called peyaKvi MTJTIJP, magna Mater, 
and from thence these games Megalesia, 
or ludi Megalenses ; they began on the 
fourth of April, and lasted six days. 

194. Idaean solemnity."] Cybele was 
called Idaja, from Ida, a mountain of 
Phrygia, where she was worshipped ; 
and hence her festival was called Idaeum 

195. The praetor, a tkstroycr, $c.] He 

was an officer not unlike our mayor or 
sheriff. Sat. i. 101, note. He was to 
oversee these sports, and sat in great 
state, while they were acting, to the de- 
struction of many horses, which were 
spoiled on the occasion. See sat. x. 
1. 3640. 

Many are for reading praedo, and sup- 
pose it to denote the praetor's acting 
sometimes unjustly, and determining the 
prizes wrongfully, taking them from the 
winning horses, and giving them to the 
losers, by which he might be said to rob 
the winners of their due. 

Others think the word praedo is used 
as a jest upon the praetor's fine trappings 
and gaudy dress on the occasion, as if 
he had robbed the horses of their finery 
to put upon himself. 

There are other conceits upon this 
subject, but perda seems to give the 
most natural sense of the passage. I am, 
therefore, with Salmasius and others, for 
adopting it 

If with the peace, Sfc.] If with their 
good leave I may take the liberty of 
saying so much without offence. The 
poet here lashes the Roman people for 
their great eagerness to crowd after 
these shows, as if they thought nothing 
else worthy their attention. Sat. x. 1. 

197. The. circus.] Where those games 
were celebrated. 

A noise strikes, fyc.] I hear a great 
shout, as of victory, which makes me 



Lay aside home, and servants, and whatever is broken by 


Meantime, the spectacles of the Megalesian towel 
Grace the Idajan solemnity, and, like as in triumph, 
The prsetor, a destroyer of horses, sits : and (if with the 

peace 195 

Of such an immense and superabundant crowd I might say it) 
This day the circus contains all Rome, and a noise strikes 
My ear, from whence I gather the event of the green cloth. 
For if it should fail, sad and amazed would you see 
This city, as when the consuls were conquered in the dust 200 
Of Canna?. Let youths behold, whom clamour, and a bold 
Wager becomes, and to sit by a neat girl. 
Let our contracted skin drink the vernal sun, 
And avoid the gown : even now to the baths, with a safe 
Countenance you may go, tho 1 a whole hour should remain 205 

suppose that the race is determined on 
the behalf of some favourite competitor. 
19H. Tftc green cloth.'] The four par- 
ties, which ran chariot races in the cir- 
cus, were divided in several liveries, viz. 
green, russet, blue, and white. One of 
these factions was always favoured by 
the court, and, at this time, more proba- 
bly, the green ; which makes Juvenal 
fancy that he hears the shouts for joy, 
that their party had won the race. 

199. Should fail.] If the green cloth 
should fail of the prize, or if the festival, 
which occasioned the celebration of these 
games, should be laid aside, and these 
shows fail, or cease. 

200. Tliis city.] The people of Rome 
would be ready to break their hearts 
reflecting on their immoderate fondness 
for these shows. 

The consuls.] Paulus jEmilius and 
Terentius Varro. 

201. Canna.'] A small town, near 
which Hannibal obtained a great victory 
over the Romans. See sat. x. 1. 164, 

Let youths behold.] i. c. Be spectators 
of these shows. 

Wfiom clamour, fyc.] Who may, 
without any indecency, make as much 
noise as they please in clapping and 
hallooing, and lay what bets they please 
on the side they take. 

202. By a neat girl, c.] By this we 

see that men and women sat promiscu- 
ously together on these occasions. Sec 
sat. iii. 1. 65, and note. 

203. Contracted skin.] Once smooth, 
but now through age contracted into 

Drink the vernal sun.] Let us avoid 
these crowds, and bask in the reviving 
rays of the sun, which now is bringing 
on the delightful spring. This was in 
the beginning of April. See above, note 
on 1. 193, ad fin. 

204. Avoid the. gmcnl\ The gown was 
the common habit of the Romans, inso- 
much that VIRG. JEn. i. 286, calls them 
gentem togatam. The poet, by togam, 
here means the people that wore it, by 
metonym. i. e. The Romans now crowd- 
ing to the games let us keep out of 
their way, that we may enjoy ourselves 
in quiet. 

204, 5. Safe countenance, $c.] With- 
out fear of being put out of countenance. 
The Ronifins used to follow their busi- 
ness till noon, that is, the sixth hour, 
our twelve o'clock ; and then to the 
ninth hour, our three o'clock in the 
afternoon, they exercised and bathed 
themselves, and then went to their 
meals : but to do these sooner than the 
appointed hours was allowed only on 
festival days, or to persons aged and 
infirm ; otherwise, to be seen going to 
the baths before the usual appointed 


Ad sextain. . Facere hoc non possis quinque diebus 
Continuis : quia sunt talis quoque taedia vitae 

hour was reckoned scandalous. See sat. 207. Such a life.'] Of ease and volup- 

L 1. 49, and note. tuousness. 

206. You could not, #r.] t. e. Frequent 208. Rarer use, fyc.~] The poet con- 
feasts, and indulge in idleness ; however eludes with a general sentiment, very 
these may be occasionally pleasant, a applicable to all pleasures of sense, 
continuance of them for a week together which, by continual use, pall and grow 
would grow irksome. tiresome : 


To the sixth. You could not do this for five days 
Successively : for the fatigues of such a life also 

For frequent use vxtuld the delight ex- like sentiment : 

dude, If all the year were playing holidays, 

Pleasure's a toil when constantly pur- To sport would be as tedious as to 

sued. CONCREVE. work ; 

Shakespeare, 2d part of Hen. IV. But when they seldom come, they wish''d- 

act L scene 2. has finely .expressed the for come. 



The Poet having invited Corvinus to assist at a sacrifice, which 
he intended to offer up by way of thanksgiving for the safety 
of his friend Catullus from the danger of the seas, professes 
his disinterestedness on the occasion, and, from thence, takes 

NATALI, Corvine, die mihi dulcior hsec lux, 

Qua festus promissa Deis animalia cespes 

Expectat : niveam Reginse ceedimus agnam : 

Par vellus dabitur pugnanti Gforgone Maura. 

Sed procul extensum petulans quatit hostia funem, 5 

Tarpeio servata Jovi, frontemque coruscat : 

Quippe ferox, vitulus, templis maturus et arse, 

Spargendusque mero ; quern jam pudet ubera matris 

Ducere, qui vexat nascenti robora cornu. 

Line 1. This day.~\ On which I am 
going to offer sacrifices, on account of 
my friend Catullus, the merchant's 
escape from the dangers of the. sea, 

Corvinus.'} Juvenal's friend, to 
whom this Satire is addressed. 

Birthday.] Which was a day of 
great festivity among the Romans ; they 
celebrated it yearly, offering thanksgiv- 
ing-offerings to the gods, and made feasts, 
to which they invited their friends, who 
made them presents on the occasion. 
See sat. xi. 84, note. See HOR. ode xi. 
lib. iv. 1. 120. VIRG. eel. iii. 1. 76. 

2. Festal turf.] The altar of green turf, 
which our poet had built-on the occasion, 
thus suiting his devotion to his circum- 
stances. Comp. HOR. lib. iii. od. viii. 
1. 24. 

The animals promised.'] i. e. To be 
offered in sacrifice to the gods. 

3. Queen."] Juno, the queen of the 

gods. See yEn. i. 1. 50. Tho fabled 
wife of Jupiter, the supreme deity of 
the Romans. 

A snowy lamb.'] They offered white 
animals to the superior gods, black to 
the inferior. See HOR. lib. i. sat. viii. 
L 27; and VIRGIL, JEn. iv. 1. 61. 

4. Equal fleece.] A like fleece, i. e. & 
white one ; or fleece, here, may, by sy- 
nec. be put for the whole animal offered ; 
a like offering. 

Minerva.'] Lit. the fighter with the 
Moorish gorgon. The gorgons were sup- 
posed to be three, who inhabited near 
mount Atlas, in Mauritania. Medusa is 
said to have been beloved by Neptune, 
who lay with her in the temple of 
Minerva, at which the goddess, being 
angry, changed the hair of Medusa into 
serpents, and so ordered it, that whoever 
beheld her should be turned into stone. 
She was killed by Perseus, the son of 



an opportunity to lash the Hceridepetce, or Legacy-hunters, 
who flattered and paid their court to rich men, in hopes of 
becoming their heirs. 

THIS day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than my birth-day, 

In which the festal turf expects the animals promised 

To the gods : we kill to the queen a snowy lamb : 

An equal fleece shall be given to Minerva. 

But the petulant victim shakes his long extended rope, 5 

Kept for Tarpeian Jove, and brandishes his forehead : 

For it is a stout calf, ripe for the temples and altar, 

And to be sprinkled with wine ; which is now ashamed to 

Its mother's dugs, and teazes the oaks with its budding horn. 

Jupiter and Danae, (with the help of joint, in the hinder leg. 

Minerva,) as she lay asleep, who cut off 8. Sprinkled, fe.] They used to pour 

her head : this was afterwards placed in wine on the head of the sacrifices, be- 

the a?gis, or shield, of Minerva. tween the horns. So VIRG. JEn. iv. 1. 

Hyginus says, that Medusa was not 60, 1. 

slain by Perseus, but by Minerva. Bri- Ipsa tenens deatra pateram pulcher- 

tannic. in loc. rima Dido, 

Sometimes the head of Medusa was Candcntis vaccae media inter cornua 

supposed to be worn in the breast-plate fundit. 

of Minerva. See JEn. viii. 1. 435 8. Hence the Greek epigram on the vine 

5. Petulant victim, fc.] The wanton- and the goat 

ness and friskiness of the calf leading K'TJV ^ <f>ayys r>r fna.v <5/uo>y. en 

along in a rope is here very naturally /cop7ro<popj<ra> 

described. ''Otrffov firi(Twfiffai <rot, Tpayf, 6vofifvu. 

6. Tarpeian Jove.] On the mons Ca- ANTHOL. ep. i. 
pitolinus, otherwise called the Tarpeitin u T/iottffh thou eatest me down to the 
hill, from the vestal virgin Tarpeiii, who " very root, yet I shall bear fruit 
betrayed it to the Sabines, Jupiter had " Sufficient to pour on thee, O (/out, 
a temple, whence his titles ; Tarpeian ** when thou art sacrificed.' 1 '' 

and Capitob'ne. 8. Is now ashamed, <:.] Hath left off 

7. Ripc,&;c.] The beasts were reckoned sucking; is grown above it. 

of a proper age and size for sacrifice, 9. Teazes, fyc.] It is usual for the 

when the tail reached the hough, or young of all horned animals to butt 



Si res ampla domi, similisque aiFectibus esset, 10 

Pinguior Hispulla traheretur taurus, et ipsa 

Moie piger, nee finitima nutritus in herba, 

Lseta sed ostendens Clitumni pascua sanguis 

Iret, et a grandi cervix ferienda ministro, 

Ob reditum trepidantis adhuc, horrendaque passi 15 

Nuper, et incolumem sese mirantis amici. 

Nam prseter pelagi casus, et fulguris ictum 

Evasi, densae cesium abscondere tenebrae 

Nube una, subitusque antennas impulit ignis ; 

Cum se quisque illo percussum crederet, et mox 20 

Attonitus nullum conferri posse putaret 

Naufragium velis ardentibus. Omnia fiunt 

Talia, tarn graviter, si quando poetica surgit 

Tempestas. Genus ecce aliud discriminis : audi, 

Et miserere iterum, quanquam sint csetera sortis '25 

Ejusdem : pars dira quidem, sed cognita multis, 

Et quam votiva testantur fana tabella 

Plurima. Pictores quis nescit ab Iside pasci \ 

Accidit et nostro similis fortuna Catullo, 

against trees, as if practising for future 
fight ; sometimes we see them in sport 
engaging one another. 

10. If my fortune, $c.] The poet, 
throughout the above account of his sa- 
crifices, as well as of the altar on which 
they were to be offered, shews his pru- 
dence and frugality, as well as his friend- 
ship for his preserved friend Catullus. 
He professes to shew his affection, not 
as he would, but as his fortune could af- 
ford it. Instead, therefore, of a white 
bull to Jupiter, and white cows to Juno 
and Minerva, he offers a white ewe- 
lamb to Juno, the same to Minerva, and 
a calf to Jupiter. 

11. A bull.] The usual sacrifice to Ju- 
piter was a white bull. 

Fatter than Hispulla.'] A fat, sen- 
sual lady, noted as infamous for keeping 
a player. Sat vi. 1. 74. 

DramiJ] Dragged, by ropes fixed 
to the horns, to the altar. 

11. 12. With its very bulk slow.] So 
fat that he could hardly stir. 

12. In a neighbouring pasture.] Not 
bred or fatted in the neighbourhood of 

13. His blood shelving, $c.] By the 
colour and richness, as well as quantity 
of it. 

Clitumnus.] A river dividing Tus- 
cany and Umbria, whose water, says 
Pliny, makes the cows, that drink of it, 
bring white calves : whence the Ro- 
mans, as Virgil and Claudian observe, 
were plentifully furnished with white 
sacrifices for Jupiter Capitolinus. See 
VIRG. Georg. lib. ii. 1468. 

14. A great minister.] Some interpret 
this, as referring to the quality of the 
person giving the blow, as if it were to 
be the chief pontiff, or sacrificer, and not 
one of his popae, or inferior officers. 
Others think, that it refers to the size 
and strength of the person officiating, 
able to perform his office at one 

15. Yet trembling friend, $0,] This is 
a very natural circumstance, that a man, 
for some time after a narrow escape 
from an horrible danger, should shudder 
at the very thoughts of it, and stand 
amazed at his deliverance. 

1 7. The liazard of the sea.] i. e. The 
danger of the waves. 

17,18. Lightning escaped.] By which 
he might have been killed in an instant, 
but happily escaped the blow. 

18. Thick darkness, $c.] So that they 
could take no observation, nor know 
where they were, or which way to steer. 


If my fortune had been ample, and like my affection, 10 
A bull, fatter than Hispulla, should be drawn, and with its 


Bulk slow, nor nourished in a neighbouring pasture, 
But his blood shewing the glad pastures of Clitumnus, 
Should go, and his neck to be stricken by a great minister, 
On account of the return of my yet trembling friend, lately 

having 15 

Suffered dreadful things, and wondering that he is safe. 
For, beside the hazard of the sea, and the stroke of lightning 
Escaped, thick darkness hid the sky 
In one cloud, and a sudden fire struck the sail-yards ; 
When every one might believe himself struck with it, and 

presently, 20 

Astonished, might think that no shipwreck could be 
Compared with the burning sails. All things become 
Such, as grievously, if at any time a poetic tempest 
Arises. Behold another kind of danger, hear, 
And again pity, tho" 1 the rest be of the same 25 

Kind : a dire portion indeed, but known to many, 
And which many temples testify with a votive 
Tablet who knows not that painters are fed by Isis ? 
The like fortune also happened to my Catullus ; 

Such a circumstance is awfully related, Catullus was in. This, as afterwards 

Acts xxvii. 20. appears, was from the ship's being half 

19. A sudden fire, $&] A flash of full of water, (1. 30.) and he forced to 
lightning struck the sail-yards, and set lose his property to save his life. 

the sails on fire. 25. The rest, <.] Of my friend's diu- 

20. Might believe, 3fc.] Each person asters, which I shall relate, are of the 
on board might think it levelled at him, same unfortunate nature. 

it was so near him. 20'. Known to many.] Who have been 

21. Astonished, miff /it think, <Sfe.] For in a like situation. 

in case of a shipwreck, some might 27. Many temples, $e.] Persons that 
escape on parts of the broken ship escaped shipwreck used to have a paint- 
(comp. Acts xxvii. ult.) ; but if the ship ing made of the same scene which they 
were burnt, all must be consumed to- had gone through, drawn upon a tablet, 
gether : therefore, horrible as a ship- which they vowed to Neptune during 
wreck might be in the expectation, there their distress, and hung up in some tern- 
could be no comparison, in point of hor- pie near the sea-coast, 
ror, between this and a ship on fire. This was called votiva tabella. To 

22. All things become, tyc.] The above this Horace alludes, lib. i. ode v. ad fin. 
circumstances of the danger from the which see, and the note, Delph. edit 
waves, and of the greater horror of the . 28. Fed by Isis.] The Romans made 
ship's being struck with lightning, and so many vows to the Egyptian goddess 
the rigging set on fire, are ingredients Isis, whom the merchants and seamen 
in a poetical description of a tempest ; looked on as their patroness, that many 
even the imagination of the poet could painters got their bread by drawing the 
not invent any thing more dreadful and votivae tabular, which were hung up in 
grievous. her temples, so great was the number of 

'24. Another kind of d<,n ;1 <-,;~\ f. <>. Which them. 


Cum plenus fluctu medius foret alveus, et jam 
Alternum puppis latits evertentibus undis 
Arboris incertse, nullam prudentia cani 
Rectoris conferret opera ; decidere jactu 
Coepit cum ventis, imitatus castora, qui se 
Eunuchum ipse facit, cupiens evadere damno 
Testiculorum : adeo medicatum intelligit inguen. 
Fundite quae mea sunt, dicebat, cuncta, Catullus ; 
PraBcipitare volens etiam pulcherrima, vestem 
Purpuream, teneris quoque Maacenatibus aptam : 
Atque alias, quarum generosi graminis ipsum 
Infecit natura pecus, sed et egregius fons 
Viribus occultis, et Bseticus adjuvat aer. 
Ille nee argentum dubitabat mittere ; lances 
Parthenio factas, urna3 cratera capacem, 
Et dignum sitiente Pholo, vel conjuge Fusci. 
Adde et bascaudas, et mille escaria, multum 
Caelati, biberat quo callidus emptor Olynthi. 
Sed quis nunc alius, qua mundi parte, quis audet 


30. Middle hold, c.] f. e. The hold 
was half full, or full up to the middle. 

31. Alternate side, #c.] Heeling her 
from side to side, by dashing against 
them alternately. 

32. Uncertain wood.'] It being now 
doubtful, whether the timbers could 
much longer stand the force of the beat- 
ing waves upon her sides, or whether 
she would not go to pieces. 

The prudence, Sfc.~] All the skill and 
care of the old experienced master of 
the ship could afford no help. 

33. He.] i. e. Catullus. 

Began to compound, #e.] To bargain 
(as it were) for his life at the expence of 
his goods, by throwing them overboard. 
See AINSW. Decido, No. 4. 

34. Imitating the beaver, tyc.] This no- 
tion of the beaver is very ancient, and 
well introduced by our poet ; but it is to 
be reckoned among those vulgar errors 
which have no foundation in truth. 

In the first place, the liquid matter, 
which is called in medicine castoreum, is 
not found in the testicles, but inclosed 
in bags, or purses, near the anus of the 

In the next place, such an instance of 
violence upon itself was never known to 
be committed by the beaver. 

Err. book iii. c. iv. 

38. To throw over.] Into the sea. 

The most beautiful things.'] His finest 
and most valuable merchandize. See 
Job ii. 4. 

39. Tender McecenacesJ] Maecenas, the 
favourite of Augustus, was a very deli- 
cate and effeminate person, from whom 
people of such character were denomi- 
nated Maecenates. See sat. i. 1. 6 6, note. 
Such persons were very finical and ex- 
pensive in their dress, and therefore 
poor Catullus lost a good market for his 
purple dress, by throwing it overboard 
in the storm. 

40. The very sheep, fyc.~\ In this place 
the poet means, that the wool, of which 
these other garments were made, had a 
native tinge of a beautiful colour, owing 
to the particular nature of the soil, and 
water, and air, where the sheep were 
bred, so that the garments were made up 
without receiving any artificial dye. 

41. A rcmarkalile fount, 4fe.] The wa- 
ter of which, as well as the pasture where 
the sheep fed, was supposed to contri- 
bute to the fineness and colour of their 

42. Beetic air.] The air of Ba3tica, now 
Andalusia, in Spain, through which ran 


When the middle hold was full of water, and now 30 

The waves overturning the alternate side of the ship 

Of uncertain wood, the prudence of the grey master 

Could confer no help : he began to compound 

With the winds by throwing overboard, imitating the beaver, 


Makes himself an eunuch, desiring to escape with the loss 35 
Of his testicles: thus medicated does he understand his groin. 
Throw out all things which are mine, says Catullus, 
Willingto throw over even the most beautiful things, agarment 
Of purple, fit also for tender Maecenases : 
And others, the very sheep of which the nature of 40 

The generous herbage dyed, but also a remarkable fount 
With hidden powers, and Bsetic air helps. 
Nor did he hesitate to throw away his plate ; dishes 
Made by Parthenius, a cup holding an urn, 
And worthy Pholus thirsting, or the wife of Fuscus. 45 
Add also baskets, and a thousand dishes, a great deal 
Of wrought- work, in which the cunning buyer of Olynthus 

had drunk. 
But who now is the other, in what part of the world, who dares 

the river Baetis, is here assigned its share wrought- work here mentioned is thought, 

in the improvement of the wool from what follows, to have been the large 

43. Dishes.] Lanx signifies a great wrought, t. e. chased or embossed, gold 
broad plate, or deep dish, to serve up cup, that Philip, king of Macedon, used 
meat in, which the Romans had carved to drink out of, and to put under his 
and embossed at a great expence. pillow every night when he went to 

44. Parthenius.'\ Some curious artist, sleep. This must have been a very 
whose works were in high estimation. great, as well as valuable curiosity. 

An urn.] A measure of liquids con- But as it is said multum caclati, one 

taining four gallons. should rather think, that the poet means 

45. Pholus.'] A drunken Centaur, a great quantity of wrought-plate, which 
who, when he entertained Hercules, had once been the property of Philip ; 
produced a tun of wine at once. a set of plate, as we should say. Philip 

Wine of Fuscus.] Fuscus was a was killed by Pausanias three hundred 

judge, noted by Martial for drunkenness, and thirty-six years before Christ. Ju- 

as liis wife is here, in the good company venal flourished about the latter end of 

of Pholus the drunken Centaur. the first century : so that this plate was 

46. Baskets.] The bascaudte were a very old. 

kind of baskets which the Romans had Buyer of Olynthus.] This cup, and 

from the ancient Britons. Vox Britan- other pieces of valuable plate, he gave 

nica. AINS\V. to Lasthenes, governor of Olynthus, a 

Barbara de pictis veni lascauda Bri- city of Thrace, to betray it into his 

tannis. MART. xiv. 99. hands. It was, from this, said of Philip, 

A thousand dishes.] Escaria, from that what he could not conquer by iron 

esca, seems to denote vessels of all shapes (t. e. his anus) he gained by gold, 

and sizes, in which meat was served up 48. But who notr, $c.] This implied 

to table ; also plates on which it was commendation of Catullus seems here to 

eaten. be introduced by the poet, in order to 

47. Wroityht-iforlc.] Ca-lati, from ex- lash the prevailing vice of covetousness, 
lo, to chase, emboss, or engrave. This which was so great, as to make men love 



Argento prseferre caput, rebusque salutem ? 

Non propter vitam faciunt patrimonia quidam, 50 

Sed vitio caeci propter patrimonia vivunt. 

Jactatur rerum utilium pars maxima ; sed nee 

Damna levant. Tune, adversis urgentibus, illuc , 

Recidit, et malum ferro summitteret, ac se 

Explicat angustum : discriminis ultima, quando 55 

Prasidia afferimus navem factura minorem. 

I nunc, et ventis animam committe, dolato 

Confisus ligno, digitis a morte remotus 

Quatuor, aut septem, si sit latissima teda. 

Mox cum reticulis, et pane, et ventre lagense, GO 

Aspice sumendas in tempestate secures. 

Sed postquam jacuit planurn mare, tempora postquam 

Prospera vectoris, fatumque valentius Euro, 

Et pelago ; postquam Parcse meliora benigna 

Pensa manu ducunt hilares, et staminis albi 65 

Lanificae ; modica nee multo fortior aura 

money beyond even life itself. It is 
said of Aristippus the philosopher, that, 
being on board a ship with pirates, he 
threw all his money overboard secretly, 
lest, finding it, they should throw him 
into the sea, in order to possess what he 

50. On account of life, fyc.] i.e. That 
they may spend them in the necessaries 
and comforts of life. 

51. Blind, $c.l With the vice of ava- 

Live for the sake, fyc.~\ They do not 
get money that they may live, (see 
note, 1. 50.) but only live for the sake 
of money. 

52. Useful goods, tfc.~\ Not only arti- 
cles of superfluity, such as fine embossed 
plate, and the like, but even useful ne- 
cessaries, such as clothes, provisions, 
and, perhaps, a great part of the tack- 
ling of the ship, were thrown overboard 
on this occasion. 

53. Losses lighten.'] Alleviate their 
danger ; or, what they had lost by 
throwing overboard did not seem to 
lighten the ship, as she kept filling with 
water. See 1. 30. 

54. It came to that pass.] Illuc recidit. 
Some read dccidit, which has the same 
meaning here. II en vint la. Fr. 

He.~\ Catullus, who was probably 
the owner of the ship. 

Should lower, $c.] t. e. Should cut 

away the mast, as we term it. Angustum, 
1. 55, has the sense of angustatum. 

56. Apply helps, $c.] It is a sign of 
the utmost distress, when we are obliged 
to use helps to make the ship lighter, 
and less exposed to the wind, as by 
cutting away her masts, which is sup- 
posed to be the meaning of minorem in 
this place. Afferimus prsesidia seems to 
have the same sense as Porjdfias exptavTO, 
Actsxxvii. 17. 

57. Go now, Sfc.] In this apostrophe 
the poet severely reproves those, who, 
for the sake of gain, are continually 
risking such dangers as have been de- 
scribed. Comp. HOR. lib. i. ode iii. 
1. 924. 

Trusting, #e.] The timber, of 

which the sides of the ship were made, 
was hewn in a rough manner into planks 
of four or seven fingers breadth in thick- 
ness ; so that the passengers, having no 
more between them and, the water, 
might be said to be no fartfier removed 
from death. Alluding to a saying of 
Anacharsis the philosopher, who, on 
hearing one say that a ship was three 
fingers thick, answered, " then just so 
" far from death are those who sail in 
" her." 

59. If the pine.] Teda signifies the 
middle or heart of the pine-tree. AINSW. 
Of this, it seems, they made the sides 
of their ships, after cutting or hewing 



Prefer his life to his plate, his safety to his goods ? 
Some do not make fortunes on account of life, 50 

But, blind with vice, live for the sake of fortunes. 
The greatest part of useful goods is thrown over, but 
Neither do the losses lighten. Then, the contrary (winds) 


It came to that pass that he should lower the mast with an axe, 
And free himself distressed : the last state of danger is, 55 
When we apply helps to make the ship less. 
Go now and commit your life to the winds, trusting to 
A hewn plank, removed from death four 
Fingers, or seven, if the pine be very large. 
Immediately with your provision-baskets, and bread, and 

belly of a flagon, 60 

Remember axes to be used in a storm. 

But after the sea lay smooth, after the circumstances of the 
Mariner were favourable, and his fate more powerful than 

the east wind, 

And the sea ; after the cheerful destinies draw better 
Tasks with a benign hand, and of a white thread 65 

Are spinsters, nor much stronger than a moderate air 

it into planks. See note on 1. 57. 
These were, at the thickest, seven fin- 
gers' breadth, or thickness, measuring 
from one edge to the other on the same 
side. Teda here means the plank, by 

60. Provision-baskets.'] Reticulis twig 
baskets made like a net to carry provi- 
sions in ; or bags made of network, used 
for that purpose by sailors, soldiers, and 
travellers, something like our knapsacks 
as to their purpose. 

Betty of a flagon.] Lagena a flagon, 
or bottle with a large belly, to keep wine 
in q. d. a great-bellied flagon. 

61 . Axes to be used, <Sfc.] To cut away 
the masts upon occasion. See 1. 54. 
These may happen to be as necessary as 
your other sea-stores ; therefore, in the 
next place (mox) provide axes. Aspice 
vide et memento. MARSHALL. To 
be used, sumendas lit. to be taken. 

62. But after, %c.~] The narrative of 
Catullus's adventure is here resumed. 

Lay smooth.] Became calm, on the 
storm ceasing. 

Circumstances, #c.] When the hap- 
py fortune of my friend prevailed, (see 
AINSW. Tempus, No. 2.) and things 

put on a more prosperous appear- 

62. 3. The mariner.'} Vector signifies 
a bearer, or carrier ; also a passenger 
in a ship ; likewise a mariner. See 

63. Fate more powerful, $c.] The 
Romans believed every thing to be 
governed by fate, even the gods them- 

64. The cluxrful destinies, %c.] The 
parca?, or fates. See sat. x. 252, note. 
Pensa tasks enjoined to people that 
spin ; also thread, &c. spun. Ducere 
pensa, to spin. AINSW. See Hon. lib. 
iii. ode xxvii. 1. 63. 

65. White thread.'] It was the opinion 
of the ancients, that when the destinies 
intended long life to a person, they spun 
white thread ; when death, black thread. 

The phrase of ducere pensa, to spin, 
taken notice of in the last note, alludes 
to the action of the spinster, who draws 
the wool, or flax, from the distaff as 
she spins it ; this she continues, till 
the task (pensurn) assigned her is fi- 

66. Spinsters.'] And are now become 
spinsters, &c. 



Ventus adest ; inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit 
Vestibus extensis, et, quod superaverat unum, 
Velo, prora, suo : jam deficientibus Austris, 
Spes vitse cum sole redit : turn gratus lulo, 
Atque novcrcali sedes prajlata Lavino, 
Conspicitur sublimis apex, cui Candida nomen 
Scrofa dedit, (Isetis Phrygibus mirabile sumen,) 
Et nunquam visis triginta clara mamillis. 
Tandem iutrat positas inclusa per sequora moles, 
Tyrrhenamque Pharon, porrectaque brachia rursum, 
Quae pelago occurrunt medio, longeque relinquunt 
Italiam : non sic igitur mirabere portus, 
Quos natura dedit : sed trunca puppe magister 
Interiora petit Baianss per via cymbae 
Tuti stagna sinus : gaudent ibi vertice raso 
Garrula securi narrare pericula nautse. 
Ite igitur, pueri, linguis animisque faventes, 

67. The miserable, #c.] The shattered 
vessel left in a miserable plight. Prora 
(by synec.) may mean the vessel itself: 
but it literally signifies the forepart, the 
foredeck or forecastle of a ship ; and so 
it is probably to be understood here, as 
the vclo suo implies the sail proper to 
this part of the ship ; the forcsprit sail, 
as we call it. This was the only remain- 
ing sail. 

Poor device.'] She made a sad shift 
to make her way through the water, by 
the poor contrivance of the seamen's 
clothes spread out vestibus extensis, 
to help her on. 

68. Was left.} i. e. Had surmounted 
the violence of the storm. Superaverat, 
quasi supererat remained ; as in VIRG. 
JEn. v. 519. 

Amissa solus palma superabat Acestes. 

69. The south winds, c.~] Which were 
very dangerous on the coasts of Italy. 
Sec HOK. sat. i. 1. 6 ; and lib. iii. ode 
iii. 1. 4, 5. ode iii. lib. i. 1. 1416. 
These now began to abate. 

70. Returned icith tlie sun.] With the 

Acceptable to lulus, $c.] The Alban 
mount, on which lulus Ascanius, the 
son of JEneas, built Alba longa. This 
is the sublime top, mentioned L 72. 

The poet calls it gmtus lulo, because 
he left Lavinum, built by .ffineas, to live 
at Alba. 

71. Lariiium of hix step-nu-tlicr, $<:] 

When lulus came to live at Alba, he 
left Lavinum to his mother-in-law La- 
vinia, the second wife of jEneas, (who 
had named the city Lavinum after his 
wife Lavinia.) Hence Juvenal says no- 
vercali Lavino. 

72. 3. A white sow, &;c.] From which 
the city was called Alba, white. See 
sat. vi. 1. 176, note. 

73. A wonderful udder, fyc.~\ Sumcn, 
the belly, paps, or udder of a sow. 
AINSW. Here, by synec. it is to be 
understood to signify the sow. This 
was a sight much admired by the joyful 
Trojans, who, after all their dangers and 
toils, discovered, by this, their promised 

Hie locus urbis erit, requies ea certa 
laborum. JEn. lib. viii. 1. 46. 

Troy was the capital of Phrygia, a 
country of Lesser Asia, and sometimes 
taken for the whole country of Phrygia : 
hence the Trojans were called Phry- 

74. Thirty dugs.] With each a pig 
sucking at it. Mn. viii. L 45. A sight 
never seen before. 

75. She enters.] i. c. The ship enters. 
Placed moles.] The moles, or piers, 

which had been placed, or built, to keep 
off the violence of the sea, and to form 
a safe and quiet harbour. 

Included waters.'] The waters in- 
cluded between and within the moles. 

76. Tyrrhene Pharos.] In this haven 


Is there a wind, the miserable prow ran with a poor device, 
With extended garments, and, which alone was left, 
With its own sail : the south winds now failing, 
The hope of life returned with the sun : then acceptable to 

lulus, 70 

And an abode preferred to the Lavinum of his step-mother, 
The sublime top is beheld, to which the name a white 
Sow gave (a wonderful udder to the glad Phrygians) 
And famous for thirty dugs never [before] seen. 74 

At length she enters the placed moles, thro' the included 


And the Tyrrhene Pharos, and again the stretched-out arms 
Which meet the middle sea, and far leave 
Italy : therefore you will not so admire the havens 
Which nature has given : but the master, with mangled ship, 
Seeks the interior pools of the safe bay, pervious to so 

A Baian boat : there, with a shaved head, secure, 
The sailors rejoice to relate their chattering dangers. 
Go then, boys, favouring with tongues and minds, 

of Ostia, on the shore of the Tyrrhene 
sea, Claudius built a Pharos, or light- 
house, in imitation of that at Alexandria 
in Egypt. 

76. And again.'] We once more return 
to the spot from whence we sat out. 

Stretched-out arwt,3fc.] The two sides 
of the piers, or artificial mounts, like two 
arms, stretched so far into the Tyrrhene 
sea, that they seemed to inclose it as far 
as the middle way, and, as it were, to 
leave the coast of Italy behind. 

78. You iciU not, tyc.] This port, 
formed in this manner by art, is much 
more wonderful than any port naturally 
formed by the shore itself ; therefore 
the former is more to be admired than 
the latter. 

80. The inferior pooh, dSfe.] The inner- 
most part of this artificial haven, as the 
most secured from the sea. 

81. A Baian boat.] Little wherries 
were used at Baia to carry people in still 
water ; perhaps from one side of the bay 
to the other. 

Shaved head, $fe.] It was a custom, 
when in distress at sea, to invoke the 
aid of some god or other (see Jonah i. 
5.) with a solemn vow of cutting off 
their hair, and offering it as an acknow- 
ledgment for their preservation. See 
Acts xxvii. 34. where Paul says, " there 
" shall not an hair of your head perish:" 


alluding probably to this custom. As if 
he had said, " they should not need to 
" shave and devote their hair, for they 
" should be preserved without it" See 
POWER'S note. 

82. The sailors rejoice, $c.~] Take a 
delight to chatter and prate about what 
had happened to every boy they met. 
The poet says, garrula pericula quia 
nautas garrulos reddebant i. e. because 
they set the sailors a prating. BRIT. 
See a like figure of speech, sat. vii. 49. 
Hypallage. q. d. The chattering sailors 
delight to relate their dangers. 

83. Boys.~\ Go, my boys speaking to 
his servants. See sat. xi. 1. 151. where 
he describes his two servant-lads. 

Favouring, $fc.~\ Helping on the 
solemnity, by observing a profound si- 
lence and attention ; this was always 
commanded during a sacrifice, that there 
might be no disturbance or interruption. 
In this view, faveo means to attend 
with silence. AINSW. So HOR. lib. 
iii. ode i. 1. 2. Favete linguis, which 
Smart translates, Give a religious atten- 
tion ; and which is thus commented on 
in Delph. edit Favete linguis. " Vox 
" in sacris olim usitata, qua silentium 
" imperabatur." " An expression for- 
" merly used at sacrifices, or sacred 
" rites, by which silence was com- 
" maiuled." 




Sertaque delubris, et farra imponite cultris, 

Ac molles ornate focos, glebamquc virentem. 

Jam sequar, et sacro, quod prsestat, rite peracto, 

Inde domum repetam, graciles ubi parva coronas 

Accipient fragili simulachra nitentia cera. 

Hie nostrum placabo Jovem, Laribusque paternis 

Thura dabo, atque omnes violse jactabo colores. 

Cuncta nitent ; longos erexit janua ramos, 

Et matutinis operatur festa lucernis. 

Nee suspecta tibi sint haec, Corvine : Catullus, 
Pro cujus reditu tot pono altaria, parvos 
Tres habet heeredes. Libet expectare, quis segram 
Et claudentem oculos gallinain impendat amico 
Tarn sterili. Verum hsec nimia est impensa : coturnix 
Nulla unquam pro patre cadet. Sentire calorem 

Go then, my boys, the scared rites pre- 
With awful silence, and attention hear. 


See VIRG. JEn. v. 1. 71. Ore favete 
omnes, &c. 

84. Put garlands, $c.~] On solemn oc- 
casions all the temples of the gods were 
adorned with garlands. 

So VIRG. JEn. ii. 1. 248, 9. 
A^os delubra Deum 

-festa velamus fronde per ur- 


Meal on the knives.'] The custom 
was to make cakes with meal and salt, 
with which they sprinkled the sacrific- 
ing knife, the head of the victim, and the 
fire. Hence comes the word immolor, 
from the sacred mola, or cake. 

Virgil calls them salsse fruges, JEn. 
ii. 132, 3. 

Mihi sacri parari 

Et salsa fruges. 

85. Soft hearths, Sfc.] The poet gave 
us to understand, 1. 2, that his altar was 
made of turf, or green sod. 

86. Fll soon folloiv.] i. e. After these 
preparations are made. 

The sacred business, <3fc.] That of the 
public sacrifice, which I shall offer. 

Which is best.'] Quod praestat, i. e. 
which is the most material thing, and 
most necessary to be done. 

87. Then return home.] In order to 
offer private sacrifices on the little turf- 
altar to my domestic deities. 

Little images, #c.] Little statues of 

the Lares, or household gods, made of 
wax, neatly polished, so as to shine. 
Hence HOR. epod. ii. 1. 66. calls them 
renidentes Lares. 

88. Slender crowns.] Small garlands, 
or chaplets. 

89. Placate.} Appease and render pro- 

Our Jupiter.'] The favourer anil 
guardian of our country ; or, as the poet 
mentions the worship of Jupiter after 
his return home, we may suppose, that, 
among his other little statues, there was 
one of Jupiter, before which, as before 
the others, he intended to offer incense, 
in order to make him propitious. 

Paternal Lares.] Left me by my 
forefathers, who used to worship them 
as I do. See note on sat. viii. 1. 110. 

The Romans were very superstitious 
about these little images of the Lares ; 
they thought no house safe without 
them, they constantly worshipped them, 
and, if they removed, they carried their 
Lares along with them : they were 
looked upon as tutelar deities, which 
protected their houses and lands. 

90. Willffive.] Will offer; which they 
did, by putting it on the fire, and fumi- 
gating the images, or letting the smoke 
ascend before them. 

Throw down.] i. c. Will strew be- 
fore them. 

All the colours, fyc] i. e. Violets of 
every colour. 

91. All thinffs shine.] Every thing 
looks gay. 


Put garlands on the temples, and meal on the knives, 
And adorn the soft hearths, and the green glebe. 85 

Fll soon follow, and the sacred business, which is best, being 

duly finish'' d, 

I will then return home ; where, little images, shining 
WitH brittle wax, shall receive slender crowns. 
Here I will placate our Jupiter, and to my paternal Lares 
Will give frankincense, and will throw down all the colours 
of the violet. 90 

All things shine. My gate has erected long branches, 
And joyful celebrates the feast with morning lamps. 

Nor let these things be suspected by you, Corvinus : Ca- 

For whose return I place so many altars, has three 
Little heirs : I should be glad to see who would bestow 95 
A hen, sick and closing her eyes, on a friend 
So barren : but this is an expence too great. No quail 
Will ever fall for a father. If rich Gallita and Paccius, 

Has erected, #c.] Over the tops of 
the doors are long branches of laurel. 
This was usual on these festal occa- 

92. Joyful.] Having a joyful and fes- 
tival appearance. 

Celebrates.] Operatur. The verb 
operor, like facio, (see sat. ix. 1. 117.) 
when it stands without any addition, 
signifies performing sacrifice. See also 
VIRG. eel. iii. 77 ; and Georg. i. 1. 339. 

The poet here means to say, that the 
very gates of his house bore a part in 
the solemnity on this joyful occasion. 
Some are for reading operitur, covered 
i. e. the gates were covered with lamps 
as well as with laurel-branches. This 
makes a very clear sense ; but I question 
whether operatur, as above explained, 
does not more exactly coincide with the 
epithet festa in this line. Operatur here 
is metaphorical, like Virgil's ridet ager. 

Aforning lamps.] It was a custom, 
on any joyful occasion, either of a pub- 
lic or private nature, to adorn the gates 
of their houses with branches of laurel, 
and with lamps, even in the day-time ; 
which Tertullian mentions, in his apo- 
logy, in the following passage: " Cur die 
" lauto non laureis postes adumbramus ? 
" nee lucernis diem infringimus ?" 
" Why, on a joyful day, do we not 
" overshadow our door-posts with lau- 

" rels, nor infringe upon the day with 

" lamps ?" 

By the word matutinis, the poet 

means to say, he will light them early, 

out of zeal to his friend, that they might 

burn from morning to night. 

My portal shims with verdant bays, 
And consecrated tapers early blaze. 

93. Suspected, $c.] As if done with a 
mercenary view, or for selfish ends ; as 
if to flatter my friend Catullus into mak- 
ing me his heir. 

94. 5. TJiree little fairs.] Has three 
children to inherit his estate. 

95. Glad to see.'] Libet expectare li- 
terally, it liketh me to expect ; which 
certainly answers to the English idiom 
in the translation. 

96. 7. A friend so barren, Sfc.] So un- 
likely to leave any thing in his will to 
any body but his own family ; who 
would sacrifice for such a one, I won't 
say a fine cock to .tfEsculapius for his 
recovery, but even an old rotten hen ? 
even this would not be worth while. 

97. No quail.] Not even one of the 
least of birds. 

98. JSi-erfaU.] i. e. Be killed and of- 
fered in sacrifice. 

A father.'] i. e. For a man that is 
the father of children, and who, like Ca- 
tullus, has heirs to his estntr. 



Si coepit locuples Gallita et Paccius, orbi, 

Legitime fixis vestitur tota tabellis 

Porticus. Existunt, qui promittant hecatomben. 

Quatenus hie non sunt nee venales elephanti, 

Nee Latio, aut usquam sub nostro sidere talis 

Bellua concipitur : sed furva gente petita 

Arboribus Rutulis, et Turni pascitur agro 

Caesaris armentum, nulli servire paratum 

Private : siquidem Tyrio parere solebant 

Hannibali, et nostris ducibus, Regique Molosso, 

Horum majores, ac dorso ferre cohortes, 

Partem aliquam belli, et euntem in prselia turrim. 

Nulla igitur mora per Novium, mora nulla per Istrum 

Pacuvium, quin illud ebur ducatur ad aras, 

Et cadat ante Lares Grallitse victima sacra, 




98. Gallita and Paccius.'] Two rich 
men who were childless, which made 
them fine objects for the haeredipetae, or 

99. Perceive heat.'] To be attacked 
with a fever. 

Every porch, -c.] Tota is here 
equivalent to omnis. q. d. The whole of 
the porches, t. e. all the porches of the 
temples, are covered, as it were, with 
votive tablets for their recovery. These 
votive tablets were inscribed with the 
vows and prayers of those who hung 
them up. If the party, for whom these 
tablets were hung up, recovered, the of- 
ferers of the tablets thought themselves 
bound to perform their vows. 

100. According to law.] Legitime here 
seems to mean, according to the stated 
custom and usual practice of such peo- 
ple, who make it a kind of law among 
them to act in this manner on such oc- 
casions ; not that there was any public 
law to compel them to it. 

101. There exist, ^c.] Some there arc, 
who would not scruple to vow an hun- 
dred oxen in sacrifice. Hecatomb is 
compounded of fKarov, an hundred, 
and jSous, an ox ; but it also denotes a 
sacrifice of an hundred sheep, or of any 
other animals, though primarily is to be 
understood of oxen, according to the 

102. Elephants, Sfc.] q. d. They can't 
get elephants indeed, or else they would 
vow an hecatomb of them. 

1 02, 3. Here nor in Latium.] Either 

here at Rome, or in the country of Italy 
at large. See note, sat. xi. 1 1 5. 

104. Conceived.] i. e. Bred. 

A diisky nation.'] From the Moors, 
or the Indians, who are of a swarthy or 
black complexion. See sat. xi. 1. 125, 

105. The Rutidian woods, tyc.] In the 
forest near Lavinum, where Turnus the 
king of the Rutuli reigned, the country 
was called Etruria ; now the dukedom 
of Tuscany. 

106. TheherdofCeesar.] Domitian, as 
a matter of state and curiosity, trans- 
ported into Italy numbers of elephants ; 
and, in the forest above mentioned, an 
herd of them might be seen together. 

106,7. No private man.] They were 
not procured to be at any private man's 
command, but at the emperor's only, for 
his pleasure and amusement, in seeing 
them in the forest, and exhibiting them 
in public shows in the Circus. 

107. Ancestors of these.] The elephants 
of former days were put to a nobler 

Indeed.] Prateus, in his Interpre- 
tatio in usum Delph. explains the siqui- 
dem by enimvero, verily, truly, indeed 
Marshall, by vero, which is much of the 
same import, and seems to mark a sar- 
castical contrast between the use of 
those noble animals by the warlike kings 
and generals of old time, and Domitian 's 
getting them to Rome at a vast expence, 
for the empty gratification of his pride 
and ostentation. 


Who are childless, begin to perceive heat, every porch 

Is clothed with tablets fixed according to law. 100 

There exist who would promise an hecatomb. 

Forasmuch as there are no elephants to be sold, neither here 

Nor in Latium ; nor any where in our climate is such 

A beast conceived, but, fetched from a dusky nation, 

Is fed in theRutulian woods, and in the field of Turnus, 105 

The herd of Caesar, procured to serve no private 

Man : the ancestors of these, indeed, used to obey Tyrian 

Hannibal, and our generals, and the Molossian king, 

And to carry cohorts on their back, 

Some part of the war, and a tower going to battles. no 

Therefore there is no delay by Novius, no delay by 

Ister Pacuvius, but that that ivory should be led to the altars, 

And fall a sacred victim before the Lares of Gallita, 

107. 8. Tyrian Hannibal.'] Who got 
them from India, with persons to manage 
and train them up. Hannibal is called 
Tyrian, because Dido, who built Car- 
thage, came from Tyre : for this reason 
Virgil calls Carthage, Tyriam urbem. 
The Carthaginians, Tyrii. In the second 
Punic war, when he came over the Alps 
into Italy, he brought elephants with 
him. See sat. x. 1. 157, note. 

108. Our generals.'] Who took vast 
numbers of them. Metellus had two 
hundred and four elephants which fol- 
lowed his triumph after the defeat of 
Asdrubal the Carthaginian general. 
Scipio, the father-in-law of Pompey, had 
also elephants in his army in Africa. 
Appian says, thirty. 

Molossian king.} Pyrrhus, king of 

the Molossian s, first used elephants in 
Italy, when he came to help the Taren- 
tines against the Romans. 

109. Coliorts.] A cohort was a tenth 
part of a legion ; several of these were 
in towers on the backs of elephants, and 
made part of the warlike force partem 

110. A tower, 6fe.] Towers, made of 
wood, and filled with armed men, were 
put on the backs of elephants, and thus 
carried into battle, where, partly by the 
trampling of elephants, partly by the 
arrows, javelins, and other missile wea- 
pons, discharged from the towers, great 
havoc was made. 

111. Therefore no delay, $c.] There- 
fore it is not the fault of Novius, &c. 

that elephants are not offered, but 
because they can't get them. If these 
legacy-hunters could procure elephants 
to sacrifice for the recovery of the people 
whom they have a design upon, they 
would not hesitate a moment about 
doing it. 

112. Ivory.~\ Elephants, per meton. 
Here elephants are called ivory, from 
their large teeth of ivory. Georg. iii. 
26. JEn. vi. 895. Virgil, on the con- 
trary, wills ivory, elephant, by synec. 

113. Before tlie Lares of Gallita.'] In 
order to procure their assistance and fa- 
vour towards him, that they may recover 
him from his sickness. 

The word Lares, in the largest sense, 
denotes certain demons, genii, or spirits, 
believed to preside on various occasions, 
distinguished by their epithets. As, 
Lares coslestes, some of the Dii majorum 
gentium ; Lares niurini, as Neptune, 
Palaemon, Thetis, &c, ; Lares urbium, 
who were guardians of cities. The Lares 
also were public, as compitales, or viales, 
which were worshipped in the highways ; 
or private, as the Lfires domestic!, or 
familiares, household or family deities, 
household gods, the protectors of the 
house and family. These last are usually 
intended by the word Lares, when used 
singly. See 1. 89, note. See AINSW. 

The notae selectee on this line suppose 
this Gallita to have been some rich 
childless matron, whom Tacitus calls 
Cruspelina. Others believe it to be a 



Tantis digna Deis, et captatoribus horum. 

Alter enim, si concedas mactare, vovebit 115 

De grege servorum magna, aut pulcherrima quaeque 

Corpora ; vel pueris, et frontibus ancillarum 

Imponet vittas : et, si qua est nubilis illi 

Iphigenia domi, dabit hanc altaribus, etsi 

Non speret tragicse furtiva piacula cervse, 1-20 

Laudo meum civem, nee compare testamento 

Mille rates : nam si Libitinam evaserit seger, 

Delebit tabulas, inclusus carcere nassse, 

Post meritum sane miranduin ; atque omnia soli 

Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit. Ille superbus 125 

Incedet victis rivalibus. Ergo vides, quam 

Grande operse pretium faciat jugulata Mycenis. 

Vivat Pacuvius, quaeso, vel Nestora totum : 

rich old man of that name. It matters 
not to the subject which is right. See 
Juv. edit. 4to. 1695. 

114. Worthy, $c.\ The poet ironically 
styles these elephants worthy victims 
for such important deities as the Lares, 
who presided over the safety of such 
men, and worthy to express the huge 
friendship which the offerers bore them. 
Or, perhaps, by the word tantis, we may 
understand an humourous contrast, be- 
tween the hugeness of the animal of- 
fered, and the littleness of the figures of 
the Lares before which they were of- 
fered ; for the images of these were very 
small See 1. 87, note. Captatores 
were people who flattered rich men, in 
hopes of being their heirs, legacy-hun- 
ters. See sat x. 1. 202, note ; and see 
HOR. lib. ii. sat. v. 1. 23, &c. 

115. The one.] Pacuvius. Alter, where 
two have been mentioned, means one of 
them. That Pacuvius is here meant, 
appears from what follows, 1. 125 8. 

If you allow, Sfc.] If he could have 
his own will, and could be permitted to 
do such a thing. 

Vow.'] i. e. Devote to death. 

116. Flock of servants, <Sfc.] He would 

S'ck out, from the number of his slaves, 
e stoutest of the men, or every one 
(quseque) of the most beautiful of either 
sex, to sacrifice. 

117. His boys, Sfe.] He would even 
sacrifice those who were the instruments 
of his abominable pleasures. 

118. Put fillets.} The vitta: were rib- 
bands, or garlands, put on the foreheads 

both of the priests and of the victims. 

1 18, 19. Marriageable Ipliigenia.~\ Any 
daughter in the prime of youth and 
beauty. Matura virgo HOR. lib. iii. 
od. vL 1. 22. Comp. HOR. lib. i. od. 
xxiii. 1. 11, 12. 

This alludes to the story of Agamem- 
non sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia, 
in order to procure a favourable wind 
for the departure of the Grecian fleet 
from Aulis, where, through the anger of 
the goddess Diana, it had been wind- 
bound for a considerable time, because 
the Greeks had called an hind belonging 
to the goddess. 

The oracle was consulted, and the an- 
swer was returned, that no wind could 
be had for their purpose, unless Agamem- 
non, the chief in the expedition, would 
offer up his daughter Iphigenia to ap- 
pease the anger of Diana. Agamemnon, 
for the public good, brought his daughter 
to the altar, but the goddess, relenting, 
conveyed her away, and put an hind in 
her place. 

119. Give Tier, fyc.] Offer her up as a 

120. Furtive expiation.'] Alluding to 
Diana's stealing away Iphigenia, and 
substituting the hind in her place. 

Traffic hindJ] Which had become a 
subject for the tragic writers, as Sopho- 
cles, Euripides, and others. 

Pacuvius would consent to offer his 
daughter, though he were certain that 
nothing of this sort would happen to 
save her. 

121. 7 praLe my citizen.} I highly 



Worthy of deities so great, and of the flatterers of these men. 
For the one, if you allow him to slay, will vow 115 

From his flock of servants, the great, or all the most beau- 

Bodies ; or on his boys, and on the foreheads of his maids 
Would put fillets : and if he has any marriageable 
Tphigenia at home, he will give her to the altars, although 
He may not expect the furtive expiation of the tragic hind. 
I praise my citizen, nor do I compare with a last will 121 
A thousand ships : for if the sick man should escape Libitina, 
He'll cancel his will, inclosed in the prison of a net, 
After desert truly wonderful : and every thing, perhaps, 
Will give shortly to Pacuvius alone. He proud will 125 
Strut, his rivals overcome. Therefore you see, how 
Great a reward of service she slaughtered at Mycenae may 

Let Pacuvius live, I beg, even all Nestor. 

commend my fellow-citizen Pacuvius for 
his wisdom and address. 

Nor do I compare, #e.] To be sure 
the safety of a thousand ships, which 
could bring no peculiar and immediate 
profit to Agamemnon, and only answer 
a public purpose, is not to be compared 
with the last will and testament of a 
rich man, by which Pacuvius was to be- 
come so richly benefited as to possess 
his whole estate. Pacuvius therefore is 
certainly more justifiable than Agamem- 
non, in being willing to sacrifice his 
daughter. A strong irony ! 

122. Escape Libitina.] i. e. Should 
recover from his sickness. Libitina was 
a name given to Proserpine, as pre- 
siding over funerals ; in her temple at 
Rome all things pertaining to funerals 
were sold, and the undertakers were 
called Libitinarii ; hence, Libitina some- 
times signifies death itself. 

123. Cancel his will,] Lit. blot out the 
tables. It has been before observed, 
(sat. ii. 1. 58.) that the Romans wrote on 
thin planks of wood, called tabulae : these 
were smeared over with wax, on which 
the letters were made with the point of 
a sort of bodkin, called stylus, which 
was flat at one end, in order to blot out, 
or erase, such of the writing as they 
meant to cancel or alter. See HOB. 
sat. x. lib. i. 1. 72. 

Prison of a net.] Nassa signifies a 
not made of twigs, with a bait put into 
it, to catch fish. 

The rich man is here represented as 
fairly hampered in the net which Pacu- 
vius had laid for him thoroughly 
taken in, as we say. 

124. Desert truly wonderful.'] On ac- 
count of such wonderful merit towards 
him, as Pacuvius had shewn, in lavish- 
ing such sacrifices for his recovery. 

125. Will give sJiortly, <|-f.] Having 
cancelled his will, and erased all the le- 
gacies which he had left in it to other 
people, he now in a few words (breviter) 
makes Pacuvius his sole heir. 

125, 6. Will strut, <Sfc.] Incedo some- 
times means to walk or go in state. (Di- 
vum incedo regina, says the haughty 
Juno, JEn. i. 1. 50.) The poet here 
means, that this fellow will take state 
upon him, and strut with an insolence 
in his look and gait, triumphing over all 
those who had been his competitors for 
Gallita's favour. 

126. Therefore you see, fyc.] q, d. You 
see of what use the example of Agamem- 
non was to Pacuvius ; for if that king 
of Mycenae had not offered his daughter 
to have her throat cut, Pacuvius had 
never thought of sacrificing his daughter 
for the recovery of the rich man who 
made him heir to all his estate. 

128. Let Pacuvius live, Qc.] Long live 
Pacuvius ! say I ; (iron.) for the longer 
such a man lives, the more miserable 
must he be. 

All Nestor.] Even to Nestor's age. 
See sat. x. 1. 246, 7. note. 



Possideat, quantum rapuit Nero : montibus aurum 
Exeequet : nee amet quenquam, nee ametur ab ullo. 


] 29. Nero plundered.] Who, contrary are most incredible. He gave no office 

to all laws, human and divine, not only without this charge to the person who 

plundered the people, but even the tern- filled it, " You know what I want ; let 

pies of the gods. The prodigious sums " us make it our business that nobody 

which he extorted from the provinces, " may have any thing." 
by unreasonable taxes, confiscations, &c. May gold, %c.] May heaps of ill- 


May he possess as much as Nero plundered may gold equal 

Mountains ; nor let him love any body, nor be loved by any 

body. - 130 

gotten wealth be hia torment, and make completely the poet's imprecatory climax 

him a prey to others, as others have been for how thoroughly miserable must he 

to him. be, who lives and dies a total stranger to 

1 30. Nor let him love, $c.] This finishes the sweets of friendship. 



The Poet writes this Satire to Calvinus, to comfort him under 
the loss of a large sum of money, with which he had entrusted 
one of his friends, and which he could not get again. Hence 
Juvenal takes occasion to speak of the villany of the times 

EXEMPLO quodcunque malo committitur, ipsi 

Displicet authori. Prima est hsec ultio, quod se 

Judice nemo nocens absolvitur ; improba quamvis 

Gratia fallacis prsetoris vicerit urnam. 

Quid sentire putas omnes, Calvine, recenti 5 

De scelere, et fidei violatse crimine ? Sed nee 

Tarn tenuis census tibi contigit, ut raediocris 

Jacturse te mergat onus : nee rara videmus 

Quae pateris. Casus multis hie cognitus, ac jam 

Tritus, et e medio Fortunae ductus acervo. 10 

Line I. With bad example.] Every evil cause; after which the parties had 

deed which tends to set a bad example power to reject such as they thought 

to others. would be partial. The number of those 

Displeases, fyc.] Gives him unplea- excepted against were filled up by the 

sant sensations. praetor's drawing other names out of the 

2. First revenge, <Sfc.] The vengeance urn. Then the judges, which were thus 

which first seizes upon him arises from appointed, took an oath to judge ac- 

himself ; his own conscience will con- cording to law ; but, on many occasions, 

demn him, though he should have no others were often substituted by the prae- 

other judge. tor. The cause being heard, the praetor 

4. Should have overcome the urn, tyc.] gave to each of the judges three waxen 

Vicerit i. e. should have defeated the tables. On one was the letter A, to 

urn's impartial decision, and have de- signify the acquittal or absolution of the 

clared him innocent. The praetor, who defendant. On another C, to imply his 

was the chief judge, had others appointed condemnation. On another N L, for 

with him as assistants. The names of non liquet, signified that a farther hearing 

these were written upon little balls, and was necessary : which delay of the cause 

cast into an urn by the praetor : after was called ampliation. Then the judges, 

they were shaken together, he drew out being called upon, cast the billet, ex- 

as many as the law required for the pressing their opinion, into the urn, ac- 



sheics that nothing can Jtappen but by the permission of 
Providence and that wicked men carry their own punish- 
ment about with them. 

WHATEVER is committed with bad, example, displeases even 
The author of it. This is the first revenge, that, himself 
Being judge, no guilty person is absolved ; altho' the wicked 
Favour of the deceitful pnetor should have overcome the 


What do you suppose all to think, Calvinus, of the recent 5 
Wickedness, and crime of violated faith ? But neither 
Has so small an income come to your share, that the burden 
Of a moderate loss should sink you : nor do we see rare 
Those things which you suffer. This misfortune is known 

to many, and now 
Trite, and drawn from the midst of Fortuned heap 10 

cording to which the praetor pronounced first, that he must have all the world on 
sentence. But if the praetor was a wicked his side ; every body must join with him 
judge, and inclined that partiality should in condemning such a transaction, 
get the better of justice, he might so 7. So small an income.] Another corn- 
manage matters, in all these many turns fort is, that his circumstances are such, 
of the business, that the defendant, how- that such a loss won't ruin him. Census 
ever guilty, might appear to have the means a man's estate, or yearly revenue, 
urn in his favour. This our poet very TIte burden, 3fc.] A metaphor taken 
properly calls, Improba gratia fallacis from a ship's sinking by being over- 
praetoris. loaded. 

5. What do you suppose, fy-.] What, 8. Rare, |'c.] His case was not singu- 
think you, are the opinions of people in lar, but very commonly happened to 
general, of this injustice which you lately many sis well as to Calvinus : he there- 
suffered, and of the breach of trust in fore must not look upon himself as a 
your friend, of which you so loudly com- sufferer beyond others, 
plain? 10. Trite.] Common. 

(~<ili-iiinst.~\ Juvenal's friend, to whom Dratm from the midst, #e.] Not 

he addresses this Satire. And here he taken from the top, or summit, of that 

comforts him by many considerations : heap of miseries, which Fortune stores 



Ponamus nimios gemitus. Flagrantior aequo 
Non debet dolor esse viri, nee vulnere major. 
Tu quamvis levium miniraam, exiguamque malorum 
Particulam vix ferre potes, spumantibus ardens 
Visceribus, sacrum tibi quod non reddat amicus 
Depositum. Stupet haec, qui jam post terga reliquit 
Sexaginta annos, Fonteio Consule natus ? 
An nihil in melius tot rerum proficis usu? 
Magna quidem, sacris quae dat praecepta libellis, 
Victrix Fortunae Sapientia. Dicimus autem 
Hos quoque felices, qui ferre incommoda vitae, 
Nee jactare jugum, vita didicere magistra. 

Quae tarn festa dies, ut cesset prodere furem, 
Perfidiam, fraudes, atque omni ex crimine lucrum 
Qusesitum, et partos gladio vel pyxide nummos ? 
RARI QUIPPE BONI : numero vix sunt totidem, quot 
Thebarum portae, vel divitis ostia Nili. 
Nunc aetas agitur, pejoraque saecula ferri 


up for mankind, but from the middle, 
as it were not so small as not to be felt, 
nor so severe as to overwhelm you. He 
calls it, onus mediocris jacturse, L 7, 8. 

11. Too many sighsJ] Immoderate 

More violent, fycJ] A man's concern 
should never exceed the proper bounds. 

12. Than his wound.'] Should not rise 
higher than that which occasions it re- 
quires. Sorrow should be proportioned 
to suffering. 

13. Tho" 1 you, c.] The poet here re- 
proves the impatience and anger of his 
friend, who, instead of apportioning 
his grief to his loss, which was compa- 
ratively small, according to the preced- 
ing maxim, (1. 11, 12.) shewed a violence 
of grief and resentment on the occasion, 
which bespake him unable to bear, in 
any measure as he ought, a light injury 
or misfortune. 

14. Burning, fyc.~] Your very bowels 
on fire with rage and indignation. We 
often find the intestines, such as the 
heart, liver, and bowels, or en trails, repre- 
sented as the seat of moral feelings. ' 

15. Your friend, $c.] The poet calls 
the money which Calvinus had intrusted 
his false friend with, and which he was 
afraid to lose, a sacred deposit, because 
delivered to him to keep, under the 
sacred confidence of friendship. 

16. Does he wonder, $c.\ Does my 

friend Calvinus, now turned of sixty, 
and consequently well acquainted with 
the nature of mankind from many years 
experience, stand astonished, at such a 
common transaction as this ? 

17. Fonteius.] L. Fonteius Capito 
was consul with C. Vipsam'us, in the 
reign of Nero. 

18. Of so many things.'] Of so many 
things of a like kind, which your know- 
ledge of the world must have brought to 
your observation has all your experi- 
ence of men and things been of no use 
or profit to you ? 

19. Wisdom, indeed, $"c.] The volumes 
of philosophers, held sacred by the fol- 
lowers of them, contain rules for a con- 
tempt of fortune ; and the wisdom by 
which they were indited, and which 
they teach, is the great principle which 
triumphs over the misfortunes we meet 
with. So SENECA, epist. 98. Valentior 
omni fortuna est animus sapientis. The 
books of moral philosophy abound in 
maxims of this kind. 

22. Nor to toss the yoke.] A metaphor 
taken from oxen which are restive, and 
endeavour to get rid of the yoke, by 
flinging and tossing their necks about. 

The poet means, that much may be 
learned on the subject of triumphing 
over fortune from the sacred volumes of 
philosophy : but those are to be pro- 
nounced happy also, who, by the expe- 



Let us lay aside too many sighs. More violent than what 

is just, 
The grief of a man ought not to be, nor greater than his 


Tho 1 you can hardly bear the least, and small particle 
Of light misfortunes, burning with fretting 
Bowels, because your friend may not return to you a sacred 15 
Deposit. Does he wonder at these things, who already has 

left behind 

His back sixty years, born when Fonteius was consul ? 
Do you profit nothing for the better by the experience of so 

many things ? 

Wisdom, indeed, which gives precepts in the sacred books, 
Is the great conqueror of Fortune. But we call 20 

Those also happy, who, to bear the inconveniences of life, 
Nor to toss the yoke have learnt, life being their mistress. 

What day so solemn, that it can cease to disclose a thief, 
Perfidy, frauds, and gain sought from every crime, 
And money gotten by the sword, or by poison ? 25 

For GOOD MEN ARE SCARCE : they are hardly as many in 


As the gates of Thebes, or the mouths of the rich Nile. 
An age is now passing, and worse ages than the times of 

rience of life only, have learned to bear, 
with quietness, submission, and patience, 
any inconveniences, or misfortunes, which 
they may meet with. 

Levins fit patientia 

Quicquid corrigere est nefas. 

HOR. lib. i. ode xxiv. ad fin. 

Superanda omnis Fortuna ferendo est. 
VIRG. JEn. v. 1. 710. See Jer. xxxi. 

Life being their mistress, $c.] Their 
teacher or instructor ; i. e. who are in- 
structed by what they meet with in 
common life, and profit by daily expe- 

To knmv 

That u-hich before its lies in daily life 
Is the prime wisdom. MILTON. 

23. WJiat day, $c.] Festa dies signi- 
fies a day set apart for the observance of 
some festival, on which some sacrifices 
or religious rites were performed ; a 
holiday, as we call it. 

Festus also signifies happy, joyful. 
Perhaps the poet means to say, what 
day is so happy as not to produce some 
mischief or other ? 

24. Gain sought, &fc.~\ Every sort of 
wickedness practised for the sake of gain. 

25. Money gotten.] Somebody or other 
murdered for their money, either more 
openly by the sword, or more secretly 
by poison. 

Poison.] Pyxis signifies a little box ; 
but here, by meton. poison, which used 
to be kept in such boxes, by way of con- 
cealment and easiness of conveyance. 

27. Thebes.] A city of Bceotia, built 
by Cadmus, the son of Agenor ; it was 
called Heptapylos, from having seven 
gates. There was another Thebes in 
Egypt, built by Busiris, king of Egypt, 
which was called Heliopolis, famous for 
an hundred gates. The first is meant 

Mouths of the rich Nile.] Which 
were seven. The Nile is called rich, 
because it made Egypt fruitful by its 
overflowing, thus enriching all the coun- 
try within its reach. 

28. An age, fy.] f. e. The present 
age in which we live, now passing on 
in the course of time. The verb ago, 
when applied to age or life, has this 



Temporibus : quorum sceleri non invenit ipsa 
Nomen, et a nullo posuit natura metallo. 
Nos hominum Divumque fidem clamore cieraus, 
Quanto Fsesidium laudat vocalis agentem 
Sportula. Die senior bulla dignissime, nescis 
Quas habeat Veneres aliena pecunia ? nescis 
Quern tua simplicitas risutn vulgo moveat, cum 
Exigis a quoquam ne pejeret, et putet ullis 
Esse aliquod numen templis, arseque rubenti ? 
Quondam hoc indigene vivebant more, prius quam 
Sumeret agrestem posito diademate falcem 
Saturnus fugiens : tune, cum virguncula Juno, 
Et privatus adhuc Idceis Jupiter antris. 
Nulla super nubes convivia coslicolarum, 
Nee puer Iliacus, formosa nee Herculis uxor 



signification: hence agere vitam, to live. 
Si octogesimum agerent annum : if they 
were eighty years old. Cic. 

Worse ages.~\ The word saeculum, 
like setas, means an age ; a period of an 
hundred years. Here the poet would 
represent the age in which he wrote as 
worse than any that had gone before. 

28. 9. The, times of iron.'] The last of 
the four ages into which the world was 
supposed to be divided, and which was 
worse than the three preceding. See 
Ov. Met. lib. i. 

29. Nature itself, #c.] The wicked- 
ness of the present age is so great, that 
nothing in nature can furnish us with a 
proper name to call it by. 

30. Imposed, <Sfc.] Lit. put it. <j. d. 
Nor has any name been affixed to it 
from any metal. The first age of the 
world was named Golden, from its re- 
sembling gold in purity ; and after this 
came the Silver, the Brazen, the Iron 
Age ; but now the age is so bad, that 
no metal can furnish it with a name 
which can properly describe the nature 
of it. Nomen ponere signifies to put or 
affix a name, f. e. to name. Nature 
herself can find no metal base enough to 
call it by. 

31. We invoke, $fe.] Pro Deum atque 
homimun fidem ! was a usual exclama- 
tion on any thing wonderful or surpris- 
ing happening.- q. d. We can seem 
much amazed, and cry out aloud against 
the vices of the age we can call heaven 
and earth to witness our indignation. 

32. The vocal sportula.'] The dole- 

basket; the hope of sharing which opens 
the mouths of the people who stand by 
Fsesidius while he is pleading at the bar, 
and makes them, with loud shouts, extol 
his eloquence: hence the poet calls it 
vocalis sportula. See a like manner of 
expression, sat. xii. 1. 82. See an ac- 
count of the sportula, sat. i. 1. 95, note. 
Comp. sat. x. 1. 46. 

HOR. lib. i. epist. xix. 1. 37, 8. 

Non ego ventoses plebis siiffragia venor 

Impemis ccenarum, et tritce munere 

" / never hunt tK 1 inconstant people's 
" vote 

" With costly suppers, or a, threadbare 
" coat." FRANCIS. 

The name Faesidius, or Fessidius, as 
some editions have it, may mean some 
vain pleader of the time, who courted 
the applause of the mob, by treating 
them with his sportula. Perhaps no par- 
ticular person may be only meant, but 
sxich sort of people in general. 

33. Old man, worthy the butta.] The 
bulla was an ornament worn about the 
necks of children, or at their breasts, 
made like an heart, and hollow within ; 
they wore it till seventeen years of age, 
and then hung it up to the household 
gods. PERS. sat. v. 1. 31. 

The poet addresses himself to his old 
friend Calvinus, in a joking manner ; as 
if he said, " Well, old gentleman," 
(comp. 1. 16, 17.) " worthy again to 
" wear your childish baubles, are yon, at 
" sixty years old, such a child, as not to 
" know " 




Iron : for the wickedness of which, nature itself has not 
Found a name, nor imposed it from any metal. 30 

We invoke the faith of gods and men with clamour, 
AVith as much as the vocal sportula praises Fa>sidius 
Pleading. Say, old man, worthy the bulla, know you not 
What charms the money of another has ? know you not 34 
What a laugh your simplicity may stir up in the vulgar, when 
You require from any not to forswear, and that he should 

think, that to any 

Temples there is some deity, and to the reddening altar ? 
Formerly our natives lived in this manner, before 
Saturn, flying, took the rustic sickle, his diadem 
Laid down : then, when Juno was a little girl, 40 

And Jupiter as yet private in the Idaean caves. 
No feasts of the gods above the clouds, 
Nor Iliacan boy, nor handsome wife of Hercules. 

34. What charms, <|"c.] '- As to be 
ignorant how great the temptation is, 
when a knave has other people's money 
in his power. 

35. }Vhat ajauffh, $c.~\ How the whole 
town will laugh at your simplicity. 

35. 6. When you require, $c.} q. d. If 
you expect that people won't forswear 
themselves, when perjury is so common. 

36. Should think.'] i. e. And require 
that they should think, &c. 

37. Some deity^ #<.] Should believe 
that religion is not all a farce, but that 
really there is not any of the temples 
without some deity which notices the 
actions and behaviour of men, so as to 
punish perjury and breach of faith. 

The reddening altar. } i. e. Red with 
the blood of the sacrifices, or with the 
fire upon it 

</. d. How childish would you appear, 
and what a laughter would be raised 
against you, if you professed to expect 
either religion or morals in the present 

38. Natives.'] Indigenae. The first na- 
tives and inhabitants of Italy, our home- 
bred ancestors. 

Lived in this manner.} Avoiding per- 
jury and fraud, and believing the pre- 
sence of the gods in their temples, and 
at their altars. 

39. Sat urn flying.'] Saturn was expel- 
led from Crete by his son Jupiter, and 
fled into Italy, where he hid himself 
which from thence was called Latium, a 
latendo, and the people Latins. See 

VIRG. JEn. viii. 1. 319, 20. The poet 
means the Golden Age, (comp. sat vi. 
1. 1, et seq. where Juvenal speaks of the 
simplicity of those times,) which the 
poets place during the reign of Saturn. 

Rustic sickle} Or scythe, which Sa- 
turn is said to have invented, and to 
have taught the people husbandry, after 
his expulsion from his kingdom ; for 
during the Golden Age, the earth brought 
forth every thing without culture. See 
OVID, Met lib. i. fab. iii. 

His dtadem^c.} His kingdom being 
seized by his son Jupiter and he being 
driven out of it 

40. When Juno,$c.} The daughter of 
Saturn, sister and wife to Jupiter a 
little girl i. e. before she was grown up, 
and marriageable. In sat vi. L 15, he 
speaks of Jupiter in a state of impuberty, 
in the time of the Golden Age. 

41. Idaean cares.} Jupiter, when born, 
was carried to mount Ida, in Crete, 
where he was concealed, and bred up, 
lest his father Saturn should devour him. 
See AINSW. Satumus. 

42. No feasts, $c.} No carousing, as 
in after times there was supposed to be. 
Comp. 1. 45. 

43. Iliacan boy.} Ganymede, the son 
of Tros, king of Troy, or Ilium, whom 
Jupiter, in the form of an eagle, snatched 
up from mount Ida, and, displacing 
Hebe, made cup-bearer at the feasts of 

tin- i;i.,ls. 

Wife of Hercules.} Hebe, the daugh- 
ter of Juno, and cup-bearer to Jupiter ; 



Ad cyathos : et jam siccato nectare, tergens 
Brachia Vulcanus Liparsea nigra taberna. 
Prandebat sibi quisque Deus, nee turba Deorura 
Talis, (ut est hoclie,) contentaque sidera paucis 
Numinibus, raiserum urgebant Atlanta minori 
Pondere. Nondum aliquis sortitus triste profundi 
Imperium, aut Sicula torvus cum conjuge Pluto. 
Nee rota, nee Furise, nee saxum, aut vulturis atri 
Poena : sed infernis hilares sine regibus umbrse. 
Improbitas illo ftiit admirabilis sevo. 
Credebant hoc grande nefas, et morte piandum, 
Si juvenis vetulo non assurrexerat ; et si 
Barbato cuicunque puer : licet ipse videret 
Plura domi fraga, et majores glandis acervos. 
Tarn venerabile erat praecedere quatuor annis, 
Primaque par adeo sacrse lanugo senecta3. 
Nunc, si depositum non inficietur amicus, 
Si reddat veterem cum tota serugine follem, 


she happened to make a slip at a ban- 
quet of the gods, so was turned out of 
her place, and Ganymede put into it: 
she was afterwards married to Hercules. 

44. The nectar, <Sfc.] Nectar, a pleasant 
liquor, feigned to be the drink of the 
gods. Siccato nectar, the nectar being 
all drunk up, the feast now over, (see 
sat. v. 1. 47, siccadis calicem,) Vulcan 
retired to his forge. All this happened 
after the Golden Age, but not during 
the continuance of it 

45. Wiping his arms.'] From the soot 
and dirt contracted in his filthy shop. 

Lipareean.~] NearSicily were several 
islands, called the Lipari Islands ; in 
one of which, called Vulcania, Vulcan's 
forge was fabled to be. See VIRG. viii. 
416, et seq. This was in the neigh- 
bourhood of mount jEtna. See sat. i. 

46. Every god dined by himself] The 
poet here, and in the whole of this pas- 
sage, seems to make very free with the 
theology of his country, and, indeed, to 
satirize the gods of Rome as freely as he 
does the people. 

Crowd of gods.~\ The number of gods 
which the Romans worshipped might 
well be called turba deoram, for they 
amounted to above thirty thousand. 

47. This day.'} The Roman polytheism 
and idolatry went hand in hand with 

the wickedness of the times ; they had a 
god for every vice, both natural and un- 
natural. The awful origin of all this, 
as well as its consequences, is set down 
by St. Paul, Rom. i. ver. 21 32. 

The stars.] The heavens, per me- 

48. Urged miserable Atlas.'] A high 
hill in Mauritania, feigned by the poets 
to bear up the heavens. See sat. viii. 
32, note. 

49. Shared the same empire, Sfe.] The 
world as yet was not divided by lot 
among the three sons of Saturn, by 
which Neptune shared the dominion of 
the sea Jupiter heaven and Pluto the 
infernal regions. 

50. His Sicilian wife.'} Proserpine, the 
daughter of Ceres, whom Pluto ravished 
out of Sicily, and made her his wife. 

51. A wheel.'} Alluding to the story 
of Ixion, the father of the Centaurs ; 
Jupiter took him up into heaven, where 
he would have ravished Juno, but Jupi- 
ter formed a cloud in her shape, on 
which he begat the Centaurs. He was 
cast down to hell, for boasting that he 
had lain with Juno, where he was tied to 
a wheel, and surrounded with serpents. 

Furies.'} Of which there were three, 
Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone. These were 
sisters, the daughters of Acheron and 
Nox ; they are described with torches 


At the cups; and now the nectar being drunk up, Vulcan 
Wiping his arms black with the Liparsean shop. 45 

Every god dined by himself, nor was the crowd of gods 
Such* (as it is at this day,) and the stars content with a few 
Deities, urged miserable Atlas with a less 
Weight. Nobody as yet shared the sad empire 
Of the deep, or fierce Pluto with his Sicilian wife. 50 

Nor a wheel, nor furies, nor a stone, or the punishment of 

the black 

Vulture : but the shades happy without infernal kings. 
Improbity was in that age to be wonder'd at. 
They believed this a great crime, and to be punishM by 


If a youth had not risen up to an old man, and if 55 

A boy to any who had a beard : tho 1 he might see 
At home more strawberries, and greater heaps of acorn. 
So venerable was it to precede by four years, 
And the first down was so equal to sacred old age. 
Now, if a friend should not deny a deposit, 60 

If he should restore an old purse with all the rust ; 

in their hands, and snakes, instead of 
hair, on their heads. 

51. A stone."] Alluding to Sisyphus, the 
son of .flSolus ; he greatly infested At- 
tica with his robberies, but being slain 
by Theseus, he was sent to hell, and 
condemned to roll a great stone up an 
hill, which stone, when he had got it to 
the top, rolled back again, so that his 
labour was to be constantly renewed. 

51, 2. Black vulture.] Prometheus 
was chained to mount Caucasus for 
stealing fire from heaven, where a black 
vulture was continually preying on his 
liver, which grew as fast as it was de- 

5'2. But the shades.'] The ghosts of the 
departed were 

Happy without infernal kings.] For 
there being, at that time, no crimes, 
there wanted no laws nor kings to en- 
force them ; of course no punishments. 

53. Improbity, iifc.] Villany of all 
kinds was scarcely known ; any crime 
would have been a wonder. 

55. If a youth, fyc.] In those days of 
purity and innocence, the highest subor- 
dination was maintained. It was a ca- 
pital crime for a young man even to have 
sitten down in the presence of an old 
one, or if sitting, not to have risen up on 
his approach. Comp. Job xxuc. 8. 

VOL. H. 

So for a boy not to have done the 
same in the presence of a youth, now 
arrived at the age of puberty, which was 
indicated bv having a beard. 

56. 77*o'* he mu,ht see, fy.] Straw- 
berries, acorns, and such-like, are hero 
supposed to be the first food of man- 
kind in the Golden Age. The poet's 
meaning here is, that superiority in age 
always challenged the respect above 
mentioned, from the younger to the 
elder, though the former might be 
richer, in the possessions of those days, 
than the latter. 

58. So venerable, $Y.] So observant 
were they of the difference paid to age, 
that even a difference of four years was 
to create respect, insomuch that the first 
appearance of down upon the chin was 
to be venerated by younger persons, as 
the venerable beard of old age was by 
those grown to manhood ; so there was 
an equal and proportionate subordination 

60. AW.] In our day. 

Should not deny.] Either deny that 
he received it, or should not refuse to 
deliver it. 

A deposit.] Something committed 
to his trust. 

61. With all the ntft.] i. e. The coin, 
which has bin by *> long as to have 



Prodigiosa fides, et Tuscis digna libellis : 
Qua3que coronata lustrari debeat agna. 
Egregium sanctumque virum si cerno, bimembri 
Hoc monstrum puero, vel mirandis sub aratro 
Piscibus inventis, et foeta comparo mulse ; 
Sollicitus tanquam lapides effuderit imber, 
Examenque apium longa consederit uva 
Culmine delubri, tanquam in mare fluxerit amnis 
Gurgitibus miris, et lactis vortice torrens. 
Intercepta decem quereris sestertia fraude 
Sacrilega? quid si bis centum perdidit alter 
Hoc arcana modo 1 majorem tertius ilia 
Summam, quam patulse vix ceperat angulus arcse ? 
Tain facile et pronum est superos contemnere testes, 
Si mortalis idem nemo sciat. Aspice quanta 
Voce neget ; quse sit ficti constantia vultus. 
Per solis radios, Tarpeiaque fulmina jurat, 

contracted a rust, not having been used. 

62. Prodigious faithfulness /] Such a 
thing would be looked upon, in these 
times, as a prodigy of honesty. 

A like sentiment occurs in TER. 
Phorm. act i. sc. ii. where Davus returns 
to Geta some money which he had bor- 

DAV. Accepe, hem ; 
Lectum est, conveniet numerus ; quan- 
tum debui. 
GET. Amo te, et mm negkxisse ha- 

DAV. Preesertim ut mine surd mores: 

adeo res redit, 
Si quis quid reddit, magna habenda est 


Worthy the Tuscan books /] To be 
recorded there among other prodigies. 
It is said, that the art of soothsaying 
first came from the Tuscans, which con- 
sisted in foretelling future events from 
prodigies ; these were recorded in books, 

it any 

thing happening of the marvellous 

as authorities for the determination of 

the auspices, or soothsayers, thereupon. 

63. Eacpiated, fyc.] When any prodigy 
happened, the custom of the Tuscans 
was to make an expiation by sacrifice, in 
order to avert the consequences of ill 
omens, which were gathered from prodi- 
gies. This the Romans followed. 

A crowned she-lamb.'} They put 

garlands of flowers, or ribbands, on the 
heads of the victims. A she-lamb was 
the offering on such an occasion. 

64. An excellent^ Egregium ex toto 
grege lectum '. e. as we say, one taken 
out of the common herd of mankind 
choice singular for great and good qua- 

65. A boy of 'two parts.~\ A monstrous 
birth, as prodigious as a child born with 
parts of two different species : hence the 
Centaurs were called bimembres. 

Wonderful fehes, 6fc.] A wondrous 
shoal of fish unexpectedly turned up in 
ploughing the ground. 

66. A mule u-ith foal.'] Which was 
never known to happen. Though Ap- 
pian, lib. i. says, that before the coming 
of Sylla, a mule brought forth in the 
city. This must be looked on as fabu- 

67. Anxious.'] Solicitous for the event. 
As if a shower ; fe.] As if the clouds 

rained showers of stones. 

68. A swarm, $.] It was accounted 
ominous if a swarm of bees settled on an 
house, or on a temple. 

Long bunch.] When bees swarm 
and settle any where, they all cling to 
one another, and hang down, a consi- 
derable length, in the form of a bunch 
of grapes. Hence VIRG. Georg. iv. 
557, 8. 

Jamque arbore summa 

Confluere,et lentis uvam demittere ramis. 



Prodigious faithfulness ! and worthy the Tuscan books ! 
And which ought to be expiated by a crowned she-lamb. 
If I perceive an excellent and upright man, I compare 
This monster to a boy of two parts, or to wonderful fishes 65 
Found under a plough, or to a mule with foal. 
Anxious as if a shower had poured forth stones, 
And a swarm of bees had settled, in a long bunch, 
On the top of a temple, as if a river had flowed into the sea 
With wondVous gulfs, and rushing with a whirlpool of milk. 70 
Do you complain that ten sestertiums are intercepted by 
Impious fraud ? what if another has lost two hundred secret 
Sestertiums in this manner I a third a larger sum than that, 
Which the corner of his wide chest had scarce received ? 
So easy and ready it is, to contemn the gods who are wit- 
nesses, 75 
If that same thing no mortal can know. Behold, with how 

A voice he denies it, what steadiness there is of feigned 

By the rays of the sun, and the Tarpeian thunderbolts he 

swears ; 

69. A river, $c.] All rivers run into 
the sea, and many with great violence ; 
therefore the poetcannot mean that there 
is any wonder in this ; but in flowing 
with unusual and portentous appear- 
ances, such as being mixed with blood, 
which Livy speaks of, lib. xxiv. c. 10. 
or the like. 

TQ.RusJiinff.] Torrens violent, head- 
long, running in full stream, like the 
rushing of a hind-flood, with dreadful 
violence, eddying in whirlpools of milk. 
When we consider what has been said 
in the last seven lines, what an idea 
does it give us of the state of morals at 
Rome in the time of Juvenal ! 

71. Ten sestertiums.] About 801. 14s. 
Id. of our money. 

Intercepted.] i. e. Prevented from 
coming to your hands. 

72. What if another, &;c.] The poet 
endeavours to comfort his friend under 
his loss, and to keep him from indulging 
too great a concern about it, by wishing 
him to consider that he is not so great a 
sufferer as many others perhaps might 
be by a like fraud. 

Secret, fyc.] Arcana </. d. bis cen- 
tum sestertia arcana . e. delivered or 
lent secretly, when no witnesses were by. 

as had been the case of Juvenal's friend 

74. Which the comer, &c.] Another, 
says he, may have lost so large a sum of 
money, as even to be greater than could 
be easily contained in a large chest, 
though stuffed at every corner, in which 
he had stowed it. 

75. So easy and ready, fyc.] So prone are 
men to despise the gods, who are wit- 
nesses to all their actions, that if they can 
but hide them from the eyes of men, they 
make themselves quite easy under the 
commission of the greatest frauds. 

76. Behold, with how great, %c.] This 
contempt of the gods is carried so far, 
that men will not only defraud, but, 
with a loud unfaltering voice, and the 
most unembarrassed countenance, deny 
every thing that's laid to their charge ; 
and this by the grossest perjury. 

77. Feigned countenance.] Putting on, 
in his looks, a semblance of truth and 

78. By the rays of the sun.] This was 
an usual oath. See JEn. iii. 599, 600, 
and note. Delph. edit. 

Tarpeian thunderbolts.] i. e. The 
thunder of Jupiter, who had a temple of 
the Tarpeian rock. See sat vi. 47, note. 
H 2 



Et Martis frameam, et Cirrhsei spicula vatis ; 
Per calamos venatricis, pharetramque puellse, 
Perque tuum, pater JEgsei Neptune, tridentem : 
Addit et Herculeos arcus, hastamque Minervse, 
Quicquid habent telorum armamentaria coeli. 
Si vero et pater est, comedam, inquit, flebile gnati 
Sinciput elixi, Pharioque madentis aceto. 

Sunt, in Fortunse qui casibus omnia ponunt, 
Et nullo credunt naundum rectore moveri, 
Natura volvente vices et lucis, et anni, 
Atque ideo intrepidi qusecunque altaria tangunt. 

Est alius, metuens ne crimen poena sequatur : 
Hie putat esse Deos, et pejerat, atque ita secum ; 
Decernat quodcunque volet de corpore nostro 
Isis, et irato feriat mea lumina sistro, 
Dumniodo vel caecus teneam, quos abnego, nummos. 


79. Cyrrhasan prophet.] Apollo, who 
had an oracle at Delphos, near Cirrha, a 
city of Phocis, where he was worshipped. 

80. Virffin-huntress.] Puellae venatricis. 
Diana, the -fabled goddess of hunting ; 
she, oat of chastity, avoided all company 
of men, retired into the woods, and there 
exercised herself in hunting. 

81. Trident.] Neptune's trident was a 
sort of spear with three prongs at the 
end, and denoted his being king of the 
sea, which surrounded the three then 
known parts of the world. With this in- 
strument he is usually represented, and 
with this he was supposed to govern the 
sea, and even to shake the earth itself : 
so that there is no wonder that the super- 
stitious heathen should swear by it, as 
Neptune was so considerable an object 
of their veneration and worship. See 
VIRG. JEn. i. 142149, et al. 

Father of JEgeusI\ JEgeus was the 
son of Neptune, the father of Theseus. 
He reigned at Athens he threw himself 
into the JEgean sea, which was so named 
after him. 

82. Herculean bows.] Perhaps the poet 
particularly here alludes to those fatal 
bows and arrows of Hercules, which he 
gave to Philoctetes, the son of Paeas, 
king of Melibcea, a city of Thessaly, at 
the foot of mount Ossa ; and which wea- 
pons, unless Philoctetes had carried to 
Troy, it was feted that the city could 
not have been taken. See VIRG. JEn. 
iii. 402, and note, Delph. 

83. Armories of heaven.] Juvenal held 

the Roman mythology in great contempt : 
he certainly means here to deride the 
folly of imagining that the gods had ar- 
senals or repositories of arms. 

84. A father, %c.~\ Here is an allusion 
to the story of Thyestes, the brother of 
Atreus, who, having committed adultery 
with the wife of Atreus, Atreus in re- 
venge killed and dressed the child born 
of her, and served him up to his brother 
at his own table. 

The defrauded is represented as per- 
juring himself by many oaths ; and now 
he wishes, that the fate of Thyestes may 
be his, that he may have his son dressed 
and served up to table for him to eat, if 
he be guilty of the fraud which is laid 
to his charge. 

85. Part of the head.] Sinciput signi- 
fies the forepart, or, perhaps, one half of 
the head, when divided downwards. See 
AINSW. Quasi semicaput or, a scin- 
dendo, from whence sinciput. 

Pharian vinegar.] Pharos was an 
island of Egypt, from whence came 
the best vinegar, of which were made 
sauces and seasonings for victuals of va- 
rious kinds. The poet does not add 
this without an ironical fling at the lux- 
ury of his day. 

86. TJiere are, fyc.] '. e. There are 
some so atheistically inclined, as to at- 
tribute all events to mere chance. 

87. Tlie world to be moved, $c.] Epi- 
curus and his followers acknowledged 
that there were gods, but that they took 
no care of human affairs, nor interfered 



And the javelin of Mars, and the darts of the Cyrrhsean pro- 
phet ; 

By the shafts, and the quiver of the virgin-huntress, 80 
And by thy trident, O Neptune, father of ^geus : 
He adds also the Herculean bows, and the spear of Minerva, 
Whatever the armories of heaven have of weapons ; 
And truly if he be a father, I would eat, says he, a doleful 
Part of the head of my boiled son, and wet with Pharian 
vinegar. 85 

There are who place all things in the chances of Fortune, 
And believe the world to be moved by no governor, 
Nature turning about the changes both of the light and year, 
And therefore intrepid they touch any altars whatsoever. 

Another is fearing lest punishment may follow a crime: 90 
He thinks there are gods, and forswears, and. thus with him- 

" Let Isis decree whatever she will concerning this body 
" Of mine, and strike my eyes with her angry sistrum, 
" So that, even blind, I may keep the money which I deny. 

in the management of the world. So 

HOR. sat. v. lib. i. 1. 1013. 

Deos didici securum agere eevum, 
Nee, si quid mirifaciat natura, Deos id 
Tristes ex alto cccli demittere tecto. 

88. Nature, fe.] A blind principle, 
which they call nature, bringing about 
the revolutions of days and years (lu- 
cis et anni) acting merely mechanical- 
ly, and without design. 

89. Intrepid they touch, &;c.~] When a 
man would put another to his solemn 
oath, he brought him to a temple, and 
there made him swear, laying his hand 
upon the altar. But what constraint 
could this have on the consciences of 
those who did not believe in the inter- 
ference of the gods what altars could 
they be afraid to touch, and to swear by 
in the most solemn manner, if they 
thought that perjury was not noticed ? 

90. Another, #<"] The poet, having 
before mentioned atheists, who thought 
the world governed by mere chance, or, 
though they might allow that there were 
gods, yet that these did not concern 
themselves in the ordering of human af- 
fairs, now comes to another sort, who did 
really allow not only the existence, but 
also the providence of the gods, and 
their attention to what passed among 
mortals, and yet such persons having a 
salvo, to console themselves under the 

commission of crimes, which he well de- 
scribes in the following lines. 

91. Thus u-ith himself.] i. e. Thus ar- 
gues with himself, allowing and fearing 
that he will be punished. 

92. " Let /sis," #<:.] Isis was originally 
an Egyptian goddess ; but the Romans 
having adopted her among their deities, 
they built her a temple at Rome, where 
they worshipped her. She was supposed 
to be much concerned in inilicting dis- 
eases and maladies on mankind, and par- 
ticularly on the perjured. 

93. Strike my eyes.] Strike me blind. 
Angry sistrum.] The sistrum was a 

musical instrument ; it is variously de- 
scribed, but generally thought to "be a 
sort of timbrel, of an oval, or a triangu- 
lar form, with loose rings on the edges, 
which, being struck with a small iron 
rod, yielded a shrill sound. The Egyp- 
tians used it in battle instead of a trum- 
pet. It was also used by the priests of 
Isis at her sacrifices, and the goddess 
herself was described as holding one in 
her right hand. 

Her angry sistrum per hypallagen 
for the angry goddess with her sistrum. 

94. Keep the money, e.] Juvenal here 
describes one, who, having money in- 
trusted to him, refuses to deliver it up 
when called upon, and who is dr.rini; 
enough, not onlv to donv his ever having 



Et phthisis, et vomicce putres, et dimidium erus 95 

Sunt tanti ? pauper locupletem optare podagram 
Ne dubitet Ladas, si non eget Anticyra, nee 
Archigene : quid enim velocis gloria plantse 
Praestat, et esuriens Pisa3se ramus olivas ? 


Si curant igitur cunctos punire nocentes, 

Quando ad me venient ? sed et exorabile numen 

Fortasse experiar : solet his ignoscere. Multi 

Committunt eadem diverse crimina fato. 

Ille crucem pretium sceleris tulit, hie diadema. 105 

Sic animum dirse trepidum formidine culpse 

Confirmant. Tune te sacra ad delubra vocantem 

Prsecedit, trahere immo ultro, ac vexare paratus. 

Nam cum magna malse superest audacia causa3, 

Creditur a multis fiducia : mimum agit ille, ] 10 

Urbani qualem fugitivus scurra Catulli. 

Tu miser exclanaas, ut Stentora vincere possis, 

received it, but to defy all punishment, 
and its consequences, so that he may 
but succeed in his perjury and fraud, 
and still keep the money in his posses- 

95. A phthisic.] (From Gr. <j>0ttns, a 
<&, to corrupt.) A consumption of the 

Putrid sores.] Vomicae i 
thumes of a very malignant kind. 

Half a, leg.] The other half being 
amputated on account of incurable sores, 
which threatened mortification. 

96. Of such consequence^ Tanti of so 
much consequence i. e. as to counter- 
balance the joy of possessing a large sum 
of money. 

Ladas.] The name of a famous run- 
ner, who won the prize at the Olympic 

97. The rich gout.] So called, because 
it usually attacks the rich and luxurious. 

If he does not ivant Anticyra.] i. e. If 
he be not mad. Anticyra, an island of 
the Archipelago, was famous for pro- 
ducing great quantities of the best helle- 
bore, which the ancients esteemed good 
to purge the head in cases of madness. 
Whence naviga Anticyram, was as much 
as to say, you are mad. See Hon. lib. 
ii. sat. iii. 1. 166. 

98. Archigents.] Some famous physi- 
cian, remarkable, perhaps, for curing 

madness. See sat vL 235. 

The glory of a su-iftfoot, fyc.] What 
good does the applause got by his swift- 
ness do him ? it will not fill his belly. 

99. Hungry branch of the Piscean olive.] 
Pisa was a district of Elis, in Pelopon- 
nesus, in which was Olympia, where the 
Olympian games were celebrated : the 
victors in which were crowned with 
chaplets made of olive-branches, hence 
called Pisaean. 

The hungry branches i. e. that will 
afford no food to the gainers of it. See 
note on L 93, ad fin. 

The speaker here means, that to be 
sick and rich, is better than to be healthy 
and poor ; that the famous Ladas, un- 
less he were mad, would sooner choose 
to be laid up with the gout and be rich, 
than to enjoy all the glory of the Olym- 
pic games and be poor. 

1 00. 7%o' the anger, $c.] Another flat- 
ters himself, that, though punishment 
may be heavily inflicted some time or 
other, j-et the evil day may be a great 
way off. See Eccl. viiL 11. 

101. If they take care, frc.] q. d. If 
they do observe the actions of men, and 
attend to what they do, so as to take or- 
der for the punishment of guilt, wherever 
they find it, yet it may be a great while 
before it comes to my turn to be pu- 


" Are a phthisic, or putrid sores, or half a leg 95 

" Of such consequence ? let not poor Ladas doubt to wish 


" The rich gout, if he does want Anticyra, nor 
" Archigenes : for what does the glory of a swift foot 
" Avail him, and the hungry branch of the Pissean olive f 

" SLOW. 100 

" If they take care therefore to punish all the guilty, 

" When will they come to me ? But, perhaps too, the deity 

" Exorable I may experience: he useth to forgive these things. 

" Many commit the same crimes with a different fate. 

" One has borne the cross as a reward of wickedness, another 

" a diadem." 105 

Thus the mind trembling with the fear of dire guilt 
They confirm : then you, calling him to the sacred shrines, 
He precedes, even ready of his own accord to draw you, and 

to teaze you. 

For when great impudence remains to a bad cause, 
It is believed confidence by many : he acts a farce, no 

Such as the fugitive buffoon of the witty Catullus. 
Youmiserable exclaim, so asthat you might overcome Stentor, 

103. Exorable, $c.] It may be I shall the utmost haste to purge himself by oath, 
escape all punishment ; for perhaps I Ready to draw, ty-.] He is ready to 
may obtain forgiveness and find the drag you along by force, and to harass 
Deity easy to be intreated. and teaze you to get on faster, in order 

He useth, c.] i. e. Crimes of this to bring him to his oath. 

sort, which was not committed out of 109. W1ienyreutimpuilence,$c.~] When 

contempt of the Deity, but merely to get a man is impudent enough, however 

a little money, he usually forgives. guilty, to set a good face upon the mat- 

104. Different fate.] Another sub- ter, this is mistaken by many for a sign 
terfuge of a guilty conscience is, that of honest confidence, arising from inno- 
though, in some instances, wrong doers cence. 

are punished grievously, yet in others 110. He acts the farce, tyc.] Alluding 

they succeed so happily as to obtain re- to a play written by one Lutatius Catul- 

wards : so that the event of wickedness lus, called the Phasma, or Vision, (see 

is very different to different people. sat viii. 185, 6.) in which there was a 

105. Borne the cross, #e.] The same character of a buffoon who ran away 
species of wickedness that has brought from his master, after having cheated 
one man to the gallows, has exalted him, and then vexed, and even provoked 
another to a throne. him, that he might be brought to swear 

106, 7. Thus they confirm.] By all himself off, cheerfully proposing thus to 
these specious and deceitful reasonings be perjured. This play is lost by time, 
they cheat themselves into the commis- so that nothing certain can be said con- 
sion of crimes, and endeavour to silence cerning this allusion ; but what is here 
the remonstrances and terrors of a guilty said (after Holyday) seems probable, 
conscience. 111. Witty GbfaJMfc] Some expound 

108. He precedes, &.] Thus confident, urbani, here, as the cognomen of this 

the wretch whom you summon to the Catullus. 

temple, in order to swear to his inno- 112. You mitn-nM" c.rrlaim ] You, 

cence, leads the way before you, as if in half-mad with vexation at finding your- 



Vel potius quantum Gradivus Homericus : Audis, 
Jupiter, haec ? nee labra moves, cum mittere vocein 
Debueras, vel marmoreus, vel aheneus ? aut cur 
In carbone tuo charta pia thura soluta 
Ponimus, et sectum vituli jecur, albaque porci 
Omenta I ut video, nullum discrimen habendum est 
Effigies inter vestras, statuamque Bathylli. 
Accipe, quse contra valeat solatia ferre, 
Et qui nee Cynicos, nee Stoica dogmata legit 
A Cynicis tunica distantia ; non Epicurum 
Suspicit exigui Ia3tum plantaribus horti. 
Curentur dubii medicis majoribus segri, 
Tu venam vel discipulo committe Philippi. 

Si nullum in terris tarn detestabile factum 
Ostendis, taceo ; nee pugnis csedere pectus 
Te veto, nee plana faciein contundere palnia ; 


self thus treated, and in amazement at 
the impudence of such a perjury, break 
forth aloud. 

112. Stentor.] A Grecian mentioned 
by Homer. 11. . 1. 785, 6. 'to have a 
voice as loud as fifty people together. 

113. Homerican Gradivus.'] See note, 
sat. ii. 1. 128. Homer says, (II. e. 860 
2.) that when Mars was wounded by 
Dioinede, he roared so loud that he 
frightened the Grecians and Trojans, and 
made a noise as loud as 10,000 men to- 

In some such manner as this, wouldst 
thou, my friend Calvinus, exclaim, and 
call out to Jupiter. 

114. Nor move your lips.] Canst thou 
be a silent hearer, O Jupiter, of such 
perjuries as these ? wilt thou not so 
much as utter a word against such 
doings, when one should think thou 
oughtest to threaten vengeance, wert 
thou even made of marble or brass, like 
thine images which are among us ? 

115. Or why.'] Where is -the use to 
what purpose is it ? 

116. Put we, $c.] See sat. xii. 1. 89, 

1 16, 17. From the loosed paper.] Some 
think that the offerers used to bring their 
incense wrapped up in a paper, and, com- 
ing to the altar, they undid or opened 
the paper, and poured the incense out of 
it upon the fire. 

But others, by charta soluta (abl. ab- 
sol.) understand u reference to the cus- 

tom, mentioned sat. x. 55. (see note 
there,) of fastening pieces of paper, con- 
taining vows, upon the images of the 
gods, and taking them off when their 
prayers were granted, after which they 
offered what they had vowed. 

117. " The cut liver," Sfc.] The liver 
cut out of a calf, and the caul which 
covered the inwards of an hog, were 
usual offerings. 

119. " The statue of Balhyllus."] A 
fiddler and a player, whose statue was 
erected in the temple of Juno, at Samos, 
by the tyrant Polycrates. q. d. At this 
rate, I don't see that there is any differ- 
ence between thy images, O Jupiter, and 
those that may be erected in honour of 
a fiddler. 

In this expostulatory exclamation to 
Jupiter, which the poet makes his friend 
utter with so much vehemence, there is 
very keen raillery against the folly and 
superstition that prevailed at Rome, 
which Juvenal held in the highest con- 
tempt. This almost reminds one of that 
fine sarcasm of the prophet Elijah, 
1 Kings, xviii. 27. 

120. Hear, $c.] The poet is now 
taking another ground to console his 
friend, by representing to him the fre- 
quency not only of the same, but of much 
greater injuries than what he has suf- 
fered ; and that he, in being ill used, is 
only sharing the common lot of man- 
kind, from which he is not to think him- 
self exempt. 



Or rather as much asthe HomericanGradivus: "Do you hear, 
" Jupiter, those things? nor move your lips, when you ought 
" To send forth your voice, whether you are of marble or of 
"brass? or why, 115 

" On thy coal, put we the pious frankincense from the loosed 
" Paper, and the cut liver of a calfj and of an hog 
" The white caul? as I see, there is no difference tobereckonM, 
" Between your images, and the statue of Bathyllus." 
Hear, what consolations on the other hand one may bring, 120 
And who neither hath read the Cynics, nor the Stoic doc- 
trines, differing 

From the Cynics by a tunic : nor admires Epicurus 
Happy in the plants of a small garden. 
The dubious sick may be taken care of by greater physicians, 
Do you commit your vein even to the disciple of Philip. 125 

If you shew no fact in all the earth so detestable, 
I am silent : nor do I forbid you to beat your breast 
With your fists, nor to bruise your face with your open palm ; 

120. Hear.] Accipe auribus under- 

121. Neither Jiath rend.] Never hath 
made these his study. 

The Cynics.} The followers of Dio- 

Stoic doctrines.] The doctrines of 
Zeno and his followers, who were called 
Stoics, from ff-riaa, a porch, where they 
tii light. 

DijT'ring, fe.] The people differed 
from each other in their dress, the Cynics 
wearing no tunic (a sort of waistcoat) 
under their cloaks, as the Stoics did ; 
but both agreed in teaching the contempt 
of money, and of the change of fortune. 

122. Epicurus.] A philosopher of 
Athens, a temperate and sober man, 
who lived on bread and water and herbs: 
he placed man's chief happiness in the 
pleasure and tranquillity of the mind. 
He died of the stone at Athens, aged 
seventy-two. His scholars afterwards 
sadly perverted his doctrines, by making 
the pleasures of the body the chief 
good, and" ran into those excesses which 
brought a great scandal on the sect. Sus- 
picit lit looks up to. 

124. Dubious sick, $c.] Those who are 
so ill, that their recovery is doubtful, 
should t>e committed to the care of very 
experienced and able physicians. 

So, those who are afflicted with heavy 

misfortunes, stand in need of the most 
grave and learned advice. 

125. Commit your vein, fyc.] A person 
whose cause of illness is but slight, may 
trust himself in the hands of a young 

So you, Calvinus, whose loss is but 
comparatively slight, have no need of 
Stoics, or Cynics, or of such a one as 
Epicurus, to console you ; I am suffi- 
cient for the purpose, though I do not 
read or study such great philosophers. 

Philip.] Some surgeon of no great 
credit or reputation ; but even his ap- 
prentice might be trusted to advise bleed- 
ing, or not, in a slight disorder. So you 
may safely trust to my advice in your 
present circumstances, though I am no 
deep philosopher ; a little common sense 
will serve the turn. 

The whole of these \wo last lines is 
allegorical ; the ideas are taken from 
bodily disorder, but are to be transferred 
to the mind. 

126. If you slterc^c.] Could you shew 
no act in all the world so vile as this 
which has been done towards you, I 
would say no more I would freely 
abandon you to your sorrows, as a most 
singularly unhappy man. 

1-27. Nor do /,*,<-.] i. e. Go on, like a 
man frantic with grief l>eat your breast 
slap your face till it be black and blue. 



Quandoquidem accepto claudenda est janua damno, 
Et majore domus gemitu, majore tumultu 
Planguntur nummi, quam funera : nemo dolorem 
Fingit in hoc casu, vestem deducere suinmam 
Contentus, vexare oculos humore coacto : 
Ploratur lachrymis amissa pecunia veris. 
Sed si cuncta vides simili fora plena querela ; 
Si decies lectis diversa parte tabellis, 
Vana supervacui dicunt chirographa Kgni, 
Arguit ipsorum quos litera, gemmaque princeps 
Sardonyches, loculis quse custoditur eburnis : 
Ten 1 , o delicias, extra communia censes 
Ponendum ? Qui tu gallinse filius alba?, 
Nos viles pulli nati infelicibus ovis? 




129. Since, fc.] In a time of mourn- 
ing for any great loss, it was usual to 
shut the doors and windows. 

Loss being received.] A loss of mo- 
ney incurred. He is here rallying his 
friend Calvinus. q. d. Inasmuch as the 
loss of money is looked upon as the most 
serious of all losses, doubtless you ought 
to bewail your misfortune, with every 
circumstance of the most unfeigned sor- 

130. Mourning of ike house, <Sfc.] i. e. 
Of the family for, to be sure, the loss 
of money is a greater subject of grief, 
and more lamented, than the deaths of 

131. Nobody feigns, #c.] The grief for 
loss of money is very sincere, however 
feigned it usually is at funerals. 

132. Consent to sever, Sfc.~\ Nobody 
contents himself with the mere outward 
show of grief such as rending the upper 
edge of a garment, which was an usual 
sign of grief. 

133. Vex tfte eyes, fy-.] To rub the 
eyes, in order to squeeze out a few forced 

See TKRENT. Eun. act i. sc. i. where 
Parmeno is describing the feigned grief 
of Phaedria's mistress, and where this 
circumstance of dissimulation is finely 
touched : 

Heec verba una meherele falsa lacru- 

Quam, oculos terendo misere, vix vi ex- 

Restingitet, c. 
So VIBG. JEu. ii. L 196. 

Captique dolis lachrymisque coacti. 

134. Lost money is deplored, fe.] 
When we see a man deploring the loss 
of money, we may believe the sincerity 
of his tears. 

The poet in this, and the preceding 
lines on this subject, finely satirizes the 
avarice and selfishness of mankind, as 
well as their hypocrisy and all want of 
real feelings, where self is not imme- 
diately concerned. 

135. If you see, Sfc.} q. d. However I 
might permit you to indulge in sorrow, 
if no instance of such fraud and villany 
had happened to any body but yourself, 
yet if it be every day's experience, if 
the courts of justice are filled with com- 
plaints of the same kind, why should you 
give yourself up to grief, as singularly 
wretched, when what has happened to 
you is the frequent lot of others ? 

136. If, tablets.'] i. e. Deeds or obliga- 
tions written on tablets. See sat. ii. 1. 
58, note. 

Read over, fe.] i. e. Often read over 
in the hearing of witnesses, as well as of 
the parties. 

By the different party.] This ex- 
pression is very obscure, and does not 
appear to me to have been satisfactorily 
elucidated by commentators. Some read 
diversa in parte, and explain it to mean, 
that the deeds had been read over in 
different places variis in locis, says the 
Delphin interpretation. However, after 
much consideration, I rather approve of 
reading diversa parte, by the different 
(i. e. the opposite) party. Pars means, 
sometimes, a side or party in contention. 
AINSW. In this view it 



Since, loss being received, the gate is to be shut, 130 

And with greater mourning of thehouse, with a greater tumult, 
Money is bewailed than funerals : nobody feigns grief 
In this case, content to sever the top of the garment, 
To vex the eyes with constrained moisture : 
Lost money is deplored with true tears. 135 

But if you see all the courts filled with the like complaint, 
If, tablets being read over ten times, by the different party, 
They saw the hand-writings of the useless wood are vain, 
Whom their own letters convicts, and a principal gem 
Of a sardonyx, which is kept in ivory boxes. 140 

Think you, O sweet Sir, that out of common things 
You are to be put? How are you the offspring of a white hen, 
We, vile chickens hatched from unfortunate eggs ? 

the impudence and villany of a man 
who denied his deed or obligation, see- 
ing that his adversary, the creditor, hav- 
ing frequently read over the deeds, could 
not be mistaken as to its contents, any 
more than the debtor, who had signified 
and sealed it, as well as heard it read 

137. They say.] i.e. The fraudulent 
debtors say, that the hand-writings con- 
tained in the bonds are false and void. 

Supervacuus means superfluous, serv- 
ing to no purpose or use. Supervacui 
ligni, i. e. of the inscribed wooden ta- 
blets, which are of no use, though the 
obligation be written on them. 

q.d. Notwithstanding the hand-writing 
appears against them, signed and sealed 
by themselves, and that before witnesses, 
yet they declare that it is all false, a mere 
deceit,nnd of no obligation whatsoever 
they plead, non est factum, as we say. 

1 38. Whom their otvn letters convicts.] 
Whose own hand- writing proves it to be 
their own deed. 

A principal gem, fc.] Their seal cut 
upon a sardonyx of great value, with 
which they sealed the deed. 

139. Which is kept, 3>e.] Kept in splen- 
did cases of ivory, perhaps one within 
another, for its greater security. By this 
circumstance, the poet seems to hint, that 
the vile practice which he mentions was 
by no means confined to the lower sort 
of people, but had made its way among 
the rich and grout. 

140. O suvft Sir.] Delicias hominis 
understood. Com p. sat, vi. 1. 47. An 
ironical apostrophe to his friend. 

Delicise is often used to denote a dar- 
ling, a minion, in which a person de- 
lights ; here delicias might be rendered 
choice, favourite, i. e. of fortune as if 
exempted from the common accidents of 
life as if put or placed out of their reach. 

141. How.] Why by what means 
how can you make it out ? 

The offspring of a while hen.] The 
colour of white was deemed lucky. This 
expression seems to have been prover- 
bial in Juvenal's time to denote a man 
that is born to be happy and fortunate. 

Some suppose the original of this say- 
ing to be the -story told by Suetonius in 
his life of Galba, where lie mentions an 
eagle, which soaring over the head of 
Livia, a little after her marriage with 
Augustus, let fall into her lap a white 
hen, with a Laurel-branch in her mouth ; 
which hen, being preserved, became so 
fruitful, that the place where this hap- 
pened was called Villa ad Gallinas. 

But the poet saying nothing of fruit- 
fulness, but of the colour only, it is 
rather to be supposed that Erasmus is 
right, in attributing this proverb to the 
notion which the Romans had of a white 
colour, that it denoted luck or happiness, 
as dies albi, and albo lapillo notati, and 
the like. 

142. Unfortunate eggs.] The infelicibus 
ovis, put here in opposition to the white 
hen, seems to imply the eggs of some 
birds of unhappy omen, as crows, ravens, 
&c. figuratively to denote those who are 
born to be unfortunate. 

Seep? ainistra cava prmdLrit ab ilice 
Cornir. VIKG. eel. i. 18 ; and ix. 15. 



Bern pateris modicam, et mediocri bile ferendatn, 
Si flectas oculos majora ad crimina : confer 
Conductum latronem, incendia sulphure coepta, 
Atque dolo, primes cum janua colligit ignes: 
Confer et hos, veteris qui tollunt grandia templi 
Pocula adorandae rubiginis, et populorum 
Dona, vel antique positas a rege coronas. 
Haec ibi si non sunt, minor extat sacrilegus, qui 
Radat inaurati femur Herculis, et faciem ipsam 
Neptuni, qui bracteolam de Castore ducat. 
An dubitet, solitus totum conflare Tonantem? 
Confer et artifices, mercatoremque veneni, 
Et deducendum corio bovis in mare, cum quo 
Clauditur adversis innoxia simia fatis. 
Haec quota pars scelerum, quae custos Gallicus urbis 
Usque a lucifero, donee lux occidat, audit? 
Humani generis mores tibi nosse volenti 
Sufficit una domus ; paucos consume dies, et 
Dicere te miserum, postquam illinc veneris, aude. 
Quis tumidum guttur miratur in Alpibus? aut quis 





143. With moderate choler, <f-<-.] i. e. 
Moderate wrath, anger, resentment, 
when you consider how much greater in- 
juries others suffer from greater crimes. 

144. Compare.] Consider in a com- 
parative view. 

145. Hired thief.] Or cut-throat, who 
is hired for the horrid purpose of assas- 

Burnings begun with sulphur.'] Which 
is here put, by synec. for all sort of com- 
bustible matter, with which incendiaries 
fire houses. 

146. By deceit.] In a secret manner, 
by artfully laying the destructive mate- 
rials, so as not to be discovered till too 
late to prevent the mischief. 

Collects the first fire*.] So as to 
prevent those who are in the house from 
getting out, and those who are without 
from getting in, to afford any assistance. 
It is not improbable that the poet here 
glances at the monstrous act of Nero, 
who saw Rome on fire. 

147. Lart/e cups,$c.~\ Who are guilty 
of sacrilege, in stealing the sacred vessels 
which have been for ages in some an- 
tique temple, and which are venerable 
from the rust which they have contracted 
by time. 

148. 9. The gifts of tlu> people.] Rich 

and magnificent offerings, given to some* 
shrine by a whole people together, in 
honour of the god that presided there. 

149. Cromis placed, <Sfc.] As by Ro- 
mulus and other kings, whose crowns, 
in honour of their memory, were hung 
up in the temples of the gods. 

150. If these are not tliere.] If it so 
happen that there be no such valuable 
relics as these now mentioned, yet some 
petty sacrilegious thief will deface and 
rob the statues of the gods. 

151. Scrape the thigh, fyc.] To get a 
little gold from it. 

151, 2. Face of Neptune.] Some image 
of Neptune, the beard whereof was of 

152. Draw off the leaf-gold, #e.] Peel 
it off, in order to steal it, from the image 
of Castor : there were great treasures in 
his temple. See sat. xiv. 1. 260. 

153. Will he hesitate.] At such com- 
paratively small matters as these, who 
could steal a whole statue of Jupiter, and 
then melt it down ; and who can make 
a practice of such a thing ? A man who 
accustoms himself to greater crimes, 
can't be supposed to hesitate about com- 
mitting less. 

154. Contrivers, and Ihc merchant of 
poison.] Those who make and those who 


You suffer a moderate matter, and to be borne with 

moderate choler, 

If you bend your eyes to greater crimes : compare 
The hired thief, burnings begun with sulphur, 145 

And by deceit, when the gate collects the first fires : 
Compare also these, who take away the large cups 
Of an old temple, of venerable rust, and the gifts 
Of the people, or crowns placed by an ancient king. 
If these are not there, there stands forth one less sacrilegious, 

who 150 

May scrape the thigh of a gilt Hercules, and the very face of 
Neptune, who may draw off the leaf-gold from Castor. 
Will he hesitate, who is used to melt a whole Thunderer? 
Compare also the contrivers, and the merchant of poison, 
And him to be launched into the sea in the hide of an ox, 155 
With whom an harmless ape, by adverse fates, is shut up. 
How small a part this of the crimes, which Gallicus, the 

keeper of the city, 

Hears from the morning, until the light goes down ? 
To you who are willing to know the manners of the human race 
One house suffices ; spend a few days, and dare 160 

To call yourself miserable, after you come from thence. 
Who wonders at a swoln throat in the Alps? or who 

sell poisonous compositions, for the pur- fectus urbis literally sat from morning to 
poses of sorcery and witchcraft, or for night every day, but that he was con- 
killing persons in a secret and clandes- tinually, as the phrase among us imports, 
tine manner. See Hon. sat. ix. lib. i. 31. hearing causes, in which the most atroci- 
aud epod. ix. 1. 61. ous crimes were discovered and punished. 
1.55. Launched into the sea, #<.] Par- 160. One house suffices.] q. d. If you 
ricides were put into a sack made of an desire to be let into a true history of hu- 
ox's hide, together with an ape, a cock, man wickedness, an attendance at the 
a serpent, and a dog, and thrown into house of Gallicus alone will be sufficient 
the sea. See sat. viii. 214. The fate of for your purpose. 

these poor innocent animals is very Spend a few days, jfc.] Attend there 

cruel, they having done no wrong. De- for a few days, and when you come 

ducendum. Met. See VIRG. G. i. 255. away, dare, if you can, to call yourself 

157. Keeper of the city.] Rutilius Gal- unhappy, after hearing what you have 
licus was appointed, under Domitian, heard at the house of Gallicus. Domus 
praefectus urbis, who had cognizance of is a very general word, and need not be 
capital offences, and sat every day on restricted here to signify the private 
criminal causes. house of the judge, but may be under- 

158. From the morning.'] Lucifero. stood of the court or place where he sat 
The planet Venus, when seen at day- to hear causes. 

break, is called Lucifer i. e. the bringer 162. Swoln throat, ifc.] The inha- 

of light. See sat. viii. 12. bitants about the Alps have generally 

Xascere preeque diem veniens age Lucifer great swellings about their throats, occa- 

almum. VIRG. eel. viii. 1. 17. sioned, as some suppose, by drinking 

Lucifer orttis erut snow-water. The French call these pro- 

Ov. Met. iv. (>64. tuberances on the outside of the throat, 

It is not to be supposed that the pr;v- goitres. 



In Meroe crasso majorem infante mamillam ? 
Cserula quis stupuit German! lumina, flavam 
Caesariem, et madido torquentem cornua cirro ? 
Nerape quod hsec illis natura est omnibus una. 
Ad subitas Thracum volucres, nubemque sonoram 
Pygmseus parvis currit bellator in armis : 
Mox impar hosti, raptusque per aera curvis 
Unguibus a sseva fertur grue : si videas hoc 
Grentibus in nostris, risu quatere : sed illic, 
Quanquam eadem assidue spectentur prselia, ridet 
Nemo, ubi tota cohors pede non est altior uno. 
Nullane perjuri capitis, fraudisque nefarida? 
Poena erit ? Abreptum crede hunc graviore catena 
Protinus, et nostro (quid plus velit ira?) necari 
Arbitrio : manet ilia tamen jactura, nee unquam 
Depositum tibi sospes erit : sed corpore trunco 
Invidiosa dabit minimus solatia sanguis : 




1 63. Mero't.'] An island surrounded 
by the Nile. See sat. vi. 527. The wo- 
men of this island are said to have 
breasts of an enormous size. Our poet 
is hardly to be understood literally. 

164. Blue eyes, $c.] Tacit de. Mor. 
Germ, says, that the Germans have tru- 
ces et cseruleos oculos, et comas rutilas 
fierce and blue eyes, and red hair. 

165. Tu-isting his curk.~\ Gornu lit. 
an horn ; but is used in many senses to 
express things that bear a resemblance 
to an horn as here, the Germans twisted 
their hair in such a manner, as that the 
curls stood up and looked like horns. 

A wet lock.~\ Cirrus signifies a curled 
lock of hair. The Germans used to wet 
their locks with ointment of some kind, 
perhaps that they might the more easily 
take, and remain in, the shape in which 
the fashion was to put them ; something 
like our use of pomatum ; or the oint- 
ment which they used might be some 
perfume. Comp. HOR. lib. ii. od.vii. 7. 8. 

166. Because, <5fc.] Nobody would be 
surprised at seeing a German as above 
mentioned, and for this reason, because 
all the Germans do the same, it is the one 
universal fashion among them. Natura 
sometimes signifies, a way or method. 

167. Sudden birds, *fc.] A flight of 
cranes coming unexpectedly from Stry- 
mon, a river of Thrace. 

Strymotiite qrues. 
See VIRG. G. L 130 ; JEn. x. 205. 

Sonorotts doud.~\ The cranes are 
birds of passage, and fly in great num- 
bers when they change their climate, 
which they were supposed to do when 
the winter set in in Thrace ; they made 
a great noise when they flew. See JEn. 
x. 265, 6. 

168. Pygmaean warrior, $e.] The 
Pygmies (from irvy^i\, the fist, or a 
measure of space from the elbow to the 
hand, a cubit) were a race of people in 
Thrace, which were said to be only three 
inches high. AINSW. Juvenal says, a 
foot, 1. 173. They were said always to 
be at war with the cranes. 

Little arms.~\ His diminutive wea- 

169. The. enemy.'} The cranes. 

171. In our nations, fyc.~] In our part 
of the world, if an instance of this sort 
were to happen, it would appear highly 
ridiculous ; to see a little man fighting a 
crane, and then flown away with in the 
talons of the bird, would make you shake 
your sides with laughter, from the singu- 
larity of such a sight. 

172. The same batiks, <^c.] In that part 
of the world, there being no singularity 
or novelty in the matter, though the 
same thing happens constantly, nobody 
is seen to laugh, however ridiculous it 
may be to see an army of people, not 
one of which is above a foot high. 

The poet means to infer from all 
this, that it is the singularity and no- 



In Meroe at a breast bigger than a fat infant ? 

Who has been amazed at the blue eyes of a German, his 


Hair, and twisting his curls with a wet lock ? 165 

Because indeed this one nature is to them all. 
At the sudden birds of the Thracians, and the sonorous cloud, 
The Pygmaean warrior runs in his little arms, 
Soon unequal to the enemy, and seized, thro" 1 the air, with 


Talons, he is carried by a cruel crane : if you could see this 
In our nations, you would be shook with laughter: but there, 
Tho 1 the same battles may be seen constantly, nobody 
Laughs, when the whole cohort is not higher than one foot. 
" Shall there be no punishment of a perjured head, 
" And of wicked fraud f " Suppose this man dragged away 

" with 175 

" A weightier chain immediately, and to be killed (what 

" would anger have more ?) 

"At our will : yet that loss remains, nor will ever 
" The deposit be safe to you :" " but from his maimed body 
" The least blood will give an enviable consolation. 

velty of events which make them won- 
dered at : hence his friend Calvinus is 
so amazed and grieved that he should 
be defrauded, looking upon it as pecu- 
liar to him ; whereas, if he would look 
at what is going forward in the world, 
particularly in courts of civil and crimi- 
nal judicature, he would see nothing to 
be surprised at, with respect to his own 
case, any more than he would be sur- 
prised, if he went among the Germans, 
to see blue eyes, and red hair, or locks 
curled and wetted with some ointment, 
seeing they all appear alike. Or if he 
were to go among the Pygmies, he 
would see nobody laugh at their battles 
with the cranes, which are constantly 
happening, and at the diminutive size 
of the Pygmy warriors, which is alike 
in all. 

174. "No punishment," ^c.] Well, 
but, says Calvinus, though you observe 
that I am not to be surprised at what 
I have met with, because it is so fre- 
quent, is such a matter to be entirely 
unnoticed, and such an offender not to 
be punished. 

U A perjured head."] A perjured 
person. Capitis, per synec. stands here. 

for the whole man. 

So HOR. lib. i. ode rsiv. L 2. 
Tarn chari capitis. 

175. " Wicked fraud."] In taking my 
money to keep for me, and then deny- 
ing that he ever had it. 

" Suppose" <J"c.] Juvenal answers, 
Suppose the man who has injured you 
hurried instantly away to prison, and 
loaded with fetters heavier than ordi- 
nary graviore catena. 

176. " Be lotted, $c.] Be put to death 
by all the tortures we could invent 
(and the most bitter anger could desire 
no more) what then ? 

177. " That loss."] i. e. Which yon 
complain of. 

" Remains."'] Is still the same. 

178. " The deposit," $c.] The money 
which you deposited in his hands would 
not be the safer t. e. at all the more 

179. " The least blood," $c-] True, re- 
plies Calvinus, but I should enjoy my 
revenge ; the least drop of blood from 
his mangled body would give me such 
comfort as to be enviable ; for revenge 
affords a pleasure sweeter than life it- 



At vindicta bonum vita jucundius ipsa. 180 

Netnpe hoc indocti, quorum praecordia iiullis 
Interdum, aut levibus videas flagrantia causis : 
Quantulacunque adeo est occasio, sufficit irre. 
Chrysippus non dicet idem, nee mite Thaletis 
Ingenium, dulcique senex vicinus Hymetto, 185 

Qui partem acceptse sseva inter vincla cicutse 
Accusatori nollet dare. Plurima felix 
Paulatim vitia, atque errores exuit omnes, 
Prima docens rectum Sapientia : quippe MINTUTI 

ULTIO. Continue sic collige, quod vindicta 
Nemo magis gaudet, quam foemina. Cur tamen hos tn 
Evasisse putes, quos diri conscia facti 
Mens habet attonitos, et surdo verbere csedit, 
Occultum quatiente animo tortore flagellum ? 195 

Poana autem vehemens, ac multo ssevior illis, 
Quas et Caeditius gravis invenit aut Rhadamanthus, 
Nocte dieque suum gestare in pectore testem. 
Spartano cuidam respondit Pythia vates, 

181. Truly this, $e.] Truly, says Ju- 
venal, ignorant and foolish people think 
BO. q. d. This is the sentiment of one 
who is void of all knowledge of true phi- 
losophy indocti. 

Whose breasts, fyc.~\ Prsecordia sig- 
nifies, literally, the parts about the 
heart, which is supposed to be the seat 
of the passions and affections ; here it 
may stand for the passions themselves, 
which, says the poet, are set on fire, 
sometimes for no cause at all, sometimes 
from the most trivial causes, in silly 

183. However small, 3fc.] Any trifling 
thing is sufficient to put them into a 
passion but it is not so with the 

184. Chrysippiis will not say, #c.] A 
famous Stoic philosopher, scholar to Ze- 
no, who taught the government of the 
passions to be a chief good. 

185. Tkales.] A Milesian, one of the 
seven wise men of Greece. He held 
that injuries were to be contemned, and 
was not himself easily provoked to an- 

The old man.'] Socrates. 
Neighbour to street Hymettus.'] Hy- 
mettus, a mountain in Attica, famous for 

excellent honey, hence called dulcis 
Hymettus. See HOR. lib. ii. ode vi. 
1. 14, 15. This mountain was not far 
from Athens, where Socrates lived, and 
where he was put to death. 

186. Who would not, $c.] It was a 
maxim of Socrates, that he who did an 
injury was more to be pitied than he 
who suffered it. He was accused of 
contemning the gods of Athens, and, 
for this, was condemned to die, by 
drinking the juice of hemlock ; which 
he did with circumstances of calmness 
and fortitude, as well as of forgiveness 
of his accusers, that brought tears from 
all that were present with him in the 
prison during the sad scene. 

An old scholiast has observed on this 
passage, as indeed some others have 
done, that one of his accusers, Melitus, 
was cast into prison with him ; and ask- 
ing Socrates to give him some of the 
poison, that he might drink it, Socrates 
refused it. 

187. Received hemlock.] Which he 
had received from the executioner, and 
then held in his hand. For an account 
of his death, see ANT. Univ. Hist. vol. 
vi. p. 407, note z. translated from Plato. 

Happy wisdom.] The poet here 



" But revenge is a good more pleasant than life itself. 11 ieo 
Truly this is of the unlearned, whose breasts you may see 
Burning, sometimes from none, or from slight causes : 
However small the occasion may be, it is sufficient for anger. 
Chrysippus will not say the same, nor the mild disposition 
Of Thales,and the old man neighbour to sweet Hymettus, 185 
Who would not, amidst cruel chains, give a part of 
The received hemlock to his accuser. Happy wisdom, 
By degrees puts off most vices, and all errors, 
First teaching what is right ; for REVENGE 


MIND. Immediately thus conclude, because in revenge 
Nobody rejoices more than a woman. But why should you 
Think these to have escaped, mind, conscious of a 


Fact, keeps them astonished, and smites with a dumb stripe. 
Their conscience the tormentor shaking a secret whip I 195 
But it is a vehement punishment, and much more cruel, 

than those 

Which either severe Caeditius invented, or Rhadamanthus, 

Night and day to carry their own witness in their breast. 

The Pythian prophetess answered a certain Spartan, 

means the teachings of the moral philo- 
sophers, some of which held, that, even 
in torments, a wise man was happv. 

189. First teaching what is riff/U, 3fC.] 
To know what is right is first necessary, 
in order to do it this, therefore, is the 
foundation of moral philosophy, in order 
to strip the mind of error, and the life of 
vicious actions. 

Vitae philosophia dux, virtutis inda- 
gatrix, expultrixque vitiorum. Cic. Tusc, 
v. ii. 

" Philosophy is the guide of life, the 
" searcher-out of virtue, the expeller of 
" vice." 

191. Thus conclude.] i. e. Conclude, 
without any farther reasoning, that the 
above observation, viz. that revenge is 
the pleasure of weak minds, is true, be- 
cause it is so often found to be so in the 
weaker sex. 

Persius uses the verb colligo in the 
sense of conclude, or infer mendose 
colligis, you conclude falsely. Sat. v. 
1. 85. 

193. To have escaped, tyc.] Though no 
outward punishment should await these 
evil-doers, and you may suppose them 
to have escaped quite free, yet their very 

souls, conscious of dreadful crimes, are 
all astonishment their guilty conscience 
smiting them with silent, but severe, re- 

195. The conscience.] i. e. Their con- 
science the executioner, shaking its se- 
cret scourge with terror over them. 

A metaphor, taken from the whipping 
of criminals, whose terrors are excited 
at seeing the executioner's scourge lifted 
up and shaken over them. 

Public whipping was a common pu- 
nishment among the Romans for the 
lower sort of people. See Hon. epod. 
IT. L 11. 

196. Vehement punishment, e.] The 
poet here means, that the torments of a 
wounded conscience are less tolerable 
than those of bodily punishment. Comp. 
Prov. xviii. 14. 

197. Severe Geditius.] A very cruel 
judge in the days of Vitellius ; or, ac- 
cording to some, in the days of Nero. 

- JRhadamanthus.] One "of the judges 
of hell. See sat i. 1. 10, note. 

198. Their own u-iiness, $c.] Conti- 
nually bearing about with them the tes- 
timony of an evil conscience. 

199. Pythian proj.hctess.'] The priestess 



Haucl impunitum quondam fore, quod dubitaret 
Depositum retinere, et fraudem jure tueri 
Jurando : quserebat enim quae numinis esset 
Mens, et an hoc illi facinus suaderet Apollo. 
Reddidit ergo metu, non moribus ; et tamen omnem 
Vocem adyti dignam templo, veramque probavit, 
Extinctus tota pariter cum prole domoque, 
Et quamvis longa deductis gente propinquis. 
Has patitur poanas peccandi sola voluntas. 
FACTI CRIMEN HABET. Cedo, si conata peregit ? 
Perpetua anxietas : nee mensge tempore cessat ; 
Faucibus ut morbo siccis, interque molares 
Difficili crescente cibo. Sed vina misellus 
Exspuit : Albani veteris pretiosa senectus 
Displicet : ostendas melius, densissima ruga 




of Apollo, (called Pythius, from his slay- 
ing the serpent Python,) by whom 
Apollo gave answers at his oracle of 

The story alluded to is told by Hero- 
dotus, of one Glaucus, a Spartan, with 
whom a Milesian, in confidence of his 
honesty, had left a sum of money in 
trust. Glaucus afterwards denied hav- 
ing received the money, when it was de- 
manded by the sons of the Milesian, and 
sent them" away without it : yet he was 
not quite satisfied in himself, and went 
to the oracle, to know whether he should 
persist in denying it, or not. He was 
answered, that if he forswore the money, 
he might escape for a time ; but for his 
vile intention, he and all his family 
should be destroyed. Upon this, Glau- 
cus sent for the Milesians, and paid the 
whole sum. But what the oracle fore- 
told came to' pass, for he and all his 
kindred were afterwards extirpated. 

200. Time to come.'] Though he might 
escape from the present, yet, at a future 
time, he should not go without punish- 

Because he doubted.] Could suffer 
himself even to entertain a doubt in such 
a case as this. 

201. A deposit.] Of money committed 
to his trust 

By swearing.] By perjury jure 
jurando. Tmesis. 

202. He asked, fa] In hopes that he 
might get such an answer as would quiet 

his mind, and determine him to keep 
the money. 

203. Would advise, <;.] Would per- 
suade him to the fact i. e. to retain the 
deposit, &c. 

204. From fear, not, fa] More from 
a principle of fear of the consequences 
of keeping it, than an honest desire of 
doing right. 

205. The voice of the shrine.'] Adytum 
signifies the most secret and sacred place 
of the temple, from whence the oracles 
were supposed to be delivered. 

Worthy the temple, fa] It was N 
reckoned highly for the reputation of 
the temple, when the things there fore- 
told came to pass : on account of which, 
these oracles were usually delivered in 
equivocal terms, so that they might be 
supposed to tell truth, on whichever side 
the event turned out. 

207. Deduced from a long race.] Longa 
gente, from a long train of ancestors 
all that were related to him, however 
distantly, were cut off. 

208. These punishments, fa] Thus was 
the mere intention of doing ill most 
justly punished. 

210. Hath theffuilt, fa] Is as really 
guilty as if he had accomplished it. In 
this, and in many other passages, one 
would almost think Juvenal was ac- 
quainted with something above hea- 
thenism. Comp. Prov. xxiv. 8, 9 ; and 
Matt. v. 28. 

M Tell me," <:.] A question asked 


That in time to come he should not be unpunished, because 
doubted he 200 

To retain a deposit, and defend the fraud by swearing : 
For he asked what was the mind of the Deity, 
And whether Apollo would advise this deed to him. 
He therefore restored it from fear, not from morals, and yet all 
The voice of the shrine, he proved worthy the temple, and 
true, 205 

Being extinguished together with all his offspring, and family, 
And with his relations, tho" 1 deduced from a long race. 
These punishments does the single will of offending suffer. 


HATH THE GUILT OP THE FACT. " Tell me, if he accomplished 
" his attempts T 210 

" Perpetual anxiety : nor does it cease at the time of the table, 
" With jaws dry as by disease, and between his grinders 
" The difficult food increasing. But the wretch spits out 
" His wine : the precious old age of old Albanian 214 

" Will displease: if you she whim better, the thickest wrinkle 

by Calvinus, on hearing what Juvenal 
had said above. Tell me, says Calvinus, 
if what you say be true, that the very 
design to do evil makes a person guilty 
of what he designed to do, what would 
be the case of his actually accomplishing 
what he intended, as my false friend has 

211. "Perpetual anxiety."] Juvenal 
answers the question, by setting forth, 
in very striking colours, the anguish of a 
wounded conscience. First, he would be 
under continual anxiety. 

" The time of the table."] Even at 
his meals his convivial hours. 

212. " With jam dry," &;c] His 
mouth hot and parched, like one in a 

213." Difficult food increasing."] This 
circumstance is very natural the un- 
easiness of this wretch's mind occasions 
the symptoms of a fever ; one of which 
is a dryness in the mouth and throat, 
owing to the want of a due secretion of 
the saliva, by the glands appropriated 
for that purpose. The great use of this 
secretion, which we call saliva, or spit- 
tle, is in masticating and diluting the 
food, and making the first digestion 
thereof ; also to lubricate the throat and 

resophagus, or gullet, in order to facili- 
tate deglutition, which by these means, 
in healthy persons, is attended with ease 
and pleasure. 

But the direct contrary is the case, 
where the mouth and throat are quite 
dry, as in fevers thp food is chewed 
with difficulty and disgust, and cannot 
be swallowed without uneasiness and 
loathing, and may well be called dif- 
ficilis cibus in both these respects. 
Wanting also the saliva to moisten it, 
and make it into a sort of paste for de- 
glutition, it breaks into pieces between 
the teeth, and taking up more room than 
when in one mass, it fills the mouth as 
if it had increased in quantity, and is 
attended with a nausea, or loathing, 
which still increases the uneasiness of 
the sensation. 

213, 14. "Spits out his u-ine."] He 
can't relish it, his mouth being out of 
taste, and therefore spits it out as soine^ 
thing nauseous. 

214. "Albanian."] See sat v. 1. 33, 
note. This was reckoned the finest 
and best wine in all Italy, especially 
when old. See HOR. lib. iv. ode xi. 
L 1,2. 

215.5*w*im better^] If you could 



Cogitur in frontem, velut acri ducta Falerno. 

Nocte brevem si forte indulsit cura soporem, 

Et toto versata toro jam membra quiescunt, 

Continue templum, et violati numinis aras, 

Et (quod prsecipuis mentem sudoribus urget) 220 

Te videt in somnis : tua sacra et major imago 

Humana turbat pavidum, cogitque fateri. 

Hi sunt qui trepidant, et ad omnia fulgura pallent, 

Cum tonat ; exanimes primo quoque murmure coeli : 

Non quasi fortuitus, nee ventorum rabie, sed -225 

Iratus cadat in terras, et vindicet ignis. 

Ilia nihil nocuit, cura graviore timetur 

Proxima tempestas ; velut hoc dilata sereno. 

Prseterea lateris vigili cum febre dolorem 

Si coepere pati, missum ad sua corpora morbum 230 

Infesto credunt a numine : saxa Deorum 

Hsec, et tela putant : pecudem spondere sacello 

set even better wine than this before 
him, he could not relish it. 

215. " The thickest wrinkle," #c.] His 
forehead would contract into wrinkles 
without end, as if they were occasioned 
by his being offered sour Falernan wine. 

Densissima is here used, as in sat. i. 
120, to denote avast number.; as we 
say, a thick crowd, where vast numbers 
of people are collected together. 

Falernan wine was in high repute 
among the Romans when it was of the 
best sort ; but there was a kind of coarse, 
sour wine, which came from Falernus, a 
mountain of Campania, which, when 
drank, would occasion sickness and 
vomiting. See sat. vi. 1. 427, note ; and 
sat. vi. L 429. 

218. "'His limbs tumbled over," tye.] 
Tumbling and tossing from one side of 
the bed to the other, through the uneasi- 
ness of his mind. See sat. iii. 280, and 
note ; and AINSW. Verso, No. 2. 

219. "The temple the altars,'" <Sfe.] 
He is haunted with dreadful dreams, and 
seems to see the temple in which, and 
the altar upon which, he perjured him- 
self, and thus profaned and violated the 
majesty of the Deity. 

220. " What urges his mind," fyc.~\ But 
that which occasions him more misery 
than all the rest (see AINSW. Sudor; 
and sat. i. 167.) is, that he fancies he 
beholds the man whom he has injured, 

appearing (as aggrandized by his fears) 
greater than a human form. The 
ancients had much superstition on the 
subject of apparitions, and always he-Id 
them sacred ; and (as fear magnifies its 
objects) they always were supposed to 
appear greater than the life. Hence 
Juvenal says, sacra et major imago. 
Comp. VIRG. yEn. ii. 1. 772, 3. 

222. " Compels Mm to confess:"'] i. e. 
The villany which he has been guilty 
of a confession of this is wrung from 
him by the terrors which he undergoes ; 
he can no longer keep the secret within 
his breast. 

223. " All lightnings," <Sfc.] The poet 
proceeds in his description of the mise- 
rable state of the wicked, and here re- 
presents them as filled with horror by 
thunder and lightning, and dreading the 

224. " First murmur," #c.] They are 
almost dead with fear, on hearing the 
first rumbling in the sky. 

225. " Not as if," #<;.] They do not 
look upon it as happening fortuitously, 
by mere chance or accident, without 
any direction or intervention of the 
gods, like the Epicureans. See HOR. 
sat. v. lib. i. 1. 1013. 

" Raye of winds."] Or from the vio- 
lence of the winds, occasioning a colli- 
sion of the clouds, and so producing the 
lightning, as the philosophers thought, 



Is gathered on his forehead, as drawn by sour Falernan. 
' In the night, if haply care hath indulged a short sleep, 
' And his limbs tumbled over the whole bed now are quiet, 
Immediately the temple, and the altars of the violated Deity, 
And (what urges his mind with especial pains) 220 

' Thee he sees in his sleep : thy sacred image, and bigger 
; Than human, disturbs him fearful, and compels him to 

" confess." 

' There are they who tremble, and turn pale at all lightnings 
1 When it thunders : also lifeless at the first murmur of the 

' " heavens : 

' Not as if accidental, nor by rage of winds, but 225 

' Fire may fall on the earth enraged, and may avenge." 
' That did no harm" " the next tempest is feared 
With heavier concern, as if deferr'd by this fair weather. 
' Moreover a pain of the side with a watchful fever, 22y 
If they have begun to suffer, they believe the disease sent 
To their bodies by some hostile deity : they think these things 
The stones and darts of the gods : to engage a bleating sheep 

who treated on the physical causes of 
lightning, as Pliny and Seneca. 

226. "Fire may fall," fyc.] The wretch 
thinks that the flashes which he sees 
and dreads will not confine their fury 
to the skies, but, armed with divine 
vengeance, may fall upon the earth, and 
destroy the guilty. 

227. " That did no farm."] i. e. That 
last tempest did no mischief ; it is now 
over and harmless ; " So far is well," 
thinks the unhappy wretch. 

" The next tempest" <c.] Though 
they escape the first storm, yet they 
dread the next still more, imagining 
that they have only had a respite from 
punishment, and therefore that the next 
will certainly destroy them. 

228. " As if deferred," $e.] As if de- 
layed by one fair day, on purpose, af- 
terwards, to fall the heavier. 

This passage of Juvenal reminds one 
of that wonderfully fine speech, on a 
similar subject, which our great and ini- 
mitable poet, Shakespeare, has put into 
the mouth of king Lear, when turned 
out by his cruel and ungrateful daugh- 
ter*, and, on a desolate and barren 
heath, is in the midst of a storm of 
thunder and lightning. 

" Let the great gods 

" That kffp this dreadful pother o'er 
" our In nils. 

" Find out their enemies now. Trctn- 

" bit tftou wretch 
" That hast within thee undivulyed 

" crimes, 
" Unwhip't of justice : hide thee, t/tou 

" bloody hand ; 
" Thou perjured and thoit simular man 

" of virtue 
" That art incestuous: Caiti/f, to pieces 

" s/ M /ce 
" That under covert and convenient 

" seemiin) 
" Hast practised on man's life ! Close 

u pent-up guilts, 
" Rive your concealing cotitinents, and 


" These dreadful suminoners' 1 grace!" 
LEAR, act iii. sc. 1. 

229. " Pain of the sitie," %c.~\ The 
poet seems here to mean a pleurisy, or 
pleuritic fever, a painful and dangerous 

** A watchful fever."] i. e. A fever 
which will not let them sleep, or take 
their rest. 

230. u Begun to sujfer," $c.] On the 
first attack of such a disorder, they be- 
lieve themselves doomed to suffer the 
wrath of an offended Deity, of which 
their illness seems to them an earnest. 

232. "Stones and darts."] These were 
weapons of war among the ancients ; 
when they attacked a place, they threw. 




Balantem, et Laribus cristam promittere galli 

Non audent. Quid enim sperare nocentibus segris 

Concessum ? vel quse non dignior hostia vita ? 235 

Mobilis et varia est ferine natura malorum. 

Cum scelus admittunt, superest constantia : quid fas 

Atque nefas, tandem incipiunt sentire, peractis 

Criminibus. Tamen ad mores natura recurrit 

Damnatos, fixa et mutari nescia. Nam quis -210 

Peccandi finem posuit sibi ? quando recepit 

Ejectum semel attrita de fronte ruborem ? 

Quisnam hominum est, quern tu contentum videris uno 

Flagitio ? dabit in laqueum vestigia noster 

Perfidus, et nigri patietur carceris uncum, 245 

Aut maris ^gaei rupem, scopulosque frequentes 

Exulibus magnis. Poena gaudebis amara 

Nominis invisi : tandemque fatebere ketus 

from engines for that purpose, huge 
stones to batter down the wall, and 
darts to annoy the besieged. 

Here the poet uses the words in a 
metaphorical sense, to denote the appre- 
hension of the sick criminal, who thinks 
himself, as it were, besieged by an of- 
fended Deity, who employs the pleurisy 
and fever, as his artillery, to destroy the 
guilty wretch. 

" To engage a bleating sheep,' 1 '' fyc.~\ 
Or lamb pecus may signify either. It / 
was usual for persons in danger, or in 
sickness, to engage by vow some offer- 
ing to the gods, on their deliverance, or 
recovery ; but the guilty wretches here 
mentioned, are supposed to be in a 
state of utter despair, so that they dare 
not so much as hope for recovery, and 
therefore have no courage to address 
any vows to the gods. 

233. " Comb of a cock," #e.] So far 
from promising a cock to /Esculapius, 
they have not the courage to vow even 
a cock's comb, as a sacrifice to their 
household gods. 

234. "-Allowed the guilty," $c.] Such 
guilty wretches can be allowed no hope 
whatever their own consciences tell 
them as much. 

235. " 7s not more worthy," <5fc.] i. e. 
Does not more deserve to live than 

236. " Fickle and changeable."] i. e. 
Wavering and uncertain, at first ; before 

they commit crimes, they are irresolute, 
and doubting whether they shall or not, 
and often change their mind, which is 
in a fluctuating state. 

237. "Remains constancy."} When 
they have once engaged in evil actions, 
they become resolute. 

" What is right," #c.] After the 
crime is perpetrated, they begin to re- 
flect on what they have done they are 
forcibly stricken with the difference be- 
tween right and wrong, insomuch that 
they feel, for a while, a remorse of con- 
science ; but notwithstanding this 

239. "Nature recurs" c.] Their evil 
nature will return to its corrupt prin- 
ciples, and silence all remorse ; fixed 
and unchangeable in this respect, it may 
be said, Naturam expellas furca tarn on 
usque recurret. Hon. lib. L epist. x. 

24 1. " Hath laid down to himself," <3fc.] 
What wicked man ever contented him- 
self with one crime, or could say to his 
propensity to wickedness, " Hitherto 
" shalt thou come, and no farther," 
when every crime he commits hardens 
him the more, and plunges him still 
deeper? See sat. ii. 1. 83, note. 

" When recovered," fyc.'] No man 
ever yet recovered a sense of shame, who 
had once lost it. 

242. " Worn forehead," $<-.] Attritus 
signifies rubbed or worn away, as mar- 
ble, or metals, where an hard and 



" To the little temple, and to promise the comb of a cock 

" to the Lares 

" They dare not ; for what is allowed the guilty sick 
" To hope for? or what victim is not more worthy of life? 235 
u The nature of wicked men is, for the most part, fickle, and 

"changeable ; 
" When they commit wickedness, there remains constancy: 

" what is right 
"And what wrong, at length they begin to perceive, their 

" crimes 

" Being finished : but nature recurs to its damned 
" Morals, fixM, and not knowing to be changed. For who 240 
" Hath laid down to himself an end of sinning? when recovered 
" Modesty once cast off from his worn forehead ? 
" Who is there of men, whom you have seen content with one 
" Base action ? our perfidious wretch will get his feet into 
" A snare, and will suffer the hook of a dark prison, 245 
" Or a rock of the JE,gean sea, and the rocks frequent 
" To great exiles. You will rejoice in the bitter punishment 
" Of his hated name, and, at length, glad will confess, that 

" no one of 

polished surface remains ; so a wicked 
man, by frequent and continual crimes, 
grows hardened against all impressions 
of shame, of which the forehead is often 
represented as the seat. See Jen iii. 
3. latter part. 

243. " Who is there," #c.] Who ever 
contented himself with sinning but once, 
and stopped at the first fact ? 

244. "Our perfidious wretch," $c.] 
Noster perfidus, says Juvenal, meaning 
the villain who had cheated Calvinus, 
and then perjured himself. As if the 
poet had said, Don't be so uneasy, Cal- 
vinus, at the loss of your money, or so 
anxious about revenging yourself upon 
the wretch who has perjured you ; have 
a little patience, he won't stop here, 
he'll go on from bad to worse, till you 
will find him sufficiently punished, and 
yourself amply avenged. 

244, 5. "Into a snare."] He'll do 
something or other which will send him 
to gaol, and load him with fetters. Or 
he will walk into a snare (comp. Job, 
xviii. ii 10.) and be entangled in his 
own devices. 

245. "Suffer the hook," #<] The un- 
cus was a drag, or hook, by which the 
bodies of malefactors were dragged about 

the streets after execution. See sat. x. 
I 66. 

But, by this line, it should seem as if 
some instrument of this sort was made 
use of, either for torture, or closer con- 
finement in the dungeon. 

246. "Rock of tlie JEgean sea."] Or, 
if he should escape the gallows, that he 
will be banished to some rocky, barren 
island in the ./Egean sea, where he will 
lead a miserable life. Perhaps the island 
Seriphus is here meant. See sat. vi. 

" Tfie rocks frequent" $c.] The 

rocky islands of the Cylades, (see sat. 
vi. 562, note,) to which numbers were 
banished, and frequently, either by the 
tyranny of the emperor, or through their 
own crimes, persons of high rank. 

247. " You u-iU rejoice," $<.] You, 
Calvinus, will at last triumph over the 
villain that has wronged you, when you 
see the bitter sufferings, which await 
him, fall upon him. 

248. "His hated name."] Which will 
not be mentioned, but with the utmost 
detestation and abhorrrence. 

"At length confess"] However, 
in time past, you may have doubted of 
it, you will in the end joyfully own 


Nee surdum, nee Tiresiam quenquam esse Deorum. 

248, 9. " That no one of the gods," every circumstance ef such a transaction, 

$o.] Whose province it is to punish and to punish it accordingly. Comp. 1. 

crimes, is either deaf, so as not to hear 112 19. 
s:ich perjury, or blind, so as not to see 249. " ZVreos."] A blind soothsayer 


" The gods is either deaf, or a Tiresias." 

of Thebes, fabled to be stricken blind by the latter, who in requital gave him tho 
Juno, for his decision in a dispute be- gift of prophecy, 
tween her and her husband, in favour of 



This Satire is levelled at the bad examples ichich parents set 
their children, and shews the serious consequences of such ex- 
amples, in helping to contaminate the morals of the rising 
generation, as we are apt, by nature, rather to receive ill 
impressions than good, and are, besides, more pliant in our 

PLURIMA sunt, Fuscine, et fama digna sinistra, 

Et nitidis maculam hsesuram figentia rebus, 

Quae monstrant ipsi pueris traduntque parentes. 

Si damnosa senem juvat alea, ludit et hares 

Bullatus, parvoque eadem movet arma fritillo : 5 

Nee de se melius cuiquam sperare propinquo 

Concedet juvenis, qui radere tubera terrae, 

Boletum condire, et eodem jure natantes 

Mergere ficedulas didicit, nebulone parente, 

Line 1. Fuscimis.'] A friend of Juve- 
nal's, to whom this Satire is addressed. 

Worthy of unfavourable report.] 
Which deserve to be ill spoken of, to 
be esteemed scandalous. 

The word sinistra here is metaphorical, 
taken from the Roman superstition, with 
regard to any thing of the ominous kind, 
which appeared on the left hand ; they 
reckoned it unlucky and unfavourable. 
See sat. x. 1. 129. where the word is ap- 
plied, as here, in a metaphorical sense. 

2. Fixing a stain, $fc.] A metaphor, 
taken from the idea of clean and neat 
garments being soiled or spotted, with 
filth thrown upon them, the marks of 
which are not easily got out. So these 
things of evil report fix a spot, or stain, 
on the most splendid character, rank, or 
fortune all which, probably, the poet 

means by nitidis rebus. 

3. Which parents, #c.] The things 
worthy of evil report, which are after- 
wards particularized, are matters which 
parents exhibit to their children by ex- 
ample, and deliver to them by precept. 
Comp. 1. 9. 

4. If the destructive die pleases, #c.] 
the father be fond of playing at dice. 

Wearing the bulla, c.] His son, 
when a mere child, will imitate his ex- 
ample. For the bulla, see sat. xiii. 1. 33, 

5. The same weapons, tye.] Arma, li- 
terally, denotes all kinds of warlike arms 
and armour ; and, by met. all manner 
of tools and implements, for all arts, 
mysteries, occupations, and diversions. 
AINSW. The word is peculiarly proper 
to express dice, and other implements of 



younger than in our riper years. From hence he descends 
to a satire on avarice, which he esteems to be of worse 
example than any other of the vices which he mentions 
before ; and concludes with limiting our desires within 
reasonable bounds. 

THERE are many things, Fuscinus, worthy of unfavourable 


And fixing a stain which will stick upon splendid things, 
Which parents themselves shew, and deliver to their children. 
If the destructive die pleases the old man, the heir wearing 

the bulla 
Will play too, and moves the same weapons in his little 

dice-box. 5 

Nor does the youth allow any relation to hope better of him, 
Who has learnt to peel the funguses of the earth, 
To season a mushroom, and, swimming in the same sauce, 
To immerse beccaficos, a prodigal parent, 

gaming, wherewith the gamesters attack 7. To peel the funguses of the earth.] 

each other, each with an intent to ruin Tuber (from tumeo, to swell or puff up) 

and destroy the opponent. See sat i. signifies what we call a puff, which grows 

92, note. in the ground like a mushroom a toad- 

Little dice-bar.'] Master, being too stool. But I apprehend that any of the 

young to play with a large dice-box, not fungous productions of the earth may be 

being able to shake and manage it, has signified by tuber ; and, in this place, we 

a small one made for him, that he may are to understand, perhaps, truffles, or 

begin the science as early as possible, some other food of the kind, which were 

See AINSW. Fritillus. reckoned delicious. Sat. v. 1. 116, note. 

6. Nor does the youth aUmi; f&] The To peel.~\ Or scrape off the coat, or 
poet, having mentioned the bringing up skin, with which they are covered, 
children to be gamesters, here proceeds 8. A mushroom.'] The boletus was 
to those who are early initiated into the reckoned the best sort of mushroom, 
science of gluttony. Such give very Comp. sat. v. 1. 1 47. See AINSW. Con- 
little room to their family to hope that dio. 
they will turn out better than the former. 9. Beccaficos.'] Ficedulas little birds 



Et cana monstrante gTila. Cum Septimus annus 10 

Transient puero, nondum omni dente renato, 
Barbatos licet admoveas mille inde magistros, 
Hinc totidem, cupiet lauto coenare paratu 
Semper, et a magna non degenerare culina. 

Mitem animum, et mores, modicis erroribus sequos 15 
Prsecipit, atque animas servorum, et corpora nostra 
Materia constare putat, paribugjque elementis? 
An sffivire docet Rutilus, qui gaudet acerbo 
Plagarum strepitu, et nullam Sirena flagellis 
Comparat, Antiphates trepidi laris, ac Polyphemus, 20 

Turn felix, quoties aliquis tortore vocato 
Uritur ardenti duo propter lintea ferro ? 
Quid suadet juveni Isetus stridore catenae, 
Quern mire afficiunt inscripta ergastula, career 
Busticus? Expectas, ut non sit adultera Largse 25 

which feed on figs, now called beccaficos, 
or fig-peckers ; they are to this day es- 
teemed a great dainty. 

It was reckoned a piece of high luxury 
to have these birds dressed, and served 
up to table, in the same sauce, or pickle, 
with funguses of various kinds. 

9. A prodigal parent^] Nebulo signifies 
an unthrift, a vain prodigal ; and is most 
probably used here in this sense. See 
AINSW. Nebulo, No. 2. 

10. A grey throat, fyc.] Gula is, 
literally, the throat or gullet ; but, by 
met. may signify a glutton, who thinks 
of nothing but his gullet. So yatTTijp, the 
belly, is used to denote a glutton ; and 
the apostle's quotation from the Cretan 
poet, Tit. i. 12. yaffrepes apyot, instead of 
slow bellies, which is nonsense, should 
be rendered lazy gluttons, which is the 
undoubted sense of the phrase. 

Cana gula here, then, may be rendered 
an hoary glutton i. e. the old epicure, 
his father setting the example, and shew- 
ing him the art of luxurious cookery. 

The seventh year, fe.] When he is 
turned of seven years of age, a time when 
the second set of teeth, after shedding 
the first, is not completed, and a time of 
life the most flexible and docile. 

12. The? you should place, tye.] Though 
a thousand of the gravest and most 
learned tutors were placed on each side 
of him, so as to pour their instructions 
into both his ears, at the same time, yet 
they would avail nothing at all towards 

reclaiming him. q. d. The boy having 
gotten such an early taste for gluttony, 
will never get rid of it, by any pains 
which can be taken with him for that 

The philosophers and learned teachers 
wore beards ; and were therefore called 
barbati. They thought it suited best 
with the gravity of their appearance. 

PERS. sat. iv. 1. 1. calls Socrates, 
barbatum magistrum. See Hon. lib. ii. 
sat. iii. 1. 35, and note. 

13. He would desire, #c.] He would 
never get rid of his inclination to glut- 

1 3, 1 4. With a sumptuous preparation.] 
With a number of the most delicious 
provisions, dressed most luxuriously, 
and served up in the most sumptuous 

14. Not to degenerate, <Sfc.] Either in 
principle or practice, from the profuse 
luxury of his father's ample kitchen. 

So true is that of HOR. Epist. lib. i. 
epist. ii. 1. 68, 9. 

Quo semel imbuta est recens, sercabit 

Testa diu. 

15. Rutilus.] The name of some mas- 
ter, who was of a very cruel diposition 
towards his servants. 

Kind to small errors.] Making allow- 
ance for, and excusing, small faults. 

16. And the souls of slaves, fyc.] Does 
he think that the bodies of slaves consist 
of the same materials, and that their 




And a grey throat shewing- him. When the seventh year 10 
Has passed over the boy, all his teeth not as yet renewed, 
Tho"* you should place a thousand bearded masters there, 
Here as many, he would desire always to sup with a 
Sumptuous preparation, and not to degenerate from a great 

Does Rutilus teach a meek mind and manners, kind to small 

errors, 15 

And the souls of slaves, and their bodies, does he think 
To consist of our matter, and of equal elements ? 
Or does he teach to be cruel, who delights in the bitter 
Sound of stripes, and compares no Siren to whips, 19 

The Antiphates and Polyphemus of his tremblinghousehold 
Then happy, as often as any one, the tormentor being called, 
Is burnt with an hot iron on account of two napkins ? 
What can he who is glad at the noise of a chain advise to a 


Whom branded slaves, a rustic prison, wonderfully 
Delight ? Do you expect that the daughter of Larga should 

not be 25 

The tormentor, fyc.] Comp. sat. vi. 
479, and note. 

22. Is burnt, Sfc.] Burnt with an hot 
iron on his flesh, for some petty theft, 
as of two towels or napkins.. These the 
Romans wiped with after bathing. 

23. What can he advise, $<;.] What 
can a man, who is himself so barbarous, 
as to be affected with the highest plea- 
sure at hearing the rattling of fetters, 
when put on the legs or bodies of his 
slaves what can such a father persuade 
his son to, whom he has taught so ill by 
his example ? 

24. Branded slaves a rustic prison.] 
Ergastulum lit. signifies a workhouse, 
a house of correction, where they con- 
fined and punished their slaves, and 
made them work. Sometimes (as here, 
and sat. vi. 150.) it means a slave. In- 
scriptus-a-um, signifies marked, brand- 
ed ; inscripta ergastula, branded slaves ; 
comp. 1. 22, note. q.d. Whom the sight 
of slaves branded with hot irons, kept in 
a workhouse in the country, where they 
are in fetters (1. 23.) and which is there- 
fore to be looked on as a country-gaol, 
affects with wonderful delight We 
may suppose the ergastula something 
like our bridewells. 

25. Larga.1 Some famous lady of that 
day ; here put for all such characters. 

souls are made up of the same elements 
as ours, who are their masters? Does he 
suppose them to be of the same flesh 
and blood, and to have reasonable souls 
as well as himself ? Sat. vi. 221. 

18. Or does he teach to be cruel.] In- 
stead of setting an example of meekness, 
gentleness, and forbearance, does he not 
teach his children to be savage and 
cruel, by the treatment which he gives 
his. ilave*. 

18, 19. In the bitter sound of stripes.] 
He takes a pleasure in hearing the sound 
of those bitter stripes with which he 
punishes his slaves. 

1.9. Compares no Siren, fy.] The song 
of a Siren would not, in his opinion, be 
so delightful to his ears, as the crack of 
the whips on his slaves' backs. 

20. The Antip/tates and Polyphemus, 
&'c.] Antiphates was a king of savage 
people near Forming, in Italy, who were 
eaters of man's flesh. 

Polyphemus the Cyclops lived on the 
same diet. VIRG. JEn. iii. 620, et seq. 

Rutilus is here likened to these two 
monsters of cruelty, insomuch as that he 
was the terror of the whole family, 
which is the sense of laris in this place. 

21. Tlien happy.] It was a matter of 
joy to him. 

As often any otie.] i. e. Of his slaves. 



Filia, quee imnquam inaternos dicere moechos 

Tarn cito, nee tanto poterit contexere cursu, 

Ut non ter decies respiret ? conscia matri 

Virgo fuit : ceras nunc hac dictante pusillas 

Implet, et ad mcechum dat eisdem ferre cinsedis. 30 

Sic naturajubet: velocius et citius nos 

Corrumpunt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 

Cum subeunt animos auctoribus. Unus et alter 

Forsitan hsec spernant juvenes, quibus arte benigna, 

Et meliore luto finxit prsecordia Titan. 35 

Sed reliquos fugienda patruui vestigia ducnnt ; 

Et monstrata diu veteris trahit orbita culpae. 

Abstineas igitur damnandis : hujus enim vel 

Una potens ratio est, ne crimina nostra sequantur 

Ex nobis geniti ; quoniam dociles imitandis 40 

Turpibus et pravis omnes sumus ; et Catilinam 

Quocunque in populo videas, quocunque sub axe : 

Sed nee Brutus erit, Bruti nee avunculus usquam. 

Nil dictu foedum, visuque hsec limina tangat, 

25. Should not be, Sfc.] When she has 
the constant bad example of her mother 
before her eyes. Comp. sat. vi. 239, 

26. Who never, fyc.] Who could never 
repeat the nrjnes of all her mother's gal- 
lants, though she uttered them as fast as 
possibly she could, without often taking 
breath before she got to the end of the 
list, so great was the number. Comp. 
sat. x. 223, 4. 

28. Privy, fyc.] She was a witness of 
all her mother's lewd proceedings, and 
was privy to them ; which is the mean- 
ing of conscia in this place. See sat. iii. 
1. 49. 

29. Now.] i. e. Now she is grown 
something bigger, she does as her mo- 
ther did. 

She dictating.] The mother instruct- 
ing, and dictating what she shall say. 

Little tablets.] Cerna signifies wax, 
but as they wrote on thin wooden tablets 
smeared over with wax, ceras, per met. 
means the tablets or letters themselves. 
See sat. i. 1. 63. 

Some understand by ceras pusillas, 
small tablets, as best adapted to the size 
of her hand, and more proper for her 
age, than large ones. As the boy (1. 5.) 
had a little dice-box to teach him gam- 
ing, so this girl begins with a little ta- 
blet, in order to initiate her into the 

science of intrigue. But, perhaps, by 
pusillas ceras the poet means what the 
French would call petits billets-doux. 

30. She fills.] i.e. Fills with writing. 

The same pimps, ffc.] Cinaedus is a 
word of detestable meaning ; but here 
cinsedis seems to denote pimps, or peo- 
ple who go between the parties in an 

The daughter employs the same mes- 
sengers that her mother did, to carry 
her little love-letters. 

SI. So nature commands, $c] Thus 
nature orders it, and therefore it natu- 
rally happens, that examples of vice, 
set by those of our own family, corrupt 
the soonest. 

32. When they possess minds, <|r.] 
When they insinuate themselves into 
the mind, under the influence of those 
who have a right to exercise authority 
over us. See AINSW. Auctor, No. 6. 

33. One or two.] Unus et alter here 
and there one, as we say, may be found 
as exceptions, and who may reject, with 
due contempt, their parents' vices, but 
then they must be differently formed 
from the generality. 

34. By a benign art, fyc.] Prometheus, 
one of the Titans, was feigned by the 
poets, to have formed men of clay, and 
put life into them by fire stolen from 


An adulteress, who never could say over her mother's gallants 
So quickly, nor could join them together with so much speed, 
As that she must not take breath thirty times ? privy to her 


Was the virgin : now, she dictating, little tablets 
She fills, and gives them to the same pimps to carry to the 
gallant. 30 

So nature commands; more swiftly and speedily do domestic 
Examples of vices corrupt us, when they possess minds 
From those that have great influence. Perhaps one x or two 
Young men may despise these things, for whom, by a benign 


And with better clay, Titan has formed their breasts. 35 
But the footsteps of their fathers which are to be avoided, 

lead the rest, 

And the path of old wickedness, long shewn, draws them. 
Abstain therefore from things which are to be condemned : 

for of this at least 

There is one powerful reason, lest those who are begotten by us 
Should follow our crimes ; for in imitating base and wicked 
Things we are all docile ; and a Catiline 41 

You may see among every people, in every clime : 
But neither will Brutus, nor uncle of Brutus, be any where. 
Nothing filthy, to be said, or seen, should touch these thres- 

The poet here says, that, if one or two 40. In imitating, fc.] Such is the con- 
young men are found who reject their dition of human nature, that we are aU 
father's bad example, it must be owing more prone to evil than to good, and, 
to the peculiar favour of Prometheus, for this reason, we are easily taught to 
who, by a kind exertion of his art, imitate the vices of others, 
formed their bodies, and particularly the 41. A Catiline, 4fe-] See sat. viiL 231. 
parts about the heart (praecordia), of Vicious characters are easily to be met 
better materials than those which he with, go where von may. 
employed in the formation of others. 43. Brutus.'] *M. Brutus, one of the 

36. Footsteps, $c.] As for the common most virtuous of the Romans, and the 
run of young men^ they are led, by the great assertor of public liberty. 

bad example of their fathers, to tread in Uncle of Brutus.] Cato of Utica, 
their fathers' steps, which ought to be who was the brother of Servilia, the mo- 
avoided, ther of Brutus, a man of severe virtue. 

37. Path of old wickedness, fyc.~\ And So prone is human nature to evil, so 
the beaten track of wickedness, con- inclined to follow bad example, that a 
stantly before their eyes, draws them virtuous character, like Brutus or Cato, 
into the same crimes. is hardly to be found any where, while 

38. Abstain therefore, fc.] Refrain profligate and debauched characters, like 
therefore from ill actions ; at least we Catiline, abound all the world over ; this 
should do this, if not for our own sakes, would not be so much the case, if pa- 
yet for the sake of our children, that rents were more careful about the exarn- 
they may not be led to follow our vicious pies which they set their children, 
examples, and to commit the same crimes 44. Filthy.'] Indecent, obscene, 
which they have seen in us. Shottld touch, $<.] Should approach 




Intra quse puer est. Procul hinc, procul inde puelke 45 

Lenonum, et cantus pernoctantis parasiti. 

Maxima debetur puero reverentia. Si quid 

Turpe paras, ne tu pueri contempseris annos : 

Sed peccaturo obsistat tibi filius infaus. 

Nam si quid dignum censoris fecerit ira, 50 

(Quandoquidem similem tibi se non corpore tantum, 

Nee vultu dederit, morum quoque filius,) et cum 

Omnia deterius tua per vestigia peccet, 

Corripies nimirum, et castigabis acerbo 

Clamore, ac post hsec tabulas mutare parabis. 55 

Unde tibi frontem, libertatemque parentis, 

Cum facias pejora senex, vacuumque cerebro 

Jampridem caput hoc ventosa cucurbita quserat ? 

Hospite venture, cessabit nemo tuoruni : 
Verre pavimentum, nitidas ostende columnas, GO 

Arida cum tota descendat arauea tela ; 
Hie laeve argentum, vasa aspera tergeat alter : 

those doors, where there are children, 
lest they be corrupted. Therefore 

45. Far from hence, &.] Hence far 
away, begone ; a form of speech made 
use of at religious solemnities^ in order 
to hinder the approach of the profane. 
So HORACE, lib. iii. ode i. L 1, when he 
calls himself musarum sacerdos, says, 
Odi profanum vulgus et arceo. 

VIRG. JEn. vi. 258. makes the Sibyl say : 
Procul, O procul este profani 

Totoqne absistite luco. 

45. 6. Girls of bawds.] The common 
prostitutes, who are kept by common 
panders, or pimps, for lewd purposes. 

46. The nightly parasites.'} Pernoctans 
signifies tarrying, or sitting up all night 
The parasites, who frequently attended 
at the tables of great men, used to divert 
them with lewd and obscene songs, and 
for this purpose would sit up all night 

47. Greatest reverence, <c.] People 
should keep the strictest guard over their 
words and actions, in the presence of 
boys ; they cannot be under too much 
awe, nor shew too great a reverence for 
decency, when in their presence. 

48. You go about, ^fc.] If you intend, 
or purpose, or set about, to do what is 
wrong, don't say, " There's nobody here 
" but my young sou, I don't mind him, 
" and he is too young to mind me :" 

rather say, " My little boy is here, I will 
" not hurt his mind by making him a 
" witness of what I purposed to do., there- 
" fore I will not do it before him." 

50. Of the censor.'} The censor of good 
manners, or morum judex, was an officer 
of considerable power in Rome, before 
whom offenders against the peace and 
good manners were carried and censured. 
Sat iv. 1. 12. 

q. d. Now, if, in after-times, your son 
should be taken before the censor, for 
some crime cognizable anu punishable 
by him. 

52. Shew himself, &c.] (For he will 
exhibit a likeness to his father, not in 
person, or face only, but in his moral 
behaviour and conduct ; therefore, if you 
set him a bad example, you must not 
wonder that he follows it, and appears 
his father's own son in mind as well as 
in body.) 

53. Offend the worse, $c.] And it is 
most probable, that following your steps 
has made him do worse than he other- 
wise would. 

54. You witt, 4-c.] You will call him 
to a severe account. Nimirum here is 
to be understood like our English for- 

And dtastise, fyc.~\ You will be very 
loud and bitter in your reproaches of his 
bad conduct, and even have thoughts of 



Within which is a boy. Far from hence, from thence the girls 
Of bawds, and the songs of the nightly parasite : 46 

The greatest reverence is due to a boy. If any base thing 
You go about, do not despise the years of a boy, 
But let your infant son hinder you about to sin. 
For if he shall do any thing worthy the anger of the censor, 50 
(Since he, like to you not in body only, nor in countenance, 
Will shew himself, the son also of your morals,) and when 
He may offend the worse, by all your footsteps, 
You will, forsooth, chide, and chastise with harsh 
Clamour, and after these, will prepare to change your will. 55 
Whence assume you the front, and liberty of a parent, 
When, an old man, you can do worse things, and this head, 
Void of brain, long since, the ventose cupping-glass may seek? 

A guest being to come, none of your people will be idle. 
" Sweep the pavement, shew the columns clean, 60 

" Let the dry spider descend with all her web: 
" Let one wipe the smooth silver, another the rough vessels :" 

disinheriting him, by changing your last 
will See sat. ii. 58, tabulas. 

56. Whence, <|c.] With what confi- 
dence can you assume the countenance 
and authority of a father, so as freely to 
use the liberty of parental reproof ? We 
may suppose suinas to be understood in 
this line. 

57. When, &ic.] When you, at an ad- 
vanced age, do worse than the youth 
with whom you are so angrv. 

This head, fre.] When that brain- 
less head of yours may, for some time, 
have wanted the cupping-glass to set it 
right i. e. when you have for a long 
time been acting as if you were mad. 

58. Ventose cuppin</-f/lass.~\ Cucurbita 
signifies a gourd, which, when divided 
in half, and scooped hollow, might, per- 
haps, among the ancients, be used as a 
cupping instrument. In after-times they 
made their cupping instruments of brass, 
or horn, (as now they are made of glass,) 
and applied them to the head to relieve 
pains there, but particularly to mad peo- 
ple. The epithet ventosa, which signi- 
fies windy, full of wind, alludes to the 
nature of their operation, which is per- 
formed by rarifying the air which is 
within them, by the application of fire, 
on which the blood is forced from the 
scarified skin into the cupping-glass, by 
the pressure of the outward air; so that 

the air may be called the chief agent in 
this operation. The operation of cup- 
ping on the head in phrensies is very 

59. A (/ucst, $c.] When you expect a 
friend to make you a visit, you set all 
hands to work, in order to prepare your 
house for his reception. 

60. " Sweep the pavement," fyc.] 
"Sweep" (say you to your servants) 
" the floors clean wipe the dust from 
"all the pillars." 

The Roman floors were either laid with 
stone, or made of a sort of mortar, or 
stucco, composed of shells reduced to 
powder, and mixed in a due consistency 
with water ; this, when dry, was very 
hard and smooth. Hence, Britannicus 
observes, pavimentum was called ostra- 
ceum, or testaceum. These floors are 
common in Italy to this day. 

The Romans were very fond of pillars 
in their buildings, particularly in their 
rooms of state and entertainment. See 
sat vii. 1. 182, 3. The architraves, and 
other ornamental parts of pillars, are 
very apt to gather dust. 

61. " Dry spider," <fr.] The spiders, 
which have been there so long as to be 
dead and dried up, sweep them, and all 
their cobwebs, down. 

62. "Smooth silver."] The un wrought 
plato, which is polished and smooth. 




Vox domini fremit instantis, virgamque tenentis. 

Ergo miser trepidas, ne stercore foeda canino 

Atria displiceant oculis venientis amici ? 6.> 

Ne perfusa luto sit porticus : et tamen uno 

Semodio scobis hsec emundet servulus unus : 

Illud non agitas, ut sanctam films omni 

Aspiciat sine labe domum, vitioque carentem ? 

Gratum est, quod patrise civem populoque dedisti, 70 

Si facis, ut patrise sit idoneus, utilis agris, 

Utilis et bellorum, et pacis rebus agendis : 

Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, et quibus hunc tu 

Moribus instituas. Serpente ciconia pullos 

Nutrit, et inventa per devia rura lacerta : 75 

Illi eadem sumptis quserunt animalia pennis. 

Vultur jumento, et canibus, crucibusque relictis, 

Ad foetus properat, partemque cadaveris affert. 

Hinc est ergo cibus magjni quoque vulturis, et se 

Pascentis, propria cum jam facit arbore nidos. 80 

62. " TJte rough vessels."] The wrought 
plate, which is rough and uneven, by 
reason of the embossed figures upon it, 
which stand out of its surface. See sat. 
i. 76. So JEn. ix. 263. 

Bina daboargentoperfecta atque aspera 


63. Holding a rod.'] To keep them all 
to their work, on pain of being scourged. 

Blusters.] He is very loud and 
earnest in his directions to get things in 

64. Therefore, fyc.] Canst thou, wretch 
that thou art, be so solicitous to prevent 
all displeasure to thy guest, by his see- 
ing what may be offensive about thine 
house, either within or without, and, for 
this purpose, art thou so over-anxious and 
earnest, when a very little trouble might 
suffice for this, and, at the same time, 
take no pains to prevent any moral filth 
or turpitude from being seen in your 
house by your own son ? This is the sub- 
stance of the poet's argument. 

65. Thy courts.] Atrium signifies a 
court-yard, a court before an house, a 
hall, a place where they used to dine. 
AINSW. All these may be meant, in 
this place, by the plur. atria ; for, to all 
these places their favourite dogs might 
have access, and, of course, might daub 

66. The porch, fy.] A sort of gallery, 
with pillars, at the door (ad portam) of 
the house ; or a place where they used 
to walk, and so liable to be dirty. 

Servant boy.] Servulus (dim. of ser- 
vus) a servant lad. 

67. Saic-dust, Qc.] Scobs signifies any 
manner of powder, or dust, that cometh 
of sawing, filing, or boring. Probably 
the Romans sprinkled over the floors 
of their porticos with saw-dust, as we 
do our kitchens and lower parts of the 
house with sand, to give them a clean 
appearance, and to hinder the dirt of 
people's shoes from sticking to the floor. 
See HOLYDAY, note 3, on this Satire, 
who observes, that Heliogabalus was 
said to strew his porticus, or gallery, with 
the dust of gold and silver. 

68. Manage it, $c.] viz. To keep your 
house sacred to virtue and good example, 
and free from all vicious practices, that 
your son may not be corrupted by seeing 

70. Acceptable, $c.] i. e. To the pub- 
lic, that, by begetting a son, you have 
added to the country a subject, and to 
Rome a citizen. 

71. If you make him, <|-e.J If you so 
educate and form him, that he may be 
an useful member of society. 

In the fields.] Well skilled in agri- 


The voice of the master, earnest, and holding a rod, blusters. 
Therefore, wretch, dost thou tremble, lest, foul with canine 


Thy courts should displease the eyes of a coming friend ? 65 
Lest the porch should be overspread with mud ? and yet one 

servant boy, 

With one half bushel of saw-dust, can cleanse these : 
Dost thou not manage it, that thy son should see 
Thine house, sacred without all spot, and having no vice ! 
It is acceptable, that you have given a citizen to your 

country and people, 70 

If you make him, that he may be meet for his country, 

useful in the fields, 

Useful in managing affairs both of war and peace : 
For it will be of the greatest consequence, in what arts, and 

with what morals 

You may train him up. With a serpent a stork nourishes 
Her young, and with a lizard found in the devious fields ; 75 
They, when they take their wings, seek the same animals. 
The vulture with cattle, and with dogs, and with relicks from 


Hastens to her young, and brings part of a dead body. 
Hence is the food also of a great vulture, and of one feeding 
Herself, when now she makes nests in her own tree. so 

72. In managing affairs, $r.] Capable remote parts of the country, where ser- 
of transacting the business of a soldier, pents and lizards are usually found. 

or that of a lawyer or senator. The op- 76. Take their wings.'] i. e. The young 

position of belli et pacis, like anna et storks, when able to fly and provide for 

togae, in cedant anna, togae, seems to themselves, will seek the same animals 

carry this meaning. for food, with which they were fed by 

So HOLYD. the helmet or the gown, the old ones in the nest. 

The old Romans were careful so to 77. With cattle, ifc.] The vulture feeds 

breed up their sons, that afterwards they her young jumento with the flesh of 

might be useful to their country in peace dead cattle, and of dead dogs, 

or war, or ploughing the ground. J. Relicks from crosses.] i. e. Feeds on 

DRYDEN, junior. the remains of the bodies of malefactors 

73. In what arts, "c.] So as to make that were left exposed on crosses, or 
him useful to the public. gibbets, and brings part of the carcase 

What morals, fyc.~\ So as to regulate to her nest 1. 78. 

his conduct, not only as to his private 79. Hence, #c.] From thus being sup- 
behaviour, but as to his demeanour in plied with such sort of food by the old 
any public office which he may be one, the young vulture, when she is 
called to. grown up to be a great bird, feeds upon 

74. A stork nourishes, fc.] t. e. Feeds the same. 

her young ones with snakes and lizards. 80. When now, Sfc.] She feeds herself 

75. Devious fields.] Devious (ex de and and the young in the same manner, 
via quasi a recta via remotum) signifies whenever she has a nest of her own, in 
nut of the way, or road. some tree which she appropriates for 

Dovia rura may bo understood of the building it. 



Sed leporem, aut capream, famulse Jovis, et generosse 

In saltu venantur aves : hinc praeda eubili 

Ponitur : inde autem, cum se matura levarit 

Progenies stimulante fame, festinat ad illam, 

Quam priinuni rupto prsedam gustaverat ovo. 85 

^Edificator erat Centronius, et modo curve 
Littore Cajetse, summa nunc Tiburis arce, 
Nunc Pra?nestinis in montibus, alta parabat 
Culmina villarum, Grsecis, longeque petitis 
Marmoribus, vincens Fortunse atque Herculis sedem ; 90 
Ut spado vincebat capitolia nostra Posides. 
Duni sic ergo habitat Centronius, imminuit rem, 
Fregit opes, nee parva tamen mensura relictse 
Partis erat : totam hanc turbavit filius amens, 
Dum meliore novas attollit marmore villas. 95 

Quidam sortiti metuentem sabbata patrem, 
Nil prseter nubes, et coeli numen adorant ; 

S\. Handmaids of J&ve.] Eagles. See 
Hor. lib. iv. ode iv. 1. 1, et seq. where 
the eagle is called ministrum fulminis 
alitem, because supposed to carry Jove's 
thunder. See FRANCIS, note there. 

81, 2. Noble birds, $c.] Not only 
eagles, but the falcons of various kinds, 
hunt hares and kids, and having caught 
them, carry them to their nests to feed 
their young with. 

83. Thence, $c.] i. e. From being fed 
with such sort of food when young. 

The mature progeny.] The young 
ones, when grown up, and full fledged. 

84. liaised itself, fyc.] Upon its wings, 
and takes its flight. 

Hunger stimulating, ,] When sharp- 
ened by hunger. 

84. 5. Hastens to that prey.~] To the 
same sort of food. 

85. Which it had first tasted, fy\] 
Which it had been used to from the time 
it was first hatched rupto ovo, from the 
broken egg from its very egg-shell, as 
we say. 

86. Centronius.'] A famous extravagant 
architect, who, with his son, (who took 
after him,) built away all his estate, and 
had so many palaces at last, that he was 
too poor to live in any of them. 

87. Caieta.] A sea-port in Campania, 
not far from Baine, built in memory of 
Caieta, nurse to JEneas. See JEn. vii. 1. 
1 4. The shore was here remarkably 

sinuous and crooked. 

Summit of Tibur.] See sat iii. 192, 

88. Prtenestine mountains.] On the 
mountains near Praneste, a city of Italy, 
about twenty miles from Rome. 

Was preparing.] Planning and build- 
ing, thus preparing them for habitation. 

88. 9. The high tops, Sfe.] Magnificent 
and lofty country-houses. 

89. With Grecian, #e.] Finished in 
the most superb taste with Grecian and 
other kinds of foreign marble. 

90. Temple of Fortune.] There was 
one at Rome built of the finest marble 
by Nero ; but here is meant that at 

Of Hercules.] At Tibur, where there 
was a very great library. 

91. Eunuch Posides, $c.] A freedman 
and favourite of Claudius Caesar, who 
was possessed of immense riches : he 
built on the shore at Baiae some baths 
which were very magnificent, and called, 
after him, Posidianae. 

Our capitols.] Of which there were 
several, besides that at Rome, as at Ca- 
pua, Pompeia, and other places. But 
the poet means particularly the capitol 
at Rome, which, after having been burnt, 
was rebuilt and beautified most magni- 
ficently by Domitian. 

92. W7iile thus, fy.] While he thus 
builds and inhabits such expensive and 



But the hare or the kid, the handmaids of Jove, and the noble 
Birds, hunt in the forest : hence prey is put 
In their nest : but, thence, the mature progeny, when 
It has raised itself, hunger stimulating, hastens to that 
Prey which it had first tasted, the egg being broken. 85 

Centronius was a builder, and now on the crooked 
Shore of Caieta, now on the highest summit of Tibur, 
Now in the Prsenestine mountains, was preparing the high 
Tops of villas, with Grecian, and with marble sought 
Afar off, exceeding the temple of Fortune and of Hercules : 90 
As the eunuch Posides out-did our capitols. 
While thus, therefore, Centronius dwells, he diminished his 


He impaired his wealth, nor yet was the measure of the re- 

Part small : his mad son confounded all this, 
While he raised up new villas with better marble. 95 

Some chance to have a father who fears the sabbaths, 
They adore nothing beside the clouds, and the deity of heaven : 

magnificent houses, he outruns his in- 

93. Nor yet, <c.] Nevertheless, though 
he lessened his fortune, yet there was no 
small part of it left. 

94. His mad son, <|' c -] His son, who, 
from the example of his father, had con- 
tracted a sort of madness for expensive 
building, confounded die remaining part 
of his father's fortune, when it came to 
him, after his father's death. 

95. liaised up new villas, <?jc.] Endea- 
vouring to excel his father, and to build 
at a still greater expence, with more 
costly materials. 

This instance of Centronius and his 
son is here given as a proof of the poet's 
argument, that children will follow the 
vices and follies of parents, and perhaps 
even exceed them (comp. L 53.) ; there- 
fore parents should be very careful of 
the example which they set their chil- 

96. Some chance, #c.] Sortiti t. e. it 
fulls to the lot of some. 

Fears the saU>at1is.'\ Not only re- 
verences the seventh day, but the other 
Jewish feasts, which were called sab- 

The poet having shewn, that children 
follow the example of their parents in 
vice and folly, here shews, that in reli- 

gious matters also children are led by 
their parents' example. 

97. Beside the clouds.] Because the 
Jews did not worship images, but looked 
toward heaven when they prayed, they 
were charged with worshipping the 
clouds, the heathen having no notion 
but of worshipping some visible object. 

Tlie deity of heaven.] Juvenal, 

though he was wise enough to laugh at 
his own country gods, yet had not any 
notion of the ONE TRUE GOD, which 
makes him ridicule the Jewish worship. 

However, I doubt much, whether, by 
numen coeli, in this place, we are not to 
suppose Juvenal as representing the 
Jews to worship the material heaven, 
" the blue ethereal sky," (as Mr. Addi- 
son phrases it in his translation of the 
19th Psalm,) imagining that they made 
a deity of it, as he supposed they did 
of the clouds ; this I think the rather, 
as it stands here joined with nubes, and 
was likewise a visible object. See TACIT. 
Hist. v. initio. 

As for the God of Heaven, he was to 
Juvenal, as to the Athenians, a.yv<a<rros 
&tos, (see Acts xvii. 23.) utterly un- 
known ; and therefore the poet could 
not mean him by numen creli. " After 
" the wisdom of God, the world by wis- 
dom knew ilbt God." 1 Cor. i. 21. 



Nee distare putant humana carne suillam, 

Qua pater abstinuit ; mox et prseputia ponunt : 

Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges, 100 

Judaicum ediscunt, et servant, ac metuunt jus, 

Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moses : 

Non monstrare vias, eadein nisi sacra colenti ; 

Quaesitum ad fontem solos deducere verpos. 

Sed pater in causa, cui septima quaeque fuit lux 105 

Ignava, et partem vitse non attigit ullam. 

Sponte tamen juvenes imitantur cretera : solam 
Inviti quoque avaritiam exercere jubentur. 
Fallit enim vitium specie virtutis, et umbra, 
Cum sit triste habitu, vultuque et veste severum. no 

Nee dubie tanquam frugi laudatur avarus, 
Tanquam parcus homo, et rerum tutela suarum 

98. Swine's flesh to be different from 
human.] They think it as abominable to 
eat the one as the other. Here he ig- 
norantly ridicules their observance of 
that law, Lev. xi. 7, &c. 

99. The father, <|c.] He treats it as a 
matter of mere tradition, as if the son 
only did it because" his fether did it be- 
fore him. 

Soon tJtey lay aside, <|-c.] Here he 
ridicules the rite of circumcision, which 
was performed on the eighth day after 
their birth, according to Gen. xvii. 10, 
et seq. 

100. Used to despise, $c.~] It being 
their wonted custom and practice to 
hold the laws of Rome, relative to the 
worship of the gods in particular, in the 
highest contempt. See Exod. xxiii. 24. 

101. They learn.} From their child- 
hood. Ediscunt learn by heart. 

And keep.] Observe. 

AndfearJ\ And reverence 

102. Whatsoever Moses, #c.] . e. 
Whatsoever it be that Moses, &c. From 
this passage it appears, that Moses was 
known and acknowledged, by the hea- 
then, to be the lawgiver of the Jews. 

Secret voltime.~\ By this is meant the 
Pentateuch, (so called from trevre, five, 
and Tev%os, a book or volume,) or five 
books of Moses. A copy of this was kept, 
as it is to this day, in every synagogue, 
locked up in a press, or chest (area), and 
never exposed to sight, unless when 
brought out to be read at the time of 

worship in the s} r nagogue, and then (as 
now) it was returned to its place, and 
again locked up. This is probably al- 
luded to by Juvenal's epithet of arcano, 
from area as Romanus, from Roma. 
See AINSW. Arcanus-a-um. Volumine, 
from volvo, to roll, denotes that -the book 
of the law was rolled, not folded up. 
See sat. x. 126, note. 

103. Nat to shew the ways, Sfc.] They 
were forbidden certain connections with 
the heathen ; but when the poet repre- 
sents them so monstrously uncharitable, 
as not to shew a stranger the way to a 
place which he was enquiring after, un- 
less he were a Jew, he may be supposed 
to speak from prejudice and misinform- 
ation. So in the next line 

104. To lead, ^c.] He supposes, that 
if a man who was not a Jew, were ever 
so thirsty, and asked the way to some 
spring to quench his thirst, they would 
sooner let him perish than direct him to 
it. But no such thing was taught by 
Moses. See Exod. xxii 21 ; and ch. 
xxiii. 9. 

Verpos, like Horace's apella, is a word 
of contempt. 

105. The father, Sfc.] Who, as the 
poet would be understood, set them the 

Every seventh day, fyc.~\ Throughout 
the year this was observed as a day of 
rest, the other sabbaths at their stated 
times. The poet ignorantly imputes 
this merely to an idle practice, which 



Nor do they think swine's flesh to be different from human, 
From which the father abstained ; and soon they lay aside 

their foreskins : 

But used to despise the Roman laws, 100 

They learn, and keep, and fear the Jewish law, 
Whatsoever Moses hath delivered in the secret volume : 
Not to shew the ways, unless to one observing the same rites, 
To lead the circumcised only to a sought-for fountain ; 
But the father is in fault, to whom every seventh day was 105 
Idle, and he did not meddle with any part of life. 
Young men, nevertheless, imitate the rest of their own 

accord; only 

Avarice they are commanded to exercise against their wills; 
For vice deceives under the appearance and shadow of virtue, 
When it is sad in habit, and severe in countenance and dress. 
Nor is the miser doubtfully praised as frugal, 1 1 1 

As the thrifty man, and a safeguard of his own affairs, 

was handed down from father to son, not 
knowing the design and importance of 
the divine command. 

106. Meddle, #c.] t. e. He refrained 
from all business, even such as related to 
the necessaries of common life. The 
Jews carried this to a superstiti9us 
height ; they even condemned works of 
necessity and charity, if done on the 
Sabbath. See John vii. 23. They also 
declared self-defence to be unlawful on 
the Sabbath-day. See AXT. Univ. Hist 
vol. x. p. 272. 

107. Young men, cfc.] The poet now 
begins on the subject of avarice, in order 
to shew how this also is communicated 
from father to son : but here he makes a 
distinction. As to other vices, says he, 
youth want no force to be put upon them 
to incline them to imitation ; whereas, 
this of avarice, being rather against their 
natural bent towards prodigality, requires 
some pains to be taken, in order to instil 
it into their minds. 

The rest.] The other vices which 
have been mentioned. 

108. Commanded, #e.] They have 
much pains taken with them to force 
them, as it were, into it, against their 
natural inclinations. 

109. Vice deceives, <5fc.] They are de- 
ceived at first, by being taught to look 
upon that as virtuous, from its appear- 
ance, which in truth, in its real nature 

and design, is vicious. Nothing is more 
common than for vice to be concealed 
under the garb of virtue, as in the in- 
stance which the poet is about to men- 
tion. In this sense it may be said, De- 
cipimur specie recti. HOR. de Art. 

110. Sad in habit, $c.] The poet, in 
this line, in which he is describing vice, 
wearing the garb, and putting on the 
semblance, of wisdom and virtue, has 
probably in his eye the hypocrites, 
whom he so severely lashes at the be- 
ginning of the second Satire. See sat 
ii. 1. 120. 

Habitu here means outward carriage, 
demeanour, manner. Sad triste grave, 
pensive, demure. 

Severe in countenance, Sfr.] A seve- 
rity of countenance, and a negligence in 
dress, were supposed characteristic of 
wisdom and virtue, and were therefore 
in high esteem among the philosophers, 
and those who would be thought wiser 
and better than others. Hence, in or- 
der to deceive, these were assumed by 
vicious people. See Matt. vi. 16. 

111. Dotfafully praised, &-.] Nobody 
doubts his sincerity, or that he is other 
than his appearance bespeaks him, rtr. 
a frugal man, and careful of his affair*, 
which is certainly a laudable character. 

Sic timidus se contain row/, sordibu* 
pare/mi. SRX. 



Certa magis, quam si fortunas servet easdem 

Hesperidurn serpens, aut Ponticus. Adde quod hunc, de 

Quo loquor, egregium populus putat, atque verendum 115 

Artificem : quippe his crescunt patrimonia fabris. 

Sed crescunt quocunque modo, majoraque fiunt 

Incude assidua, semperque ardente camino. 

Et pater ergo animi felices credit avaros, 

Qui miratur opes, qui iiulla exempla beati 1-20 

Pauperis esse putat ; juvenes hortatur, ut illam 

Ire viam pergant, et eidem incumbere sectae. 

Sunt qusedam vitiorum elementa : his protinus illos 

Imbuit, et cogit minimas ediscere sordes. 

Mox acquirendi docet insatiabile votum : 125 

Servorum ventres modio castigat iniquo, 

113. More certain, $c.~\ At the same 
time he is acting from no better princi- 
ple, than that of the most sordid avarice, 
and takes care to hoard up and secure 
his money-bags in such a manner, as 
that they are safer than if guarded by 
the dragon which watched the garde nof 
the Hesperides, the daughters of Atlas, 
from whence, notwithstanding, Hercu- 
les stole the golden apples ; or by 
the dragon which guarded the golden 
fleece at Colchis, in Pontus, from 
whence, notwithstanding, it was stolen 
by Jason. 

114. Addl\ We may also add to this 
account of the character here spoken of, 
that he is in high estimation with the 
generality of people, who always judge 
of a man by what he is worth. 

At bona pars hominum, decepta cu- 

pidine falsa, 
Nil satis est, inguit, quia tanti quantum 

HOR. lib. i. sat. i. 1. 61, 2. 
" Some self-deceived, who think their 

"lust of gold 
" 7s but a love of fame, this mamm 


" No fortune's large enough, since 

" others rate 
"Our worth proportioned to a large 

" estate." FRANCIS. 

1 1 5. The people think, #<:.] They reckon 
this man, who has been the fabricator of 
his own fortune to so large an amount, 
an excellent workman in his way, and 
to be highly reverenced. 

116. To these workmen, $c.] Fabris 
here is metaphorical, and is applied to 
these fabricators of wealth for them- 
selves, because those who coined or 
made money for the public were called 
fabri, or monetse fabricatores. Faber 
usually denotes a smith i. e. a work- 
man in iron and other hard materials, 
a forger, a hammerer : so these misers, 
who were continually at work to increase 
their wealth, might be said to forge and 
hammer out a fortune for themselves, 
and in this sense might be called fabri. 
To such as these, says the poet, riches 

1 17. By whatsoever means.} They were 
not very scrupulous or nice, as to the 
means of increasing their store, whether 
by right or wrong. 

118. By tJie assiduous anvil, and the 
forge, #c.] The poet still continues his 
metaphor. As smiths, by continually 
beating their iron on the anvil, and hav- 
ing the forge always heated, fabricate 
and complete a great deal of work ; so 
these misers are always forging and 
fashioning something or other to in- 
crease their wealth. Their incessant 
toil and labour may be compared to 
working at the anvil, and the burning 
desire of their minds to the lighted forge. 
Camino here is to be understood of the 
forge or furnace in which the iron is 

119. The father therefore, &;c.] Seeing 
these men abound in wealth, and not 
recollecting what pains it cost them, 
both of body and mind, to acquire it, 



More certain, than if, those same fortunes, the serpent 
Of the Hesperides or of Pontus should keep. Add, that 
This man, of whom I speak, the people think an excellent, 

and venerable 115, for to these workmen patrimonies increase : 
But they increase by whatsoever means, and become greater 
By the assiduous anvil, and the forge always burning. 
And the father therefore believes the covetous happy of mind, 
Who admires wealth, who thinks that there are no examples 
Of an happy poor man; he exhorts his young men, that they 
May persist to go that way, and apply earnestly to the same 

sect. 122 

There are certain elements of vices ; with these he 

immediately seasons 

Them, and compels them to learn the most trifling stinginess. 
By-and-by he teaches an insatiable wish of acquiring: 125 
He chastises the bellies of the servants with an unjust measure, 

thinking the rich are the only, happy 
people, and that a poor man must be 

121. Eahorts the young men."] His sons 
that are growing up. 

122. To go that way.] To tread in the 
steps of these money-getting people. 

Apply earnestly, $fc.] Incumbo 
signifies to apply with earnestness and 
diligence to any thing. The father here 
recommends it to his sons, to apply 
themselves diligently to the practices of 
these people, whom the poet humour- 
ously styles a sect, as if they were a 
sect of philosophers, to which the word 
properly belongs. Those who joined in 
following the doctrines of Plato, were 
_Baid to be of the Platonic sect so secta 
Socratica. Secta comes from sequor, to 

1-23. Certain elements, #e.] Certain 
rudiments or beginnings. The father 
does not all at once bid his sons to be 
covetous but insinuates into their minds, 
by little and little, sordid principles. 
This he does as soon as they are capable 
of receiving them, which I take to be 
the meaning of protinus here. Imbuo 
signifies to season meat, or the like ; so, 
by metaph, to season the mind ; also to 
furnish, or store. 

124. Compeh them to learn, $r.] From 
his example, little paltry acts of mean- 
ness and avarice minima* sordcs. 

1'2."). Iiif-and-l>;i.~\ As they grow up, he 

opens his grand plan to them ; and as 
they have been taught to be mean and 
stingy in lesser matters, he now instructs 
them how to thrive, but applying the 
same principles to the science of getting 
money by low and illiberal means. 

Insatiable wish.] A desire that can 
never be satisfied such is the inordinate 
love of money. Amor habendi. ViRG. 
JEn. viii. 1. 327. 

126. He chastises, 3fe.] The poet in 
this and in some of the following lines 
particularizes certain instances of those 
minima? sordes which he had hinted at, 
1. 124, and which the father is supposed 
to set an example of to his sons in 
order to season and prepare their minds 
for greater acts of sordidness and ava- 

First, Juvenal takes notice of the way 
in which the father treats his servants. 
He pinches their bellies by withholding 
from them their due allowance of food, 
by giving them short measure, which is 
implied by iniquo modio. The Romans 
measured out the food which they gave 
their slaves ; this was so much a month, 
and therefore called demensum, from 
mensis or rather, perhaps from deme- 
tior whence part demcnsus-a-um. 

We find this word in TER. Phorm. 
act i. sc. i. 1. 9. where Davus is repre- 
senting Geta, as having saved some- 
thing out of his allowance, as a present 
for tin- bride of his master's son. 




Ipse quoque esuriens : neque enim omnia sustinet unquam 

Mucida cserulei panis consumere frusta, 

Hesternum solitus medio servare nrinutal 

Septembri: nee non differre in tempora coense 130 

Alterius, conchen sestivi cum parte lacerti 

Signatam, vel dimidio putrique siluro, 

Filaque sectivi numerata includere porri : 

Invitatus ad hsec aliquis de ponte negaret. 

Sed quo divitias hsec per tormenta coactas ? 135 

Cum furor haud dubius, cum sit manifesta phrenesis, 

Ut locuples moriaris, egenti vivere fato ? 

Interea pleno cum turgit sacculus ore, 


Et minus hanc optat, qui non habet. Ergo paratur HO 

Altera villa tibi, cum rus non sufficit unum, 

Quod itte unciatim vine de demenso suo, 

Suum defraudans genium, comparsit 

Geta had saved of his corn, of which 
the slaves had so many measures every 
month, and turned it into money. Me- 
dium was a measure of about a peck and 
an half. AINSW. 

127. He also hungering.] Half starving 
himself at the same time. 

Neither does he, fc.] He does not 
suffer, or permit, all the pieces of bread, 
which are so stale as to be blue with 
mouldiness, and musty with being 
hoarded up, to be eaten up at once, 
but makes them serve again and again. 

129. The hash, frc.] Minutal, a dish 
made with herb sand meat, and other 
things chopped together; from minuo, 
to diminish, or make a thing less. 

Of yesterday.'] Which had been 
dressed the day before, and now served 
up again. This he will still keep, though 
in the month of September, a time of 
year when, from the autumnal damps, 
victuals soon grow putrid. The blasts 
of the south-wind at that time were 
particularly insalubrious. See sat. vi. 
516, note. 

130. Also to defer, ty.] Who accus- 
toms himself to keep for a second meal. 

131. The bean.'] Conchis. See sat. 
iii. 293, note. 

Sealed up.'] Put into some vessel, 
the cover or mouth of which was sealed 
up close with the master's seal, to prevent 
the servants getting at it. Or perhaps 

into some cupboard, the door of which 
had the master's seal upon it. 

131,2. Part of a summer fish.] Lacerti 
sestivi. What fish the lacertus was, I 
do not any where find with certainty. 
Ainsworth calls it a kind of cheap fish 
usually salted. This, mentioned here, is 
called a summer fish ; I suppose, because 
caught in the summer time ; and for 
this reason, no doubt, not very likely to 
keep long sweet. 

132. With half a stinking shad.] See 
sat. iv. 33 ; and AINSW. Silurus. Lit. 
and with an half and putrid silurus. 

133. To shut up.'] Includere i. e. to 
include in the same sealed vessel. The 
infinitive includere, like the servare, 1. 
129, and the non differre, 1. 130, is 
governed by the solitus, 1. 1 29. 

Numbered threads, $fc.] Sectivi porri. 
In sat iii. 293, 4. Juvenal calls it sectile 
porrum. See there. There were two 
different species of the leek ; one sort 
was called sectum, sectile, and sectivum ; 
the other capitatum ; the former of which 
was reckoned the worst. See PLIN. lib. 
xix. c. 6. 

From the bottom of a leek there are 
fibres which hang downwards, when the 
leek is taken out of the ground, which 
the poet here calls fila, or threads, which 
they resemble. He here humourously 
represents a person so sordidly avaricious, 
as to count the threads, or fibres, at the 
bottom of the leek, that if one of these 
should be missing he might find it out. 

These epithets, sectivum and sectile, are 


He also hung 1 ring : for neither does he ever bear 

To consume all the musty pieces of blue bread, 

Who is used to keep the hash of yesterday in the midst of 

September ; also to defer, to the time of another supper, 

The bean, sealed up with part of a summer 131 

Fish, or with half a stinking shad, 

And to shut up the number 1 d threads of a sective leek : 

Any one invited from a bridge to these, would refuse. 

But for what end are riches gathered by these torments, 135 

Since it is an undoubted madness, since it is a manifest 


That you may die rich, to live with a needy fate ? 
In the mean time, when the bag swells with a full mouth, 


And he wishes for it less, who has it not. Therefore is 
prepared 140 

Another villa for you, when one co'untry-seat is not suffi- 
cient ; 

given to that sort of leek, from its being 
usual to cut or shred it into small pieces 
when mixed with victuals of any kind. 
See AINSW. Sectivus. 

134. Invited from a bridge.'] See sat 
iv. 1 16. The bridges about Rome were 
the usual places where beggars took 
their stand, in order to beg of the pas- 

The poet, to finish his description of 
the miser's hoard of victuals, here tells 
us, that if this wretch were to invite a 
common beggar to such provisions as he 
kept for himself and family, the beggar 
would refuse to come. 

1 35. But for what end, 8(c.~] Some verb 
must be understood here, as habes, or 
possides, or the like otherwise the ac- 
cusative case is without a verb to govern 
it. We may then read the line 

To what purpose do you possess riches, 
gathered together by these torments 
i. f.. with so much punishment and un- 
easiness to himself? See sat x. 12, 13. 

1 36. Undoubted madness, &c.~\ So HOR. 
sat iii. lib. ii. L 82. 

Danda est hfUtbori multo pars maxima 

Nescio an_A nticyram ratio illis destinet 

omnem. , 

Misers make wJiole Anticyra their men; 
Iff hellebore reserved/or them alone. 

For Anticyra, see above, Juv. sat xiii. 
1. 97, note. 

137. A needy fate, $c.] t. e. To share 
the fate of the poor ; to live as if des- 
tined to poverty and want, for the sake 
of being rich when you die, a time when 
your riches can avail you nothing, be 
thev ever so great 

138. When the bag swells, 6ec.~] And 
all this, for which you are tormenting 
yourself at this rate, you find no satis- 
faction or contentment in ; for when 
your bags are filled up to the very mouth, 
still you want more. The getting of 
money and the love of money increase 
together : the more you have, the more 
you want 

Crescit indulgent sibi dims hydrops, fcc. 
See HOR. lib. ii. ode ii. and lib. iii. ode 
xvi. 1. 17, 18. 

Crescentem setjuitur cura pecuniam 

Majorumquf. fames. 

140. He trishesfor it less, <|-c.] A poor 
man looks no farther than for a supply 
of his present wants ; he never thinks 
of any thing more. 

Therefore.] Because thou art in- 
satiable in thy desires. 

Ii prepared, $c.~] Not content 
with one country-house, another is 
purchased, and gotten ready, prepared 
for thy reception, as one will not suf- 



Et proferre libet fines ; majorque videtur, 

Et melior vicina seges : mercaris et hanc, et 

Arbusta, et densa montem qui canet oliva : 

Quorum si pretio dominus nou vincitur ullo, 

Nocte boves macri, lassoque famelica collo 

Armenia ad virides hujus mittentur aristas ; 

Nee prius inde domum, quam tota novalia saevos 

In ventres abeant, ut credas falcibus actum. 

Dicere vix possis, quam multi talia plorent, 

Et quot venales injuria fecerit agros. 

Sed qui sermones ? quam fosdaa buccina famae ? 

Quid nocet hoc ? inquit : tunicam mihi malo lupini, 

Quam si me toto laudet vicinia pago 

Exigui ruris paucissima farra secantem. 

Scilicet et morbis et debilitate carebis, 

Et luctuni et curam efFugies, et tempora vitse 



142. It likes you to extend, fyc.] You 
think the present limits of your estate 
too confined, and therefore you want to 
enlarge them. 

143. Neighbour's corn.'] Arista is pro- 
perly the beard of corn, and, by synec. 
the whole ear ; and so the corn itself, 
as growing. You take it into your 
head that your neighbour's corn looks 
better than yours, therefore you deter- 
mine to purchase, and to possess your- 
self of his estate. 

144. Groves of trees.] Arbustum sig- 
nifies a copse or grove of trees, pleasant 
for its shade. 

Which is white, Jpe.] The bloom of 
the olive is of a white or light grey 
colour. Densa here means a vast quan- 
tity. See sat. i. 120, note. 

145. With any price of which, <5jc.] If 
you cannot tempt the owner to part with 
them for any price which you offer for 
the purchase, then you have recourse to 
stratagem to make him glad to get rid 
of them. 

146. By night the lean oxen, tyc.] In 
the night-time, when you are not likely 
to be discovered, you turn your oxen 
which are half-starved, and your other 
herds of grazing beasts, which are kept 
sharp for the purpose, into your poor 
neighbour's corn. 

146, 7. Tired necks.'] That have been 
yoked, and at work all day, and there- 
fore the more hungry. 

147. To the green corn, fyc.] In order 
to eat it up. 

148. Nor may they depart hence, $<:.] 
They are not suffered to stir homeward, 
till they have eaten up the whole crop, 
as clean as if it had been reaped. 

The whole crop/] Tota novalia. 
Novale est, saith Pliny, quod alternis 
annis seritur " Land sown every other 
" year," and therefore produces the more 
plentiful crops. Here, by met. novalia 
signifies the crops that grow on such 
land. See VIRG. Geor. i. 1. 71. 

151. Injury, 6fc.] Many have had 
reason to complain of such treatment, 
and have been forced to sell their land 
to avoid being ruined. 

152. " What speeches?"] What does 
the world say of you, says the poet, for 
such proceedings ? 

" Trumpet of foul fame " ] The 
poet is interrupted before he has finished, 
by the eager answer of the person to 
whom he is supposed to be speaking, 
and with whom he is expostulating. 

153. " What does this hurt?"] Says 
the miser ; what harm can what the 
world says do? See HOR. sat. i. 1. 
647. " 

Coat of a lupine.] Lupinus signifies a 
kind of pulse, of a bitter and harsh taste, 
covered with a coat, husk, or shell. See 
VIRG. G. i. 1. 75, 6. Isidorus says, 
that the best definition of lupinus is, 
OTTO ri)s Ai/jrrjy, quod vultum gustantis 



And it likes you to extend your borders ; and greater appears 
And better your neighbour's corn : you buy also this, and 
Groves of trees, and the mountain which is white with the 

thick olive : 

With any price of which if the owner be not prevailed on, 145 
By night the lean oxen, and the famished herds, with tired 
Necks, will be sent to the green corn of this man. 
Nor may they depart home from thence, before the whole 

Is gone into their cruel bellies, so that you would believe it 

done by sickles. 

You can hardly say, how many may lament such things, 150 
And how many fields injury has made to be set to sale. 
" But what speeches ? how the trumpet of foul fame ?" 
" What does this hurt f says he : " I had rather have the 

" coat of a lupine, 
" Than if the neighbourhood in the whole village should 

" praise me 

" Cutting the very scanty produce of a little farm. 11 155 
I warrant you will want both disease and weakness, 
And you will escape mourning and care ; and a long space 

of life, 

amaritudine contristet. Ainsworth thinks 
that lupinus signifies what we call hops ; 
and this seems likely, as we may gather 
from the story in Athenaeus, lib. ii. c. 
xiv. where he relates of Zeno the Stoic, 
that he was ill-tempered and harsh, till 
he had drunk a quantity of wine, and 
then he was pleasant and good-hu- 
moured. On Zeno's being asked the 
reason of this change of temper, he 
said, that " the same thing happened to 
" him as to lupines ; for lupines,", says 
he, " before they are soaked in water, 
are very bitter ; but when put into 
water, and made soft by steeping, 
and are well soaked, they are mild 
and pleasant." Hops grow with coats, 
r laminae, one over another. But what- 
ver be the exact meaning of lupini, 
le meaning of this hasty answer of 
ic miser's is as follows : * Don't talk 
to me of what speeches are made ' 
about me, or what the trumpet of 
fame may spread abroad, to the dis- 
advantage of my character. I would 
not give a pin's head for all they can 
say against me, if I do but get rich : 
but I would riot give the husk of a 

" lupine for the praise of all the town, 
" if my farm be small, and afford but a 
" poor crop." 

q. d. If I am rich, they can't hurt me 
by their abuse ; but if poor, their praise 
will do me no good. 

155. The very scanty produce.] Pau- 
cissima farra. Far denotes all manner 
of corn. Paucissima need not be taken 
literally in the superlative sense, but 
as intensive, and as meaning a very 
small, an exceeding scanty crop of corn. 
See note on densissima lectica, sat i. 
1. 120, n. 2. The comparative and su- 
perlative degrees are often used by the 
Latin writers only in an intensive 

1 56. / warrant, 3fe.] Here the poet is 
speaking ironically, as if he said to the 
miser To be sure, Sir, people like you, 
who are above the praise or dispraise of 
the world, are doubtless exempted too 
from the calamities which the rest of the 
world suffer, such as sickness and in- 
firmities. See sat. x. 1. 227. You arc 
also out of the reach of affliction and 
sorrow. See sat. x. 1. 242 4. Carebis 
you will be without free from. 



Longa tibi post hsec fato meliore dabuntur ; 
Si tantum culti solus possederis agri, 
Quantum sub Tatio populus Romanus arabat. 
Mox etiam fractis setate, ac Punica passis 
Praelia, vel Pyrrhum immanem, gladiosque Molossos, 
Tandem pro multis vix jugera bina dabantur 
Vulneribus. Merces ea sanguinis atque laboris 
Nullis visa unquam meritis minor, aut ingratse 
Curta fides patrise. Saturabat glebula talis 
Patrem ipsum, turbamque casas, qua fceta jacebat 
Uxor, et infantes ludebant quatuor, unus 
Vernula, tres domini : sed magnis fratribus horum 
A scrobe vel sulco redeuntibus, altera coena 
Amplior, et grandes fumabant pultibus ollae. 
Nunc modus hie agri nostro non sufficit horto. 
Inde fere scelerum causas, nee plura venena 
Miscuit, aut ferro grassatur ssepius ullum 
Humanae mentis vitium, quam sseva cupido 
Indomiti census ; nam dives qui fieri vult, 
Et cito vult fieri. Sed qua? reverentia legum ? 


158. After these things, %c.\ Add to 
all this, that you must live longer than 
others, and be'attended with uncommon 
happiness meliore fato with a more 
prosperous and more favourable destiny. 

159. If you alone possessed, fe.] Pro- 
vided that you were so wealthy as to pos- 
sess, and be the sole owner of as much 
arable land as the people of Rome cul- 
tivated, when the empire was in its in- 
fancy, under Romulus, and Tatius the 
Sabine ; who, for the sake of the ladies 
he" brought with him, was received into 
the city, and consociated with Romulus 
in the government. However this might 
be considered as small, to be divided 
among all the people, yet, in the hands 
of one man, it would be a vast estate. 

161. Afterwards.] In after times 
mox some time after. 

Broken with age.'] Worn out with 
age and the fatigues of war. Gravis an- 
nis miles. Hon. sat. i. 5. 

161, 2. Had suffered the Punic war.] 
Had undergone the toils and dangers of 
the three wars with the Carthaginians, 
which almost exhausted the Romans. 

162. Cruel Pyrrhus.] The king of 
Epirus, who vexed the Romans with 
perpetual wars, but, at last, was defeated 
and driven out of Italy. 

Molossian simrds] The Molossi 

were a peopJe of Epirus, who fought 
against the Romans in Pyrrhus's army. 
See sat. xii. 1. 108, note. 

163. At length.] i. e. After so many 
toils and dangers. 

Hardly two acres.] Jugerum an 
acre, so called from jugum bourn, being 
as much land as a yoke of oxen could 
plough in a day. Scarcely so much as 
two acres were given as a reward for 
many wounds in battle. 

165. T/ian no deserts, &;c.] And this 
portion of two acres, given to a soldier, 
as a reward for the blood which he had 
shed, and the toils he had undergone in 
the service of his country, was never 
found fault with as too little for his de- 
serts, or as an instance of a breach of 
faith in his country towards him, by re- 
warding him less than he had reason to 
expect. Curtus means little, short, cur- 
tailed, imperfect, broken. Curta fides 
may be applied to express a man's com- 
ing short of his promise. 

166. Little glebe.] Such a small piece 
of arable land. 

166, 7. Satisfied the father.'] The poor 
soldier, who was the father of a nume- 
rous family. 

167. RalMe of hit cottage.] Consisting 



After these things, will be given you with a better fate ; 
If you alone possessed as much cultivated ground, 
As, under Tatius, the Roman people ploughed. 160 

Afterwards even to those broken with age, and who had 

suffered the Punic 

Wars, or cruel Pyrrhus, and the Molossian swords, 
At length hardly two acres were given for many 
Wounds. That reward of blood, and of toil, 
Than no deserts ever seem'd less, or the faith small 165 

Of an ungrateful country. Such a little glebe satisfied 
The father himself, and the rabble of his cottage, where big lay 
The wife, and four infants were playing, one a little 
Bond-slave, three masters: but for the great brothers of these 
From the ditch or furrow returning, another supper 170 
More ample, and great pots smoked with pottage. 
Now this measure of ground is not sufficient for our garden. 
Thence are commonly the causes of villanies, nor more poisons 
Has any vice of the human mind mixed, or oftener 
Attacked with the sword, than a cruel desire 175 

Of an unbounded income ; for he who would be rich, 
Would be so quickly too. But what reverence of the laws ? 

of his wife and many children, some 
small, others grown up. 

167. Biy.~\ i. e. Big, or great, with 

169. Bond-slave three masters.'] One 
of the four children that were playing 
together was a little bond-slave born of 
a she slave. The three others were chil- 
dren of the wife, and therefore masters 
over the little slave, but all playing to- 
gether, happy and content. 

Great brothers.] The elder children 
now big enough to go out to labour. 

170. Ditch or furrow, fyc.] Coming 
home from their day's work, at digging 
and ploughing. 

171. More ample."] Their being grown 
up, and returning hungry from their la- 
bour, required a more copious meal, than 
the little ones who stayed at home. 

Great pots.] Pots proportionably 
large to the provision which was to be 

Smoked u-ith pottage.] Boiling over 
the fire. Puls was a kind of pottage 
made of meal, water, honey, or cheese 
and eggs sodden together. AINSW. 

172. Measure of ground.] viz. Two 
acres, which, in ancient days, was 
thought a sufficient reward for an old 

valiant defender of his country, after all 
his dangers, toils, and wounds, and 
which provided for, and made him and 
all his family happy, is not, as times go, 
thought big enough for a pleasure-garden. 

173. Thence, &rc.] From covetousness. 
Comp. 1. 175. 

Causes of villanies, $c.] i. e. From 
this vile principle arise, as from their 
source, all manner of cruel and bad 
actions. See 1 Tim. vi. 10. former part 

More poisons, fyc.] Contrived more 
methods of destroying people in order 
to come at their property, either by poi- 
son or the sword. See James iv. 1, 2. 

175. A cruel desire.] Which thinks no 
act of cruelty too great, so that its end 
may be accomplished. 

So VIRG. JEn. iii. L 56, 7. 

Quid non mortalia pectora cogis 
Auri sacra fames ? 

176. Unbounded.] Lit untamed . 
that cannot be kept or restrained within 
any bounds. A metaphor taken from 
animals that are wild and untamed, 
which are ungovernable, and not to be 

He who would be rich.] So the apo- 
stle, 1 Tim. vi. 9. ol &ov\of*.fvoi ir\ovTtiv. 

177. Would If so quickly.} And there- 





Quis metus, aut pudor est unquam properantis avari 

Vivite content! casulis et collibus istis, 

O pueri, Marsus dicebat et Hernicus olirn, 

Vestinusque senex ; panem quseramus aratro, 

Qui satis est rnensis : laudant hoc numina ruris, 

Quorum ope et auxilio, gratae post inunus aristae, 

Contingunt homini veteris fastidia quercus. 

Nil vetitum fecisse volet, quern non pudet alto 

Per glaciem perone tegi ; qui summovet Euros 

Pellibus inversis. Peregrina, ignotaque nobis 

Ad scelus atque nefas, quodcunque est, purpura ducit. 

Haec illi veteres praecepta minoribus : at nunc 

Post finem autumni media de nocte supinum 190 

Clamosus juvenem pater excitat : accipe ceras, 

Scribe, puer, vigila, causas age, perlege rubras 

Majorum leges, aut vitem posce libello. 

Sed caput intactum buxo, naresque pilosas 

fore takes the shortest way to carve for 
himself, through every obstacle. 

177. Reverence oftfie laws.] The laws 
which are made to restrain all acts of 
murder, and violence, and fraud, are put 
totally out of the question ; he treads 
them under his feet. 

17 8. Hastening miser.] A covetous man 
who hastens to be rich has neither fear 
nor shame ; he dreads not what the laws 
can do to him, nor what the world will 
say of him. See Prov. xxviii. 22. 

179. "'Live contented" &c.] The poet 
here mentions what was the doctrine of 
ancient times, in the days of simplicity 
and frugality, by introducing the exhor- 
tation of some wise and thrifty father to 
his children. 

180. "O youths," Sfc.] Such was the 
language formerly of the fathers among 
the Marsi, the Hernici, and the Vestini, 
to their children, in order to teach them 
contentment, frugality, and industry. 

Marsian.] The Marsi were a labo- 
rious people, about fifteen miles distant 
from Rome. 

Hernidan.] The Hernici, a people 
of New Latium. 

181. Vestinian.] The Vestini were a 
people of Latium, bordering on the Sa- 

" Seek bread by the plough," #c.] Let 
us provide our own bread by our indus- 
try, as much as will suffice for our support. 

182. "Deities of the country."] The 

Romans had their rural gods, as Ceres, 
Bacchus, Flora, &c. which they parti- 
cularly worshipped, as presiding over 
their lands, and as at first inventing the 
various parts of husbandry. 

183. " By whose help," Q~c.~\ He means 
particularly Bacchus, who first found 
out the use of wine, and Ceres, who 
found out corn and tillage. 

184. "Loathing," <Jfc.] Since the in- 
vention of agriculture, and the production 
of corn, men disdain living upon acorns, 
as at first they did. See sat. vi. 1. 10 ; 
and VIRG. G. i. 1. 523. where may be 
seen an invocation to Bacchus and Ceres, 
and the other rural deities, as the in- 
ventors and patrons of agriculture. 

185. '''Any thing forbidden," $c.] 
Those who are bred up in poverty and 
hardship, are unacquainted with the 
temptations to vice, to which those who 
are in high life are liable. 

186. " Thro' ice to be covered," <5fc.] 
Pero a sort of high shoe, made of raw 
leather, worn by country people as a de- 
fence against snow and cold. AINSW. 

187. " Inverted skins."] The skins of 
beasts with the wool or hair turned in- 
wards next the body, to defend it from 
the cold winds, and to keep the wearer 

Thus shod and thus clothed were the 
hardy rustics of old time : they lived in 
happy ignorance of vice and luxury, and 
of all offences to the laws. 



What fear, or shame, is there ever of a hastening miser ? 
" Live contented with those little cottages and hills, 
" O youths," said the Marsian and Hernician formerly, iso 
And the old Vestinian, " let us seek bread by the plough, 
" Which is enough for our tables : the deities of the country 

" approve this, 
" By whose help and assistance, after the gift of acceptable 

" corn, 

" There happen to man loathings of the old oak. 
" He will not do any thing forbidden, who is not ashamed 
" Thro' ice to be covered with an high shoe ; who keeps off 

"the east wind 186 

" With inverted skins. Purple, foreign, and unknown to us, 
" Leads to wickedness and villany, whatsoever it may be." 
These precepts those ancients gave to their posterity: but now, 
After the end of autumn, from the middle of the night, the 

noisy 190 

Father rouses the supine youth : " Take the waxen tablets, 
" Write, boy, watch, plead causes, read over the red 
" Laws of our forefathers, or ask for a vine by a petition. 
" But your head untouched with box, and your hairy nostrils, 

187. " Purple^ &;c.] q. d. The Tynan 
purple, with which the garments of the 
rich and great are dyed, is a foreign 
piece of luxury, and unknown to us. 
The introduction of this, as well as 
other articles of foreign luxury, is the 
forerunner of all manner of vice and 
wickedness : for when once people cast 
off a simplicity of dress and manners, 
and run into luxury and expence, they 
go all lengths to supply their vanity 
and extravagance. It cannot be said 
of any such nil velitum fecisse volet. 

189. These precepts, $c.] Such were 
the lessons which those rustic veterans 
taught their children, and delivered to 
the younger part of the community, for 
the benefit of posterity. 

But now.] i. e. As matters are now, 
fathers teach their children very dif- 
ferent lessons. 

190. After the. end of autumn.'] When 
the winter sets in, and the nights are 
long and cold. 

From the middle of the niffht.] As 
soon as midnight is turned. 

190, 1. The noisy father.'] Bawling 
to wake his son, who is lying along 
on his back (supinum) in his bed fast 

VOL. n. 

191. " Tlte waxen tablets."] See note 
on 1. 30. 

192. " Write."] Pen something that 
you may get money by. 

" Watch."] Set up all night at study. 

" Plead causes."] Turn advocate 
be called to the bar. 

" Read over," &.] Study the law. 

192, 3. "The red laws."] So called, 
because the titles and beginnings of the 
chapters were written in red letters. 
Hence the written law was called ru- 
brica. See PERS. sat. v. 1. 90. 

193 "Ask for a vine," dfc.] For a 
centurion's post in the army draw up 
a petition for this. 

The centurion, or captain over an 
hundred men, carried, as an ensign of 
his office, a stick or batoon in his hand, 
made out of a vine branch ; as our cap- 
tains do spontoons, and our Serjeants 
halberds. See sat. viii. 1. 247, note. If 
a man were to advise another to petition 
for an halberd, it would be equivalent to 
advising him to petition to be made a 
serjeant. So here, the father advising 
his son to petition for a vine, t. e. vine- 
branch, is equivalent to his petitioning 
to be made a centurion. 

194. " UntoucJted trith box."] Your 



Annotet, et grandes miretur Lselius alas. 
Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantum, 
Ut locupletem aquilam tibi sexagesimns annus 
Afferat : aut longos castrorum ferre labores 
Si piget, et trepidu solvunt tibi cornua ventrem 
Cum lituis audita, pares, quod vendere possis 
Pluris dimidio, nee te fastidia mercis 
Ullius subeant ablegandse Tiberim ultra : 
Nee credas ponendum aliquid discriminis inter 
Unguenta, et corium : LUCBI BONUS EST ODOR EX RE 
QUALIBET. Ilia tuo sententia semper in ore 
Versetur, Dis atque ipso Jove digna, poetae : 
Hoc monstrant vetulae pueris poscentibus assem : 
Hoc discunt omnes ante Alpha et Beta puellae. 
Talibus instantem monitis quemcunque parentem 
Sic possem affari : die, o vanissime, quis te 
Festinare jubet ? meliorem praesto inagistro 





rough and martial appearance, owing to 
your hair lying loose, and not being 
combed. The Romans made their combs 
of box- wood. 

194. " Hairy nostrils."] Another mark 
of hardiness ; for effeminate and deb'cate 
people plucked off all superfluous hairs. 
See sat. ii. 11,22. where hairiness is 
mentioned as a mark of hardiness and 

195. " LteUus."] Some great general 
in the army may notice these things, as 
bespeaking you fit for the army. 

"Huge arms."] Probably rough with 
hair. See above, note 2, on 1. 194. 
Ala signifies the armpit, also the arm. 

1 96. "Destroy the tents of the Moors:" 1 ] 
Go and do some great exploit distin- 
guish yourself in an expedition against 
the people of Mauritania Attegiae 
(from ad and tegere, to cover) signifies 
cottages, huts, cabins, tents, and the 
like, in which people shelter themselves 
from the weather. 

" Castles of the Brigantes."] Of the 
inhabitants of Britain. The people of 
Lancashire, Yorkshire, and other north- 
ern parts of England, were called Bri- 
gantes ; they had strong castles. 

197. " That a rich eagle, $c."] The 
Roman ensign was the figure of an eagle, 
which was carried at the head of every 
regiment. The care of this standard was 

committed to the eldest captain of the 
regiment, and was a very rich post. 

The father is here exhorting his son 
to go into the army ; in order to which, 
first, he is to petition for the vine-rod, or 
centurion's post ; then he exhorts him 
to go into service, and distinguish him- 
self against the enemy, that, at sixty 
years old, he may be the eldest captain, 
and enrich himself by having the care 
of the standard, which was very lucra- 
tive. Hence Juvenal calls it locupletem 

198. " Or if to bear? fyc.] If you dis- 
like going into a military life. 

199. " The horns'" ifc.] If the cornets 
and trumpets throw you into a panic 
at the sound of them, so that you are 
ready to befoul yourself when you hear 
martial music. 

200. " You may purchase? $fe.] You 
may go into trade, and buy goods which 
you may sell for half as much more as 
they cost you. 

201. " Nor let the dislike, fy:.] Don't 
be nice about what you deal in, though 
ever so filthy, though such as must be 
manufactured on the other side of the 

202. "Sent away beyond tlie Tiber."] 
Tanning, and other noisome trades, were 
carried on on the other side of the river, 
to preserve the city sweet and healthy. 

203. "Do not believe," fyc.] Do not 



" Lselius may take notice of, and admire your huge arms. 195 

" Destroy the tents of the Moors, the castles of the Brigantes, 

" That a rich eagle to thee the sixtieth year 

" May bring : or if to bear the long labours of camps 

" It grieves you, and the horns heard with the trumpets loosen 

" Your belly, you may purchase, what you may sell 200 

" For the half of more, nor let the dislike of any merchandise, 

" Which is to be sent away beyond the Tiber, possess you. 

" Do not believe there is any difference to be put between 

" Ointments and an hide. THE SMELL OF GAIN is SWEET 

" FROM ANY THING WHATSOEVER. Let that sentence of the 

" poet 205 

"Be always in your mouth, worthy the gods, and of Jove 



This, the old women shew to the boys asking three farthings: 
This, all the girls learn before their Alpha and Beta. 
Whatsoever parent is instant with such admonitions, 210 
I might thus speak to : " Say, (0 most vain man,) who 

" commands 
" Thee to hasten ? I warrant the scholar better than 

take it into your head that one thing, 
which you may get money by, is better 
than another. So as you do but enrich 
yourself, let it be the same thing to you, 
whether you deal in perfumed ointments, 
or stinking hides. 

204. " The smell of gain," fyc.~\ He al- 
ludes to the answer made by Vespasian 
to his son Titus, who was against raising 
money by a tax on urine. Titus re- 
monstrated with him on the meanness of 
such an imposition ; but he, presenting 
to his son the first money-ihat accrued 
to him from it, asked him whether the 
smell offended him. ANT. Univ. Hist. 
voL xv. p. 26. 

205. "Sentence of the poet" tyc.] t. e. 
Of the poet Ennius, quoted 1. 207. 

206. "Be always in your mouth."] Be 
always at your tongue's end, as we say. 

" Worthy the gods" fc.] Juvenal 
very naturally represents this old covetous 
fellow as highly extolling a maxim so 
exactly suited to his sordid principles. 

See MOLIERK'S Avare, act iii. sc. v. 
where the miser is so pleased with a say- 
ing which suits his principles, as to 
want it written in letters of gold. 

J07. "\fbody asks," $c.] 

T have money is a necessary task, 
From whence "'tis got the world will 

nt'vcr ask. J'. DRYDEN, jun. 

And therefore only take care to be rich, 
nobody will inquire how you came so. 
The poet, in the next two lines, humour- 
ously observes the early implanting this 
doctrine in the minds of children. 

208. This, the old women, fa] This 
maxim, old women, when their children 
ask them for a trifle to buy playthings, 
or some trash to eat, always take care to 
instil into their minds ; they take this 
opportunity to preach up the value of 
money, and the necessity of having it, no 
matter how ; nobody will trouble their 
head about that 

The Roman AS was about three far- 
things of our money. 

209. This, all the girls, c.] In short, 
children of the other sex too are taught 
this before their A B c. No marvel then, 
that avarice is so general and so ruling 
a principle. 

2 1 0. Is instant."] Takes pains to impress 
such maxims upon his children. 

211. Thus speak to.} Thus address my- 
self to. 

212. " To AMfon."] Who bid thee b,- 

i. 2 



Discipulutn : securus abi : vinceris, ut Ajax 

Prseteriit Telamonem, ut P*elea vicit Achilles. 

Parcendum est teneris : nondum implevere medullas 215 

Nativse mala nequitise : cum pectere barbam 

Cceperit, et longi mucronem admittere cultri, 

Falsus erit testis, vendet perjuria summa 

Exigua, Cereris tangens aramque pedemque. 

Elatam jam crede nurum, si limina vestra 220 

Mortifera cum dote subit. Quibus ilia premetur 

Per somnum digitis ? nam quse terraque marique 

Acquirenda putes, brevior via conferet illi : 

Nullus enim magni sceleris labor. Hsec ego nunquam 

Mandavi, dices olim, nee talia suasi : 225 

Mentis causa malse tamen est, et origo penes te : 

Nam quisquis magni census praecepit amorem, 

Et Isevo monitu pueros producit avaros; 

Et qui per fraudes patrimonia conduplicare 

Dat libertatem, totas effundit habenas 230 

in such a hurry to teach your son such 
principles? why begin with him so young, 
and take so much pains ? 

212. " I warrant."] Sopraesto signifies 
here. See AINSW. Praesto, No. 8. 

" The scholar better, 1 " fyc.] A greater 
proficient than yourself in avarice, and 
in every other vice, in which you may 
instruct him. 

213. " Depart secure.' 1 ' 1 '] Make yourself 
quite secure and easy upon this subject. 

"^4s Ajax," <fe.] Your son will 
outdo you in avarice, as much as Ajax 
surpassed his father Telamon, or as 
Achilles surpassed his father Peleus, in 
valour and warlike achievements. 

215. " You must spare" Sfc.] You must 
make allowance for the tenderness of 
youth, and not hurry your son on too 
fast ; have patience with him, he'll be 
bad enough by-and-by. 

"Their marrows," fyc.] The evil 
dispositions and propensities with which 
they were born (mala nativse nequitiae) 
have not had time to grow to maturity, 
and to occupy their whole minds, marrow 
fills the bones. The marrow, which is 
placed within the bones, like the bowels, 
which are placed within the body, is 
often figuratively, and by analogy, made 
use of to signify the inward mind. 

Tully says, Fam. xv. 16. Mihi hseres 
in medullis I love you in my heart. 
And again, Philip, i. 15. In medullis 

populi Romani, ac visceribus haarebant 
they were v,ery dear to the Roman 

217. " To comb his beard."] t. c. When 
he is grown up to maturity. 

" To admit the point," Sec.] The 
edge of a razor a periphrasis for being 
shaved. See sat. i. 25 ; and sat. x. 

218. "Sett perjuries," <Sfe.] He will 
forswear himself for a very small price. 

219. " Touching both the attar," fyc.] 
It was the custom among the Romans, 
on occasion of solemn oaths, to go to a 
temple, and, when they swore, to lay 
their hand upon the altar of the god. 
Here, to make his oath the more solemn, 
the miser's son is represented, not only 
as laying his hand upon the altar of 
Ceres, but also on the foot of her image. 
See sat. iii. 1. 144, and note. 

" Of Ceres."] The altar of Ceres 
was reckoned the most sacred, because, 
in the celebration of her worship, no- 
thing was to be admitted that was not 
sacred and pure. Sat. vi. 1. 50. 

220. " Your daughter-in-law."] Your 
son's wife pronounce her dead, if she 
comes within your doors with a large 
fortune, for your son, her husband, will 
murder her, in order to get the sole pos- 
session of it. 

"Carried forth."] i. e. To be buried, 
or, as the manner then was, to be burned 


" The master : depart secure : you will be outdone, as Ajax 

' k Surpassed Telamon, as Achilles outdid Peleus. 

" You must spare the tender ones : as yet their marrows 

the evils 215 

" Of native wickedness have not filled : when he has begun 
" To comb his beard, and to admit the point of a long knife, 
" He will be a false witness, he will sell perjuries for a small 
" Sum, touching both the altar and foot of Ceres." 
" Already believe your daughter-in-law carried forth, if your 

" thresholds 220 

" She enters with a deadly potion. By what fingers will 

" she be pressed 

" In her sleep? for, what things you may suppose to be acquired 
" By sea and land, a shorter way will confer upon him : 
" For of great wickedness there is no labour. These things 

" I never 
" Commanded, may you some time say, nor persuaded such 

" things, 225 

" But the cause of a bad mind, nevertheless, and its origin, 

" is in you : 

" For whoever has taught the love of a great income, 
"And, by foolish admonition, produces covetous boys, 
" And he who to double patrimonies by frauds, 
" Gives liberty, loosens all the reins to the chariot, 230 

on the funeral pile. See TKR. Andria, answers No, you might not specifically 

act i. sc. i. 1. 90. See sat. vi. 1. 566. order him to do such or such an action, 

221. " With a deadly pfttion."] Mor- but the principle from which he acts such 
tifera cum dote t. e. which is sure to horrid scenes of barbarity and villany 
occasion her death, by the hands of her is owing to the example which you have 
covetous husband. set him, and originates from the counsel 

" By u-hat fingers" $c.] How eager which you have given him to enrich him- 
will his fingers be to strangle her in her self by all means, no matter how ; there- 
sleep ! fore all this is penes te lies at your door. 

222. " For, what things," #c.] What 227. u Whoever has tatight," tfc.] Who- 
you may suppose others to get by tra- ever has given a son such precepts as 
versing land and sea, in order to trade you have given yours, in order to instil 
and acquire riches, your son will find a into him an unbounded love of wealth, 
shorter way to come at, by murdering 228. " Foolish admonition," c.] So 
his wife. Laevus seems to be used, ./En. ii. 54 ; and ' 

224. " There is no labour."] There is eclog. i. 16. Si mens non Iseva fuisset. 

very little trouble in such a business as See Aixsw. Laevus, No. 2. But perhaps 

this, it is soon done. it may mean unlucky, unfortunate, like 

224, 5. " / never commanded," Sfc.] sinistro. See this Satire, L 1, and note. 
The time may come, when, seeing your Or laevo may be here understood, as 

son what I have been describing, you we sometimes understand the word sini- 

will be for exculpating yourself, and you ster, when we mean to say, that a man's 

may say, u I never gave him any such designs are indirect, dishonest, unfair. 
u orders ; this was owing to no advice " Produces covetous boys."] Brings 

" of mine." up his children with covetous principles. 

226. " But the cause, Ifc.] The poet 230. " Gives liberty," $c.] i. . So fir 



Ourriculo ; quern si revoces, subsistere nescit, 
Et te contempto rapitur, metisque relictis. 
Nemo satis crediff tantuin delinquere, quantum 
Permittas : adeo indulgent sibi latius ipsi. 
Cum dicis juveni, stultum, qui donet ainico, 
Qui paupertatem levet, attollatque propinqui ; 
Et spoliare doces, et circumscribere, et omni 
Crimine divitias acquirere, quarum amor in te est, 
Quantus erat patriae Deciorum in pectore, quantum 
Dilexit Thebas, si Grsecia vera, Menoeceus, 
In quarum sulcis legiones dentibus anguis 
Cum clypeis nascuntur, et horrida bella capessunt 
Continue, tanquam et tubicen surrexerat una. 
Ergo ignem, cujus scintillas ipse dedisti, 
Flagrantem late, et rapientem cuncta videbis. 
Nee tibi parcetur misero, trepidumque magistrum 
In cavea magno fremitu leo toilet alumnus. 
Nota mathematicis genesis tua. Sed grave tardas 
Expectare colos : morieris stamine nondum 




from checking such dispositions, gives 
them full liberty to exercise themselves, 
pleased to see the thriftiness of a son, 
who is defrauding all mankind, that he 
may double Ms own property. 

230. "Loosens all the reins," $c.~] Gives 
full and ample loose to every kind of 
evil. A metaphor, taken from a cha- 
rioteer, who by loosening the reins, by 
which he holds and guides the horses, 
too freely, they run away with the cha- 
riot, and when he wants to stop them 
he cannot. 

231. " Which if you would recall," <5fe.] 
It is in vain to think of stopping or re- 
calling such a one, who knows no re- 

232. " You contemned:'''] Having for- 
feited the authority of a father, all you 
can say, to stop his career, is held in the 
utmost contempt. 

" The bounds being left."'] As the 
charioteer is run away with by his horses 
(see note above, 1. 230.) beyond the 
bounds of his race ; so your son, who 
has had the reins thrown upon the neck 
of his vices, can neither be stopped, nor 
kept within any bounds whatsoever in 
his wickedness, but is hurried on, rapi- 
tur, by his passions, without any power 
of control. 

233. " Nobody thinks it enough,"' ^c.] 

Nobody will ever draw a line, so as to 
stop just at a given point, and only sin 
as far as he is permitted, and no far- 

234. " So much do they indulge."'] So 
prone are they to indulge their propen- 
sity to evil, in a more extensive man- 

235. " When you say," <3fc.] When 
you tell your son, that giving money to 
help a distressed friend, or relation, is a 

236. Who may lighten," #c.] Alle- 
viate his distress, and raise up his state 
of poverty into a state of plenty and 

237. " You both teach Urn to rob."] By 
thus seeking to destroy the principles of 
humanity and charity within him, you 
teach him, indirectly at least, to rob, to 

plunder other people. 
" To cheat."] Cir 

Circumscribere to 

over-reach and circumvent, that he may 
enrich himself. 

" By every crime" fyc.] To scruple 
no villany which can enrich him. 

239. " The Decii."] The father, son, 
and grandson, who, for the love they 
bare their country, devoted themselves 
to death for its service. See sat. viiL 
254, note. 

240. " Menaxius"~\ The son of Creon, 


" Which if you would recall, it knows not to stop, 

" And, you contemned, and the bounds being left, it is hur- 

" ried on. 

" Nobody thinks it enough to offend so much, as you may 
" Permit, so much do they indulge themselves more widely. 
" When you say to a youth, he is a fool who may give to a 

" friend 235 

" Who may lighten, and raise up the poverty of a relation ; 
" You both teach him to rob, and to cheat, and by every crime 
" To acquire riches, the love of which is in thee, 
" As much as of their country was in the breast of the Decii, 

" as much 

" As Menoaceus loved Thebes, if Greece be true, 240 

" In the furrows of which, legions from the teeth of a snake 
" With shields are born, and horrid wars undertake 
" Immediately, as if a trumpeter too had risen with them. 
" Therefore the fire, the sparks of which yourself have given, 
" You will see burning wide, and carrying off all things. 245 
" Nor will he spare your miserable self, and the trembling 

" master 

" The younglion in his cage, with great roaring, will take off." 
" Your nativity is known to astrologers." " But it is grievous 
" To expect slow distaffs : you'll die, your thread not yet 

king of Thebes, who, that he might pre- with ; like a fire that first is kindled from 

serve his country, when Thebes was be- little sparks, then spreads far and wi ie, 

sieged by the Argives, devoted himself till it devours and consumes every thing 

to death ; tbe oracle having declared, in its way. 

that Thebes would be safe, if the last of 246. " Nor will he spare," #<*.] He 

the race of Cadmus would willingly suf- will not even spare you that are his own 

fer death. wretched father, or scruple to take you off 

" If Greece be true.""] If the Gre- (. e. murder you) to possess himself of 

cian accounts speak truth. your property. 

241. " In the furrows of which," fa] 247. " The young lion," Sfc.] Alluding 

He alludes to the story of Cadmus, who to the story of a tame lion, which, in the 

having skin a large serpent, took the time of Domitian, tore his keeper, that 

teeth, and sowing them in the ground, had brought him up, to pieces, 
there sprang up from each an armed Lceserat ingrato leo perfidus ore magis- 
man ; these presently fell to fighting, till trum. MARTIAL, Spectac. ep. x. 

all were slain except five, who escaped 248. " Your nativity," &jc.~\ But, say 

with their lives. See OVID, Met. lib. you, the astrologers, who cast nativities, 

iii. fab. i. See AINSW. Cadmus. and who by their art can tell how long 

243. " Trumpeter too had risen."] To people are to live, have settled your na- 
set them "together by the ears. See tivity, and calculated that your life will 
above, 1. 199, note. The Romans had be long. 

cornets and trumpets to give the signal u But it is grievous"} But, says Ju- 
for battle. venal, it is a very irksome thing to your 

244. " The fire," $0.] The principles son. 

whirh you first communicated to the 249. " To expect slow dista/s."] To be 
mind of your son, you will see breaking waiting while the fates are slowly spin- 
nut into action, violating all law and ning out your thread of long life. See 
justice, and destroying all he has to do sat iii. 27, note ; and sat x. 252, note. 



Abrupto : jam nunc obstas, et vota moraris ; 250 

Jam torquet juvenem longa et cervina senectus. 

Ocyus Archigenem qusere, atque erne quod Mithridates 

Composuit, si vis aliam decerpere ficum, 

Atque alias tractare rosas : medicamen habendum est, 

Sorbere ante cibum quod debeat aut pater aut rex. 255 

Monstro voluptatem egregiam, cui nulla theatra, 

Nulla sequare queas praetoris pulpita lauti, 

Si spectes, quanto capitis discrimine constent 

Incrementa dornus, aerata multus in area 

Fiscus, et ad vigilem ponendi Castora nummi, 260 

Ex quo Mars ultor galeam quoque perdidit, et res 

Non potuit servare suas. Ergo omnia Florae 

Et Cereris licet, et Cybeles aulaea relinquas, 

Tanto majores humana negotia ludi. 

An magis oblectant animum jactata petauro 265 

Fow'W die," fy.] You'll be taken 
off by a premature death, not by the 
course of nature, like those who live till 
their thread of life is cut by their desti- 
nies. See the references in the last note 

250. " You even now kinder,' 1 '' c.] 
You already stand in your son's way, 
and delay the accomplishment of his 
daily wishes for your death, that he 
may possess what you have. 

251. "Stag-like old age."] The ancients 
had a notion, that stags, as well as ra- 
vens, were very long-lived. 

Cic. Tuscul. iii. 69, says, that Theo- 
phrastus, the Peripatetic philosopher, 
when he was dying, accused nature for 
giving long life to ravens and stags, 
which was of no signification ; but to 
men, to whom it was of great import- 
ance, a short life. See sat. x. 1. 247. 

" Torments the youth."] Gives the 
young man, your son, daily uneasiness 
and vexation, and will, most likely, put 
you upon some means to get rid of you ; 
therefore take the best precautions you 

252. " Archigenes."] Some famous 
physician ; see sat. vi. 235 ; and sat. 
xiiL 98. to procure from him some an- 
tidote against poison. 

" Buy what Mithridates," <Sfc.] See 
sat. vi. 660, note. 

253. "If you are willing," $e.] If 
you wish to live to another autumn 
the time when figs are ripe. 

254. " Other roses."] And to gather 
the roses of another spring. 

" A medicine is to be had," fyc.] You 
must get such an antidote against poi- 
son, as tyrants, who fear their subjects, 
and as fathers, who dread their chil- 
dren, always ought to swallow before 
they eat, in order to secure them from 
being poisoned at their meals ; the ty- 
rant, by some of his oppressed and dis- 
contented subjects the father, by a son 
who wants to get his estate. 

256. / sheu; %c.] The poet is now 
about to expose the folly of avarice, 
inasmuch as the gratification of it is 
attended with cares, anxieties, and dan- 
gers, which its votaries incur, and for 
which they are truly ridiculous. Now, 
says he, monstro voluptatem egregiam 
I'll exhibit an highly laughable scene, 
beyond all theatrical entertainments, 

No theatres.] Nothing upon the 
stage is half so ridiculous. 

257. No stages of the sumptuous prce- 
tor.] It was the office of the praetor to 
preside, and have the direction at the 
public games. See sat x. 1. 3641, 

The pulpitum was the higher part 
of the stage, where poets recited their 
verses in public. 

It also signifies a scaffold, or raised 
place, on which the actors exhibited 

The praetor is here called lautus 



" Broken off: you even now hinder, and delay his wishes, 250 
" Now a long and stag-like old age torments the youth. 
" Seek Archigenes quickly, and buy what Mithridates 
" Composed, if you are willing to pluck another fig, 
" And to handle other roses : a medicine is to be had. 
" Which either a father, or a king, ought to sup up before 
" meat. 11 255 

I shew an extraordinary pleasure, to which no theatres, 
No stages of the sumptuous prastor, you can equal, 
If you behold, in how great danger of life may consist 
The increase of an house, much treasure in a brazen 
Chest, and money to be placed at watchful Castor, 260 

Since Mars, the avenger, also lost his helmet, and his own 
Affairs he could not keep. Therefore you may leave 
All the scenes of Flora, and of Ceres, and of Cybele, 
By so much are human businesses greater sports. 
Do bodies thrown from a machine more delight 265 

sumptuous, noble, splendid, from the 
fine garments which he wore on those 
occasions, as well as from the great ex- 
pence which he put himself to, in treat- 
ing the people with magnificent exhibi- 
tions of plays and other sports. Sat vi. 
378, note. 

258. If you behold, <3fc.] If you only 
observe what hazards and perils, even 
of their lives, those involve themselves 
in, who are increasing and hoarding up 
wealth so far from security, danger and 
riches frequently accompany each other, 
and the means of increasing wealth may 
consist in the exposing life itself to 

259. Increase of an house.] The en- 
largement and increase of family-pro- 

In a brazen chest.] See sat. xiii. 1. 
74 ; and HOR. sat. i. lib. L L 67. The 
Romans locked up their money in 

260. Placed at watchful Castor.'] i. e. 
At the temple of Castor. They used to 
lay up their chests of treasure in the 
temples, as places of safety, being com- 
mitted to the care of the gods, who 
were supposed to watch over them. Sat 
x. 25, note, ad fin. 

2<il. Since Mars, fyc.] The wealthy 
used to send their chests of money to 
the temple of Mars ; but some thieves 
having broken into it, and stolen the 

treasures, even stripping the helmet from 
the head of Mars's image, they now 
sent their treasures to the temple of 
Castor, where there was a constant 
guard ; hence the poet says, vigilem 

TTie avenger.] When Augustus re- 
turned from his Asian expedition, which 
he accounted the most glorious of his 
whole reign, he caused a temple to be 
built in the capitol to Mars the Avenger. 
See ANT. Univ. Hist vol. xiii. p. 507, 
8, and note/ 

261, 2. His own affairs, ice.] The 
poet takes an opportunity here, as usual, 
to laugh at the gods of his country. See 
sat. xiii. 39 52. 

263. Ttie scenes.'] Aulaea were hang- 
ings, curtains, and other ornaments of 
the theatres ; here, by synec. put for 
the theatres themselves. 

You may leave, says the poet, the 
public theatres ; you will not want the 
sports and plays which are exhibited at 
the feasts of Flora, Ceres, or Cybele, to 
divert you. 

264. By so much, #c.] You may be 
better entertained, and meet with more 
diversion, in observing the ridiculous 
businesses of mankind. 

265. Bodiesthrownfromamachine&c.] 
The petaurum (from wfravpof, pertica, a 
perch, a long staff or pole) was a machine, 
or engine, made of wood, hung up in an 



Corpora, quique solent rectum descendere funem, 

Quam tu, Corycia semper qui puppe moraris, 

Atque habitas, Coro semper tollendus et Austro, 

Perditus, ac vilis sacci mercator olentis 2 

Qui gaudes pingue antique de littore Cretae 

Passum, et municipes Jovis advexisse lagenas I 

Hie tamen ancipiti figens vestigia planta 

Victum ilia mercede parat, brumamque famemque 

Ilia reste cavet : tu propter mille talenta, 

Et centum villas temerarius. Aspice portus, 

Et plenum magnis trabibus mare : plus hominum est jam 

In pelago : veniet classis, quocunque vocarit 

Spes lucri ; nee Carpathium, Gastulaque tantum 

-^Equora transiliet : sed longe Calpe relicta, 

Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. 280 



high place, out of which the petauristae 
(the persons who exhibited such feats) 
were thrown in to the air, and from thence 
flew to the ground. AINSW. 

Others say, that the petaurus was a 
wooden circle, or hoop,, through which 
the petauristse threw tnemselves, so as 
to light with their feet upon the ground. 

Holyday gives a plate of the petaurum, 
which is taken from Hieron. Mercurialis, 
whom he calls an excellent Italian an- 
tiquary, and represents the petaurus like 
a swing, in which a person sits, and is 
drawn up by people who pull ropes, 
which go over a pole at top, placed 
horizon tally, and thus raise the petaurista 
into the air, where probably he swung 
backwards and forwards, exhibiting feats 
of activity, and then threw himself to 
the ground upon his feet. See more on 
this subject, Delph. edit, in notis. 

Whatever the petaurus might be, as 
to its form, it appears, from this passage 
of Juvenal, to have afforded an amuse- 
ment to the spectators, something like 
our tumbling, vaulting, and the like. 

266. To descend a straight rope,$c.'] First 
climbing up, and then sliding down. 
Or if we take rectum here in the sense 
of tensum, stretched, we may suppose 
this a periphrasis for rope-dancing. 

After all, taking the two lines together, 
I should doubt whether the poet does 
not mean rope-dancing in both, and 
whether the petaurum, .according to the 
definition given by Ainsworth, signifies, 
here, any thing else than the long pole 

which is used by rope-dancers, in order 
to balance them as they dance, and throw 
their bodies into various attitudes on the 
rope. Comp. 1. 2724. 

267. Than thou.] q. d. Art not thou 
as much an object of laughter full as 
ridiculous ? 

Who alw-ays abidest.'] Who livest on 
shipboard, and art tossed up and down 
by every gale of wind. 

A Corydan ship.'} i. e. Trading to 
Corycium, a promontory in Crete, where 
Jupiter was born. 

269. Wretched.'] Perditus signifies 
desperate, past being reclaimed, lost to 
all sense of what is right. 

A stinking sack.] Olentis is capable 
of two senses, and may be understood 
either to signify that he dealt in filthy 
stinking goods, which were made up into 
bales, and packed in bags ; or that he 
dealt in perfumes, which he brought 
from abroad : but by the epithet vilis, I 
should rather think the former. 

271. Thick sweet wine.~\ Passum was a 
sweet wine made of withered grapes dried 
in the sun. Uva passa, a sort of grape 
hung up in the sun to wither, and after- 
wards scalded in a lixivium, to be pre- 
served dry, or to make a sweet wine of. 
AINSW. The poet calls it pingue, from 
its thickness and lusciousness. 

The countrymen of Jove.~\ Made in 
Crete, where Jove was born. See sat. 
iv. 1. 33. 

272. He erertJu>.less, <?fc.] The rope- 
dancer above mentioned, 1. 265, 6. 




The mind, and those who are used to descend a straight rope, 

Than thou, who always abidest in a Corycian ship, 

And dwellest, always to be lifted up by the north-west 

wind, and the south, 

Wretched, the vile merchant of a stinking sack ? 
Who rejoicest, from the shore of ancient Crete, to have 

brought 270 

Thick sweet wine, and bottles the countrymen of Jove. 
He nevertheless fixing his steps, with doubtful foot, 
Procures a living by that recompence; and winter and hunger 
By that rope he avoids: you on account of a thousand talents, 
And an hundred villas are rash. Behold the ports, 275 
And the sea full with large ships more of men are now 
On the sea : the fleet will come wherever the hope of gain 
Shall call ; nor the Carpathian and Gsetulian seas only 
Will it pass over, but, Calpe being far left, 
Will hear the sun hissing in the Herculean gulph. 280 

Fixing his steps.'] Upon the nar- 
row surface of the rope. 

With doubtful foot.} There being 
great danger of falling. Planta signifies 
the sole of the foot. 

273. By that recomjtencc.] Which he 
receives from the spectators for what he 

Winter and hunger.] Cold and hun- 
ger. See HOR. lib. i. sat. ii. L 6. 

'274. He avoids.} Cavet takes care to 
provide against. 

You, on account, $.] The poor 
rope-dancer ventures his limbs to supply 
his necessary wants ; you rashly expose 
yourself to much greater dangers, to get 
more than you want 

A thousand talents.] Amounting to 
about 187,50<W. of our money. See 
HOLYDAY, note 9, on this Satire. 

_'7">. An hundred villas.] Or country- 
houses, when one would satisfy any 
reasonable mind. 

Are rash.] Rashly run yourself into 
all the dangers of the sea. 

Behold the ports.] What numbers 
of ships are there fitting for sea. 

276. Large ships.] The sea covered 
with ships. Trabs signifies a beam, any 
large piece of timber. With these ships 
were built ; but here, by melon, is meant 
the ships themselves. See VIRG. JEn. 
iii. 191. cava trabe currimus aequor. 

Afore of men, $fc.] Pius honiiimin 
the greater part of the people. 9. d. 

There are more people now at sea than 
on land. This hyperbole (for we can't 
take the words literally) is to be under- 
stood to express the multitudes who were 
venturing their lives at sea for gain. So 
with us, when any thing grows general, 
or gets into fashion, we say every body 
follows it all the world does it 

277. The fleet will come.] No matter 
how distant or perilous the voyage may 
be, in whatever part of the world money 
is to be gotten, the hope of gain will in- 
duce, not merely, here and there, a sin- 
gle ship, but a whole fleet at once to go 
in search of it 

278. Carpathian and Gatulian seas.] 
The Carpathian sea lay between Rhodes 
and Egypt, and was so called from the 
island Carpathus. 

By the Gaetulian, we are to under- 
stand what now is called the Straits of 

279. Calpe being far left, fc.] Calpe, 
a mountain or high rock on the Spanish 
coast (hod. Gibraltar), and Abyla (now 
Ceuta) on the African coast, were called 
the Pillars of Hercules. These pillars 
were generally believed, in Juvenal's 
time, to be the farthest west. 

280. The sun hissing.] Alluding to the 
notion of the sun's arising out of the 
ocean in the cast, and setting in the 
ocean in the west 

//<>;</<'<; yiilph.] i. c. The Atlantic 
ocean, which, at the Straits, was called 



Grande operae pretium est, ut tenso folle reverti 
Inde domum possis, tumidaque superbus aluta, 
Oceani monstra, et juvenes vidisse marines. 
Non unus mentes agitat furor : ille sororis 
In manibus vultu Eumenidum terretur et igni. 
Hie bove percusso mugire Agamernnona credit, 
Aut Ithacum : parcat tunicis licet atque lacernis, 
Curatoris eget, qui navem mercibus implet 
Ad summum latus, et tabula distinguitur unda ; 
Cum sit causa mali tanti, et discriminis hujus, 
Concisum argentum in titulos faciesque minutas. 
Occurrunt nubes et fulgura: solvite funem, 
Frumenti dominus clamat, piperisque coemptor ; 
Nil color hie coeli, nil fascia nigra minatur : 
.ZEstivum tonat. Infelix, ac forsitan ipsa 
Nocte cadet fractis trabibus, fluctuque premetur 




the Herculean gulph, because there Her- 
cules is supposed to have finished his na- 
vigation, and on the two now opposite 
shores of Spain and Africa, which then 
united, (as is said,) to have built his 
pillars ; (see note above, 1. 279.) If 
they sailed beyond these, they fancied 
they could, when the sun set, hear him 
hiss in the sea, like red-hot iron put into 
water. This was the notion of Posido- 
nius the philosopher, and others. 

281. It is a great reward of labour :] 
Grande operse pretium a labour ex- 
ceedingly worth the while ! Ironice. 

A stretched purse.] Filled full of 

282. A swelled bag.] Aluta signifies 
tanned or tawed leather ; and, by me- 
tonym. any thing made thereof, as shoes, 
scrips, or bags of any kind here it 
means a money-bag. 

Swelled.] Distended puffed out 
with money. 

283. Monsters, #<?.] Whales, or other 
large creatures of the deep. 

Marine youths.] Tritons, which were 
supposed to be half men, half fish. 
Mermaids also may be here meant, 
which are described with the bodies of 
young women, the rest like fishes. 

Desinat in piscem mulier furmosa su- 
perne. HOR. de Art. Poet. 1. 4. 

284. Not one madness, tye.] i. e. Mad- 
ness does not always shew itself in the 
same shape ; men are mad in different 
ways, and on different subjects. 

He, in the hands of his sister, $c.] 
Alluding to the story of Orestes, who, 
after he had slain his mother, was tor- 
mented by furies : his sister Electra em- 
bracing him, endeavoured to comfort 
him ; but he said to her, " Let me alone, 
" thou art one of the furies ; you only 
" embrace me, that you may cast me 
" into Tartarus." EURIP. in Orest. 

285. Eumenides.] The three furies, 
the daughters of Acheron and Nox 
Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megaenu They 
were called Eumenides, by antiphrasis, 
from (v/j.evT]s, kind, benevolent. They 
are described with snakes on their heads 
and lighted torches on their hands. 

286. This man, an ox being stricken, 
tye.] Ajax, on the armour of Achilles 
being adjudged to Ulysses, (see Ov. 
Met. lib. xiii.) ran mad, and destroyed 
a flock of sheep, thinking he was de- 
stroying the Greeks. He slew two 
oxen, taking one for Agamemnon, the 
other for Ulysses. See SOPHOC. Ajax 

287. Ithacus.] Ulysses, king of Ithaca. 
See sat. x. 257. 

Spare his coats, 3fc.] Though he 
should not be so furiously mad, as to 
tear his clothes off his back. 

288. Wants a keeper.] Curatoris eget 
stands in need of somebody, to take 
care of him. 

Who fills, $c.] Who for the hopes 
of gain, loads a ship so deep, that there 
is nothing left of her above the water, 



It is a great reward of labour, that with a stretched purse, 
You may return home from thence, and proud with a swelled 


To have seen monsters of the ocean, and marine youths. 
Not one madness agitates minds: he, in the hands of his sister, 
Is affrighted with the countenance, and fire of the Eumenides. 
This man, an ox being stricken, believes Agamemnon to roar, 
Or Ithacus. Tho 1 he should spare his coats and cloaks, 
He wants a keeper, who fills with merchandise a ship 
To the topmast edge, and by a plank is divided from the 

water ; 

When the cause of so great evil, and of this danger, 290 
Is silver battered into titles, and small faces. 
Clouds and lightnings occur : " Loose the cable" 
(Cries the owner of the wheat, and the buyer-up of pepper ) 
" Nothing this colour of the heaven, nothing this black 

" cloud threatens : 
" It is summer-thunder." 1 Unhappy wretch ! and perhaps 

that very 295 

Night he will fall, the beams being broken, and be pressed 

down by a wave, 

but the uppermost part, or edges of her 

289. A plank, $c.] Has nothing be- 
tween him and the fathomless deep but 
a thin plank. See sat. xii. 57 9. 

290. When the cause, %c.] The only 
motive to all this. 

291. Stiver battered, $c.] A peri- 
phrasis for money. The silver of which 
it was made was first cut into pieces, 
then stamped with the name and titles 
of the reigning emperor, and also with 
a likeness of his face. See Matt xxii. 
20, 1. 

292. Clouds and lightnings occur.'] The 
weather appears cloudy, and looks as 
if there would be a storm of thunder 
and lightning ; but this does not dis- 
courage the adventurer from leaving the 

"Loose the cable."] Says he ; " un- 
"moor the ship, and prepare for sail- 

Funem may signify either the cable 
with which the vessel was fastened on 
shore ; or the cable belonging to the 
anchor, by which she was fastened in 
the water. 

293. Criet fa on-nfr, #<.] The owner 

of the freight calls out aloud. 

The buyer-up of pepper.] Juvenal 
does not simply say, emptor, the buyer, 
but coemptor, the buyer-up ; as if he 
meant to describe a monopolizer, who 
buys up the whole of a commodity, in 
order to sell it on his own terms. 

294. This colour of the heavens."] 
This dark complexion of the sky. 

" This black cloud."] Fascia signifies 
a swathe or band. A thick cloud was 
called fascia, because it seemed to swathe 
or bind up the sun, and hinder its 
light: but, perhaps, rather from its 
being an assemblage of many clouds 
collected and bound, as it were, toge- 

295. "/< is summer-thunder."'] No- 
thing but a mere thunder shower, which 
will soon be over, and which in summer 
time is very common, without any storm 

Unhappy wretch.] Who is blinded 
by his avarice, so as to consider no con- 

296. Beams being broken.] Shipwreck- 
ed by the ensuing tempest, he will fall 
into the sea, the timbers of his ship 
broken to pieces. 



Obrutus, et zouam Iseva morsuve tenebit. 
Sed cujus votis modo non sufFecerat aurum, 
Quod Tagus, et rutila volvit Pactolus arena, 
Frigida sufficient velantes inguina panni, 
Exiguusque cibus ; mersa rate naufragus assem 
Dum petit, et picta se tempestate tuetur. 
Tantis parta malis, cura majore metuque 
Servantur : misera est magni custodia census. 
Dispositis prsedives hamis vigilare cohortem 
Servorum noctu Licinus jubet, attonitus pro 
Electro, signisque suis, Phrygiaque columna, 
Atque ebore, et lata testudine. Dolia nudi 
Non ardent Cynici : si fregeris, altera fiet 
Cras domus ; aut eadem plumbo commissa mauebit. 




297. His girdle, <f-c.] Some think that 
the ancients carried their money tied 
to their girdles, from whence Plautus 
calls a cut-purse, sector zonarius. But 
I should rather think that they carried 
their money in their girdles, which were 
made hollow for that purpose. See 
HOR. epist. ii. 1. 40. Suet. Vitell. c. 
16. says, Zona se aureorura plena cir- 

Left hand.'] While he swims with 
his right 

Or with his bite.] i, e. With his 
teeth, that he may have both hands at 
liberty to swim with. 

298. But for him, tyc.] Whose wishes 
were boundless, and whose desires after 
wealth were insatiable. 

299. Tagus.] A river of Portugal. 
See Ov. Met ii. 251. 

Pactolus.] A river in Lydia, called 
also Chrysorrhoas. Both these rivers 
were said to have golden sands. See 
HOR. epod. xv. 20. 

Rolls.] Or throws up, by the 
course of its waters over the sands, so 
that it is found at low water. This is 
said to be the case of some waters in 
Africa, which flow down precipices with 
great impetuosity, and leave gold-dust, 
which they have washed from the earth 
in their passage, in the gullies and chan- 
nels which they make in their way. 

300. Rags covering, fyc.] This very 
wretch, who could not before have been 
satisfied with all the gold of the Tagus 
and Pactolus, is now, having been ship- 
wrecked and ruined by the loss of his 

all, very content, if he can but get rags 
to cover his nakedness from the incle- 
mency of the weather. 

301. A little food.] Bestowed upon 
him in charity, or purchased with the 
few pence he gets by begging. 

301. 2. He asks a penny.] Who be- 
fore wanted a thousand talents, more 
than he had, to content him. See 1. 
274. See sat v. L 144, note 2. 

302. A painted tempest.] Persons who 
had lost their property by shipwreck 
used to have their misfortune painted on 
a board, and hung at their breasts, to 
move compassion in the passers by ; as 
we often see sailors and others begging 
in the streets, with an account of their 
misadventures written on paper or parch- 
ment, and pinned on their breasts. 

303. With so many evils.] But suppose 
all this be avoided, and the man comes 
home rich and prosperous, still he is not 
happy : he must be harassed with con- 
tinual care, anxiety, and dread, in order 
to keep what he has gotten, and these 
may give him more uneasiness than any 
thing else has given him in the pursuit 
of his wealth. 

304. Miserable is the custody, <Sfe.] The 
constant watchfulness, the incessant 
guard, that are to be kept over heaps of 
wealth, added to the constant dread of 
being plundered, may be truly said to 
make the owner lead a miserable life. 
This is well described by Horace, sat i. 
1. 769. 

305. Licinus.] The name of some very 
rich man. It stands here for anv such. 



Overwhelmed, and will hold his girdle with his left hand, or 

with his bite. 
But for him, for whose wishes a while ago the gold had not 


Which Tagus, and Pactolus rolls in its shining sand, 
Bags covering his cold thighs will suffice, 300 

And a little food ; while, his ship being sunk, shipwrecked, he 
Asks a penny, and beholds himself in a painted tempest. 
Things gotten with so many evils, with greater care and fear 
Are kept miserable is the custody of great wealth. 
Wealthy Licinus commands his troop of servants, with 305 
Buckets set in order, to watch by night, affrighted for 
His amber, and for his statues, and his Phrygian column, 
And for his ivory, and broad tortoise-shell. The casks of the 


Cynic don't burn : should you break them, another house 
Will be made to-morrow, or the same will remain soldered 

with lead. 310 

Wealthy praedives, very rich, beyond 
others wealthy. 

306. Buckets set in order.'} Hama sig- 
nifies a water-bucket made of leather. 
AINSW. Dispositis, properly disposed, 
so as to be ready in case of fire. 

AJfnqhted.] Half distracted, as it 
were, with apprehension. 

307. His amber.] Lest he should lose 
his fine cups and other vessels made of 
amber. Electrum also signifies a mix- 
ture of gold and silver, whereof one fifth 
part was silver. AINSW. 

His statues.} Signum denotes a 
graven, painted, or molten image, a figure 
of any thing. 

Phrygian column.'] His fine orna- 
mented pillars, made of marble brought 
out of Phrygia, a country of the Lesser 

308. For his ivory.] His furniture 
made or inlaid with ivory. See sat. xi. 
L 122 4, and notes. 

Broad tortoise-shell.'] His couches, 
and other moveables, richly inlaid and 
ornamented with large and valuable 
pieces of tortoise-shell. See sat. xi 94, 
and note. 

The casks, <|r.] Dolia, the plural put 
for the singular, per synec. The cask of 
Diogenes, the Cynic philosopher, is here 
meant, which was not made of wood, as 
has been commonly supposed, but of clay 
baked, and so in no danger of fire. Do- 

lium signifies any great vessel, as a tun, 
pipe, or hogshead. In these dolia the 
ancients used to keep their wine. Hence 
TKR. Heaut. act iii. sc. i. L 51. Rclevi 
omnia dolia which some translators 
have rendered, " I have pierced every 
" cask." But, however that may be 
agreeable to our idiom, piercing an 
earthen vessel, which the dolium was, is 
not to be supposed. Lino signifies the 
securing the mouth, or bung-hole, of any 
vessel with pitch, rosin, or wax, to pre- 
vent the air's getting in, to the prejudice 
of what might be contained in it : and 
as this was never omitted, when any ves- 
sel was filled with wine, hence it is used 
for putting wine into casks. 

HOR. Od. lib. L ode xx. 1. 13. 
Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 

Cantharis, Grteca quod ego ipse tes- 

Conditum LKVL 

Relino-evi signifies, consequently, to 
remove the rosin, or pitch, upon opening 
the vessel for use. 

309. Break them.] Should you dash 
them all to pieces, so as not to be re- 
paired, such another habitation is very 
easily provided. 

310. Soldered with lead.] Any fracture 
or chink may easily be stopped, by fix- 
ing some lead over it, or pouring some 
melted lead into the crack, which would 
fill it up. 




Sensit Alexander, testa cum vidit in ilia 

Magnum habitatorem, quanto felicior hie, qui 

Nil cuperet, quam qui totum sibi posceret orbem, 

Passurus gestis sequanda pericula rebus. 

Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia : nos te, 31,5 

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam. Mensura tamen qua? 

Sufficiat census, si quis me consulat, edam. 

In quantum sitis atque fames et frigora poscunt : 

Quantum, Epicure, tibi parvis suffecit in hortis : 

Quantum Socratici ceperunt ante Penates. 320 


Acribus exemplis videor te claudere ; misce 

Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus ; effice summam, 

Bis septem ordinibus quam lex dignatur Othonis. 

Ha3C quoque si rugam trahit, extenditque labellum, 325 

Sume duos Equites, fac tertia quadringenta : 

Si nondum implevi gremium, si panditur ultra ; 

Nee Croasi fortuna unquam, nee Persica regna 

311. Alexander.] Alexander the Great 
might easily perceive how much hap- 
pier, and more content, Diogenes was in 
his poverty, than he who coveted empire 
so much as not to be content with one 
world. This alludes to the story of 
Alexander's coming to Corinth, where he 
found Diogenes, and not being saluted 
by him, Alexander went up to him, and 
asked him, " if he could do any thing for 
" him ?" " Yes," said Diogenes, " stand 
" from betwen me and the sun." 

In that cask.'] Testa. This shews 
that the vessel, or hogshead, which Dio- 
genes lived in, was not made of wood. 

312. The great inhabitant.'] Diogenes, 
the chief of the Cynics, very properly so 
styled, from Kvtav, KWOS, a dog, from the 
snarling surliness of their manners ; of 
this we have a specimen in the answer 
of Diogenes to Alexander above men- 

314. About to suffer, $c.] . e. To ex- 
pose himself to, and to undergo dangers, 
proportionate to his attempts to accom- 
plish his vast designs, and equal to all 
the glory which he might acquire. 

315. No divinity, <Sfc.] See sat. x. 
L 365, 6, and notes. 

316. The measure, Sfe.] If I were asked 
what I thought a competency sufficient 
to furnish the comfortable necessaries of 
life, I would answer as follows 

318. As much, <Sfc.] That which will 

suffice as much as is required for food 
and raiment. So St. Paul, 1 Tim. vi. 8. 

Nescis quo valeat nummus ; quam prae- 

beat usum? 

Pants ematur, olus, vini seatarius; adde 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 
HOR. sat. i. 1. 735. 

" Would you the real use of riches know? 
" Bread, herbs, and ivine are all they can 

" bestow. 
" Or add what Nature's deepest wants 

" supplies, 
" These, and no more, thy mass of money 

" buys.' 1 '' FRANCIS. 

So Pope, in his use of riches, Eth. ep. 
iii. 1. 81, 2. 

" What riches give us let us first inquire, 
" Meat, fire, and clothes what more? 

" meat, clothes, and fire." 

319. Little garden.] See sat. xiii. 122, 
3. hortis, plur. per synec. pro horto, 

320. Socratic Penates, fyc.J i. e. As 
much as Socrates required and took for 
the maintenance of his household. Here, 
by met. called Penates, from the house- 
hold gods which were in his house. 

Before.] i. e. In earlier times, be- 
fore Epicurus. Socrates died four hun- 
dred years before Christ ; Epicurus two 
hundred and seventy-one. 

321. Nature never says, fyc.~\ i. e. Na- 
ture and wisdom always agree in teach- 



Alexander perceived, when he saw, in that cask, 
The great inhabitant, how much happier this man was, who 
Desired nothing, than he, who required the whole world, 
About to suffer dangers to be equalled to things done. 
Thou hast no divinity, Fortune, if there be prudence : 
thee we, 315 

We make a goddess. Nevertheless the measure of an estate 
Which may suffice, if any should consult me, I will declare. 
As much as thirst and hunger, and cold require ; 
As much, Epicurus, as sufficed thee in thy little garden ; 
As much as the Socratic Penates had taken before. 320 
I seem to confine you by sour examples;, mix 
Therefore something from our manners, make the sum 
What the law thinks worthy the twice seven ranks of Otho. 
If this also draws a wrinkle, and extends your lip, 325 

Take two knights, make the third four hundred. 
If as yet I have not filled your bosom, if it be opened farther, 
Neither the fortune of Croesus, nor the Persian kingdoms, 

ing the same lesson. By nature, here, 
we must understand that simple prin- 
ciple which leads only to the desire of 
the necessary comforts of life. 

If we go farther, the term nature may 
extend to the appetite and passions, 
which, in their desires and pursuits, suit 
but ill with the dictates of wisdom. 

Mr. POPE, Eth. epist. iii. 1. 25, 6. 
" What nature wants," (a phrase I must 

" Extends to luxury, extends to lust" fyc. 

322. / seem to confirm, tyc.] By saying 
this, I may seem, perhaps, too severe, 
and to circumscribe your desires in too 
narrow a compass, by mentioning such 
rigid examples of persons, of what you 
may think sour dispositions. 

323. Our manners.] That I may not 
be thought too scanty in my allowance, 
I will permit you to mingle something 
of our more modern way of thinking 
and living. 

Make ilie sum, fc.] Suppose you 
make up, together with what I have 
mentioned as sufficient, a sum equal to 
a knight's estate, which, by a law of 
Roscius Otho the tribune, called the 
Roscian law, was to amount to four 
hundred sestertia revenue per annum, 
about 3,125Z. of our money. 

324. Twice seven ranks, ffc.~\ Fourteen 
ranks or rows of seats in the theatre 

vm.. ii. 

were assigned to the equestrian order. 
See HOR. ep. iv. 1. 15, 16 ; and Juv. 
sat iii. 1. 1 55, 6, and notes. 

325. If this also dran-s, fy%] If this 
contracts your brow into a frown, and 
makes you pout out your lips, as in dis- 
dain or displeasure as we say, hang the 
lip t. e. if this, as well as the examples 
before mentioned, of Socrates and Epi- 
curus, displeases you 

326. Take two knights.] Possess an 
estate sufficient for two of the equestrian 
order. See above, 1. 323, note 2. 

Make the third four hundred.] E'en 
add a third knight's estate, have three 
times four hundred sestertia. 

327. Filled your bosom, <5fc.] A meta- 
phor alluding to the garments of the 
ancients, which were loose, and which 
they held open before to receive what 
was given to them. Comp. Is. Ixv. 6, 
7. Luke vi. 38. 

The poet means, If I have not yet 
satisfied your desires by what I allow 
you : if I have not thrown enough into 
your lap, as we say. See sat. vii. 215, 
and note. 

Opened farther.] The metaphor is 
still continued q. d. If your desires 
are still extended beyond this. 

328. Fortune of Croesus.] .The rich 
king of Lydia. See sat x. 274. 

Persian ktnodoms.] The kings of 



Sufficient ammo, nee divitise Narcissi, 

Indulsit Csesar cui Claudius omnia, cujus 330 

Paruit imperiis, uxorem occidere jussiis. 

Persia, particularly Darius and Xerxes, ficient to gratify your desires, 

were famed for their magnificence and Riches of Narcis$us.~\ A freedman 

riches. and favourite of Claudius Csesar, who 

329. Suffice your mind.'] Will be suf- had such an ascendancy over the em- 


Will ever suffice your mind, nor the riches of Narcissus, 
To whom Claudius Caesar indulged every thing, whose 330 
Commands he obeyM, being ordered to kill his wife. 

peror, as to prevail on him to put Mes- at the instigation of Narcissus, he had 

salina to death, after her paramour Si- her killed in the gardens of Lucullus. 

lius. See sat. x. 1. 330345. Claudius By the favour of the emperor, Nar- 

would have pardoned her adultery, but, cissus was possessed of immense wealth. 



The Poet in this Satire, which he is supposed to have written 
when he was under his banishment in Egypt, relates the 
mortal and irreconcileable hatred, which sprung from a re- 
ligious quarrel between the Ombites and Tentyrites, inhabit- 
ants of two neighbouring cities of Egypt and describes, 
in very lively colours, a bloody fray which happened between 
them. He seems to lay this as a ground for those fine re- 
flections, with which he finishes the Satire, on the nature, 
use, and intention of civil society. 

In reading this Satire, it is difficult not to advert to the 
monstrous cruelties which superstition and bigotry have 
brought on mankind, while those who have disgraced the 
Christian name by bearing it, have, with relentless fury, 
inflicted tortures and death on thousands of innocent people, 

Quis nescit, Volusi Bithynice, qualia demens 

^Egyptus portenta colat? Crocodilon adorat 

Pars hsec : ilia pavet saturam serpentibus Ibin. 

Effigies sacri nitet aurea cercopitheci, 

Dimidio magicse resonant ubi Memnone chordse, 5 

Line 1. Bithynian VolusiusJ] Who this Egypt which lies near the river Nile 

Volusius was does not appear ; all that worships the crocodile ; a dreadful am- 

we know is, that he came from Bithynia, phibious animal, shaped something like 

a country of the Lesser Asia, and was a lizard, and, from an egg little bigger 

undoubtedly a friend of Juvenal, who than that of a goose, grows to be thirty 

addresses this Satire to him. feet long. The Egyptians know how 

2. Mad Egypt.'] Demens not only high the river will rise that year, by the 

means mad, i. e. one that has lost his place where the crocodiles lay their eggs, 

senses, but also silly, foolish ; which per- The crocodile was worshipped with di- 

haps is meant here, in allusion to the vine honours, because these animals 

silly superstition which possessed the were supposed to have destroyed the 

minds of the Egyptians in religious mat- Libyan and Arabian robbers, who swam 

ters. over the river and killed many of the 

This part.] One part of Egypt. inhabitants. 

Adores a crocodile.'] That part of 3. An Ibis.] A certain bird, which is 



for no other crime than a difference of opinion in religious 

MARSHALL, in Ms note on line 36, thus expresses himself 

" Hinc simultas et odium utrique populo oriebantur, nempe 

" ex diversitate religionum, quce in nmndo etiam Christiana, 

" Di boni! quantas strages excitavit T 
The attentive reader of this Satire will find a lively exhibition 

of those principles which actuate bigots of all religions, 
zealots of all persuasions; and which, as far as they are 
permitted, will always act uniformly against the peace and 
happiness of mankind. He may amuse himself with alle- 
gorizing the Ombites and Tentyrites into emblems of blind 
zeal and party rage, which no other bounds than want of 
poicer have kept from desolating the earth. 

WHO knows not, Bithynian Volusius, what monstrous things 

Mad Egypt can worship ? this part adores a crocodile ; 

That fears an Ibis saturated with serpents. 

A golden image of a sacred monkey shines, 

Where the magic chords resound from the half Memnon, 5 

a great destroyer of serpents. See this statue was made of hard marble, 

Aixsw. and with such art, that a lute, which 

4. A golden image, fyc.~\ In another was in its hand, would itself give a mu- 
part of Egypt, viz. at Thebes, they wor- sical sound when the beams of the sun 
ship the image of a monkey made of came upon it. 

gold. Cercopithecus is derived from the Cambyses, king of Persia, ruined the 

Or. KtpKos, a tail, and irj07j/coy, an ape. city, and caused the statue to be broken 

The difference between the ape and the about the middle, imagining the sound 

monkey is, that the ape has no tail ; the to proceed from some contrivance within, 

monkey has, and usually a very long but nothing was found. From this time 

one. the music was thought to be magical. 

5. Magic chords, 3fe.] At Thebes, in Strabo says, that he and others heard 
Egypt, there was a colossal statue of the music about one in the afternoon, 
Moinnon, a king of Ethiopia, who was but confesses he could not understand 
slain by Achilles at the siege of Troy : the cause. 



Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis. 
Illic coeruleos, hie piscem fluminis, illic 
Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. 
Porrum et csepe nefas violare, aut frangere morsu. 
O sanctas gentes, quibus hac nascuntur in hortis 
Numina ! Lanatis animalibus abstinet omnis 
Mensa : nefas illic foetum jugulare capellse ; 
Carnibus humanis vesci licet. Attonito cum 
Tale super coenam facinus narraret Ulysses 
Alcinoo, bilem aut risum fortasse quibusdam 
Moverat, ut mendax aretalogus. In mare nemo 
Hunc abicit, saeva dignum veraque Charybdi, 
Fingentem immanes Lsestrygonas atque Cyclopas 2 
Nam citius Scyllam, vel concurrentia saxa 
Cyanes, plenos et tempestatibus utres 
Crediderim, aut tenui percussum verbere Circes, 


6. Hundred gates.] At Thebes, in 
Egypt, there was an hundred gates ; 
the city from thence was called Heca- 
tompylis. This city was destroyed by 
Cambyses, who conquered Egypt. It 
was originally built by Busiris, the fa- 
bled son of Neptune. See sat. xiii. 1. 27, 
and note. 

7. Sea-fish] Coeruleos because taken 
out of the sea, which, by reflecting the 
blue sky, appears of an azure or sky-blue 
colour. So VIRG. JEn. iii. 208. 

Adnixi torquent spumas, et ccerula 
verrunt i. e. aequora. 

8. Worship a dog.~] They worship 
their god Anubis under this form. See 
sat. vi. 533, note. 

Nobody Diana.] They worship the 
hound, but not the huntress. Juvenal 
seems to mistake here, for Herodotus 
observes that Diana was worshipped in 
that country under the name of Bu- 
bastis ; which adoration, under another 
name, might occasion this mistake. But 
see AINSW. Bubastis. 

9. A sin to violate a leek, fy.] "Perhaps 
our poet here goes a little beyond the 
strict truth, to heighten the ridicule, 
though there might be possibly some 
foundation for such an opinion, from the 
scrupulous abstinence of some of that 
nation from particular vegetables, as len- 
tils, beans, and onions, the latter of 
which the priests abominated, as some 
pretend, because Dictys, who had been 

brought up by Isis, was drowned in 
seeking after them ; or rather, because 
onions alone, of all plants, thrive when 
the moon is in the wane." See ANT. 
Univ. Hist. vol. i. p. 484. For the re- 
ligion of Egypt, see also ib. p. 467, et 
seq. ; and Abr. of Hutchinson, p. 122. 

10. holy nations, <Sfe.] Meaning the 
various parts of Egypt, whose worship 
of leeks and onions he has just men- 
tioned. This sarcasm is very natural 
after what he has said. 

11. Every table, Sfc.] i. e. They never 
eat sheep, or lambs. 

12. Offspring of a she-goat.] i. e. A kid. 
The hatred of the Egyptians to the 

Israelites, both as shepherds and as He- 
brews, is supposed to have arisen from 
the latter killing and sacrificing these 
beasts, which were held sacred and wor- 
shipped in Egypt. See Gen. xliii. 32 ; 
and xlvi. 34. See ANT. Un. Hist vol. 
iii. p. 333, b. 

13. Human flesh] DIOD. lib. ii. c, 4. 
says, that in a time of famine in Egypt, 
when the Egyptians were sorely pressed 
with hunger, they spared their sacred 
animals, and ate the flesh of men. 

13, 14. When Ulysses tvas telling, <5fc.] 
Ulysses, arriving at the island of Phae- 
acia, or Corcyra (now Corfu), was en- 
tertained by Alcinous the king, to whom 
he related his travels. 

15, 16. Anger or laughter] He re- 
cited such monstrous incredibilities, that 



And ancient Thebes lies overthrown with its hundred gates. 

There sea-fish, here a fish of the river ; there 

Whole towns worship a dog, nobody Diana. 

It is a sin to violate a leek or onion, or to break them with 

a bite. 

O holy nations, for whom are born in gardens 10 

These deities ! Every table abstains from animals bearing 
Wool : it is there unlawful to kill the offspring of a she-goat, 
But lawful to be fed with human flesh. When Ulysses 
Was telling, at supper, such a deed to the astonished 
Alcinous, perhaps, in some he moved anger or 15 

Laughter, as a lying babbler. " Into the sea does nobody 
" Throw this fellow, worthy of a cruel and true Charybdis, 
" Feigning huge Laestrygonians, and Cyclops ? 
" For sooner Scylla, or the concurring rocks 
" Of Cyane, and bags full of tempests 20 

" Would I have believed, or, struck by the slender wand of 


no doubt he excited the spleen of some 
of the company, and the laughter of 

16. Lying babbler.'] Aretalogus (from 
apery and \oyos) signifies a talkative 
philosopher, who diverted great men at 
their tables by discourses on virtue. 
From hence this word has been fre- 
quently used for a talkative person, a 
jester, a buffoon. 

Into the sea, $re.] The poet supposes 
one of the company, who heard the 
strange tales of Ulysses, when at the 
court of Alcinous, expressing himself as 
in an amaze, that nobody should take 
him and throw him into the sea for his 
strange lies. Abicit i. e. abjicit. 

17. Worthy of a true Charybdis.] He 
has told such a romance about a feigned 
whirlpool, which he calls Charybdis, in 
the Straits of Sicily, that he certainly 
deserves a real one for his pains. 

18. Feigning huge Lcestrygonians.~\ A 
rude and savage people near Formiae, 
in Italy ; they were like giants, and de- 
voured men. See Odyss. K. 

Cyclops.'] These were represented 
as man-eaters. See Odyss. i. AlsoViRG. 
./En. iii. 616, et seq. 

19. Sooner Scylla^ %c.~\ I can sooner 
believe his tales about Scylla, (the 
daughter of Phorcys, the father of the 
Gorgons,) who is said to be changed into 
a dangerous rock in the midway between 

Italv and Sicily. Sec VIRG. ecL v. 

Concurring rocks, &;c.] Called Cya- 
nese, otherwise Symplegadse, two rocks 
at a small distance from the Thracian 
Bosphorus, so close to one another, that 
they seem at a distance to be one ; and, 
as one passeth by, he would think they 
dash against each other: they were there- 
fore called Symplegadae, from Gr. aw 
and irA7j(r<ra>, to strike together. 

20. "Bays fM of tempests.""] When 
Ulysses arrived at the island of s ./Eolus, 
that king of the winds inclosed the ad- 
verse ones in leathern bags, and hung 
them up in Ulysses' ship, leaving -at 
liberty the west wind, which was fa- 
vourable. But the companions of Ulys- 
ses untied the bags, being curious to 
know what they contained, and let out 
the adverse winds ; immediately a tem- 
pest is raised, which drives the ship 
back to the /Eolian isles, to the great 
displeasure of -flSolus, who rejects Ulys- 
ses and his companions. They then 
sail to the Laestrygons!, where they lose 
eleven ships, and, with one only re- 
maining, proceed to the island of Circe. 
See Odyss. K. ad init 

21. " Wand of Circe:"} She was said 
to be the daughter of Sol and Perseis ; 
she was a sorceress. She poisoned her 
husband, the king of the Scythians, that 
she might reign alone ; for which, being 



Et cum remigibus grunnisse Elpenora porcis. 

Tarn vacui capitis populum Phseaca putavit ? 

Sic aliquis merito nondum ebrius, et minimum qui 

De Corcyrsea temetum duxerat urna : 25 

Solus enirn hoc Ithacus nullo sub teste canebat. 

Nos miranda quidem, sed nuper consule Junio 

Gesta, super calidse referemus moeuia Copti ; 

Nos vulgi scelus, et cunctis graviora cothurnis : 

Nam scelus, a Pyrrha quanquam omnia syrmata volvas, 30 

Nullus apud tragicos populus facit. Accipe nostro 

Dira quod exemplum feritas produxerit aevo. 

Inter finitimos vetus atque antiqua simultas, 
Immortale odium, et nunquam sanabile vulnus 
Ardet adhuc Ombos et Tentyra. Summus utrinque 35 
Inde furor vulgo, quod numina vicinorum 

expelled her kingdom, she went into 
Italy, and dwelt in a promontory called 
the Cape of Circe, whither Ulysses and 
his companions were driven, (see the 
last note, ad fin.) many of whom, by a 
touch of her magic wand, she turned into 
swine ; at last, on entreaty, she restored 
them to their former shapes. 

22. Elpenor."] One of Ulysses' com- 

" Swine-rowers. 1 "} The crew of the 
ship, who rowed her, were turned into 
swine, and grunted like that animal. In 
those days the ships were rowed with 
oars, as well as driven by sails. 

23. "Has he thought,'" #c.] Has this 
Ulysses so mean an opinion of the 
Phseacians, as to imagine them so empty- 
headed, so void of understanding, that 
they should receive such a pack of in- 
credible stories, of bags, of tempests, 
&c. &c. ? But even these are more pro- 
bable, and sooner to be believed, than 
what he relates of the Laestrygons and 
Cyclops, as if they were man-eaters ; 
this shocks all belief. 

24. Thus deservedly, <fc.] The above 
reflections would be very just, and pro- 
per for any one to make, unless he had 
drunk away his senses, and was incapa- 
ble of distinguishing truth from false- 

25. Strom? wine.] Temetum, a word 
signifying strong wine, from Gr. TO pf6v, 
vinum ; whence fifOwicw, to be drunk. 
S from temetum comes temulentus, 
drunken. See HOR. Epist. lib. ii/epist. 
li.l. 163. 

Corcyraan urn.] Corcyra, an island 
in the Ionian sea, on the coast of Al- 
bania, anciently called Phseacia. So 
that the poet means the wine of that 
country, made by the Phaeacians, who 
were famous for luxury. The urn signi- 
fies the vessel (or hogshead, as we call 
it) out of which they drew the wine, in 
order to drink it. 

26. Ulysses related this, $c.] He told 
these stories entirely on his own credit, 
having no witness present to avouch the 
truth of what he said, therefore he might 
reasonably be disbelieved. 

Related.] Canebat. The wordcano, 
when it signifies to relate or report, par- 
ticularly applies to things uttered by 
poets, who do not always stick to truth, 
but indulge their fancies in strange im- 
probabilities : it is therefore here well 
applied to Ulysses, when telling such 
stories to Alcinous. 

Why Ulysses was called Ithacus, see 
sat. x. 257, note 2. 

27. We uM relate, $c.] I shall now 
relate something very astonishing, not 
merely on my own authority, but which 
can be attested, as lately and publicly 

27, 8. Junius being consul.] Some 
consule Vinco, others Junco ; but no 
such name of a consul appears as Vincus, 
or Juncus. Junius Sabinus was consul 
with Domitian, an. U.C.836. N.C. 84. 
The poet dates the time of his facts for 
the greater certainty. 

28. Upon the ivalls, %c.] i. e. At Cop- 
tus in the citv. 



" Elpenor with his swine-rowers to have grunted. 

" Has he thought the Phaeacian people are so empty-headed?" 

Thus deservedly any one, not as yet drunk, and who a very 

Strong wine from a Corcyrsean urn had drawn : 25 

For Ulysses related this without any witness. 

We will relate wonderful things, and lately done (Juniusbeing 

Consul) upon the walls of warm Coptus ; 

We the wickedness of the vulgar, and more grievous than 
all buskins : 

For wick- Iness, tho' you should turn over all the tragedies 30 

From Pyrrha, no whole people commits among the tra- 
gedians. Hear 

What an example dire cruelty has produced in our time. 
There burns as yet an old and ancient grudge, 

An immortal hatred, and a wound not to be healed, 

Between the bordering Ombos and Tentyra, Thence, on 
both sides, 35 

The highest fury in the vulgar, because the deities of their 

which you will find an example which 
was the effect of the most savage barba- 
rity, perpetrated in our days, not merely 
by an individual, but by a whole nation 

33. Ancient grudge, $c.] Here the 
poet begins his narrative of the quarrels 
between the Ombites and the Tenty- 
rites, two people of Egypt, who were 
neighbours, and who hated one another 
mortally, on account of their difference 
in religion. 

35. On both sides.] They were, on 
each side, equally inveterate in their 
malice to each other. The word Ten- 
tyra, in this line, is in the accusative 
plur. and so afterwards, 1. 76. 

36. The vulgar.] This rage of one 
people against the other spread itself 
not only among the chiefs, (1. 39.) but 
among the common people on both 

Because the deities, $c.] The Om- 
bites abominated the objects of the 
Tentyrites' worship, and those of the 
Ombites were equally detested by the 
Tentyrites ; neither allowing that there 
were any gods worthy of worship but 
their own. 

Their quarrel was on the score of 
religion, which is always the most impla-> 
cable of all others. 

Warm Coptus.~\ A metropolitan 
city of Egypt near the Nile, over which 
the sun at noon is vertical ; therefore 
Juvenal calls it warm, or hot. He names 
the place, as well as the time, where 
the things happened which he is going 
to relate. 

29. The vulgar.] I am not going to 
tell facts which relate to myself, or to 
any single individual, but what was 
committed by a whole people. 

Than all buskins.] More grievous 
than is to be found in any tragedy. 
Cothurnus, the buskin worn by the 
actors of tragedy, is often, as here, used 
to denote tragedy itself, by meton. See 
sat. vi. 6335, note. 

30. For wickedness, <Sfc.] i. e. Though 
you should turn over all the tragedies 
which have been written since the days 
of Deucalion and Pyrrha, when mankind 
were restored after the flood, you will 
find no poet representing a piece of 
barbarity, as the act of a whole people 
at once, as in the instance I am going 
to relate. 

. All the tragedies.] Syrmata were 
long garments used by actors in trage- 
dy. Here by metonym. (like cothurnis 
in the preceding line) put for tragedies. 

31. 2. Hear irtxit nti <;rample.\. Now 
attend, and I will tell you my story, in 



Odit uterque locus ; cum solos credat habendos 
Esse Deos, quos ipse colit : sed tempore festo 
Alterius populi rapienda occasio cunctis 
Visa inimicorum primoribus ac ducibus ; ne 
Laetum hilaremque diem, ne magnse gaudia crense 
Sentirent, positis ad templa et compita rnensis, 
Pervigilique toro, quern nocte ac luce jacentem 
Septimus interdum sol invenit. Horrida sane 
.^Egyptus : sed luxuria, quantum ipse notavi, 
Barbara famoso non cedit turba Canopo. 
Adde quod et facilis victoria de madidis, et 
Blsesis, atque mero titubantibus. Inde virorum 
Saltatus nigro tibicine, qualiacunque 
Unguenta, et flores, multseque in fronte coronae : 
Hinc jejunum odium : sed jurgia prima sonare 
Incipiunt animis ardentibus : haac tuba rixse. 
Dein clamore pari concurritur, et vice teli 


The Ombites worshipped the croco- 
dile, which the Tentyrites destroyed; 
these worshipped the hawk. 

38. In a festival time.'] The custom of 
feasting seven days for the happy over- 
flowing of the Nile was annually ob- 
served by the Ombites. 

39. All the chiefs. Sfc.] The chiefs of 
the other people, that is, of the Tenty- 
rites, thought this a fine opportunity, 
which should not be lost, to spoil their 
sport at their festival. 

40. 1. Lest a glad, #e.] They deter- 
mined to prevent their festive mirth, 
and to embitter the joy of their feasts. 

42. The tables being placed, $c.] In 
the crocodile's temple. 

And sfreefe.]Compita places where 
several ways met, in which the country- 
people caine together to their wakes, 
and to perform their sacrifices, when 
they had made an end of their husband- 
ry. The Ombites are here said to do 
the same at their festival in the city of 

43. The wakeful bed."] The ancients, 
as has been before observed, lay on 
beds, or couches, at their meals. The 
poet calls it the wakeful bed, from the 
length of time the beds were occupied 
by the feasting guests, who sat up night 
and day for many days together, as the 
next line infonns us. 

44. Sometimes the seventh sun found."] 
The Egyptians held the number seven 

sacred, and more especially believed, 
that during their festival of seven days 
the crocodiles lost their natural cruelty. 

Hence the poet means, that the sun, 
at his rising, found them lying on the 
festal couches for seven days toge- 

45. But in luxury, $c.] q. d. The peo- 
ple of Egypt are rude and uncultivated ; 
but in the article of luxury, the rabble, 
barbarous as they are, equal the Cano- 
pians themselves, at least in that part 
of the country where I have been. See 
sat. L L 26, note on Canopus. 

As far as I have remarked.] It is to 
be observed, that Juvenal, having in- 
serted into his writings some sharp lines 
against Paris a player, a favourite of 
Domitian, was banished into Egypt, 
under a pretence of sending him with 
a military command ; so that, during his 
abode there, he had a full opportunity 
to observe the manners of the people, 
and to make his remarks upon them. 

47. Add too.] q. d. It is moreover to 
be observed. 

Victory, $fe.] It is a very easy mat- 
ter to get the better of people, when 
they are so drunk as hardly to be able 
to speak, or stand upon their legs, and, 
of course, very unable to defend them- 
selves. See 1 Sam. xxx. 16, 17. 1 Kings 
xv. 9. 

48. There."] i. e. On the part of the 



Each place hates, since it can believe them only to be ac- 

Gods, which itself worships : but, in a festival time, 
There seemM, to all the chiefs and leaders of the other people, 
An opportunity to be seized, lest 40 

A glad and cheerful day, lest the joys of a great feast 
They should be sensible of, the tables being placed at the 

temples and streets, 

And the wakeful bed, which, lying night and day, 
Sometimes the seventh sun found. Rude indeed is 
Egypt, but in luxury, as far as I have remarked, 45 

The barbarous rabble does not yield to infamous Cauopus. 
Add too, that the victory is easy over the drunken and stam- 

And reeling with wine. There, a dancing 
Of the men, with a black piper ; ointments such 
As they were, and flowers, and manychaplets on the forehead; 
Here, fasting hatred : but their first brawlings they begin 51 
To sound, their minds burning : these the trumpet of the 

Then they engage with equal clamour, and instead of a weapon 

49. Of the men, &;c.] The men diverted 
themselves with dancing. 

A black piper.'] A black Ethiopian 
playing on his pipe, as the music to their 

Ointments such, $c.] It was custom- 
ary at feasts to anoint the head with 
sweet-smelling ointments ; but these 
vulgar Egyptians were not very nice in 
this matter, but made use of any greas* 
that came to hand. 

50. And fmcers.~] It was also usual to 
make chaplets of flowers, which they 
put on their heads. See sat. xi. 121, 2, 
and notes. 

On the forehead.'] The crowns, or 
chaplets of flowers, surrounded the heads 
of those that wore them, on these occa- 
sions, but were most conspicuous about 
the forehead and temples. 

51. Here.'] i. e. Among the other 
party, the Tentyrites. The hinc in this 
line answers to the inde, L 48. 

Fasting hatred.] The Tentyrites, on 
the contrary, were fasting, and their 
hatred, like their hunger, was fierce and 
insatiable. Their hatred was like an 
hungry appetite, which longs after some- 
thing to satisfy it. Jejunum is here 
metaphorical, and taken from the. idea 

of an hungry person who longs for 
food ; so did their hatred hunger after 
the destruction of their adversaries the 

First braidings, #c.] The Tentyrites 
began the fray with bitter reproaches 
and abuse. 

52. To sound.] To utter forth as loud 
as they could. Metaph. from the 
sounding a trumpet for battle. 

Minds burning.] i. e. Their minds 
on fire, as it were, with anger, malice, 
and revenge, against the Ombites. 

These.] The reproaches and abuse 
which they uttered. 

The trumpet, $c.] Alluding to the 
custom of giving the signal for battle 
by the sound of a trumpet, when two 
armies met This was supplied by the 
foul and provoking abuse which the 
Tentyrites gave the Ombites. See sat 
xiv. 1. 199. 

53. With equal clamour.] This roused 
the Ombites, and both sides were equal- 
ly clamorous and noisy in their abuse 
of each other this brought them to 

Instead of a itxapon, $c.] Having no 
darts, swords, or other weapons, they 
went to fighting with their fist*. 


Saevit nuda manus : paucse sine vuluere malae : 

Vix cuiquam aut nulli toto certamine nasus 55 

Integer : aspiceres jam cuncta per agmina vultus 

Dimidios, alias facies, et hiantia ruptis 

Ossa genis, plenos oculorum sanguine pugnos. 

Ludere se credunt ipsi tamen, et pueriles 

Exercere acies, quod nulla cadavera calcent : ao 

Et sane quo tot rixantis millia turbse, 

Si vivunt omnes ? ergo acrior impetus, et jam 

Saxa reclinatis per humum qusesita lacertis, 

Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditionis 

Tela ; nee hos lapides, quales et Turnus, et Ajax, 65 

Vel quo Tydides percussit pondere coxam 

-*Enese ; sed quos valeant emittere dextra3 

Illis dissimiles, et nostro tempore natae : 

Nam genus hoc vivo jam decrescebat Homero. 

Terra malos homines nunc educat atque pusillos ; 70 

Ergo Deus quicunque aspexit, ridet et odit. 

A diverticulo repetatur fabula. Postquam 
Subsidiis aucti, pars altera promere ferrum 
Audet, et infestis pugnam instaurare sagittis : 
Terga fugaa celeri prsestantibus hostibus instant, 75 

56. All the bands.] Agmen, properly, 62. The attack is sharper.] This whets 

signifies an army, a company of soldiers, their appetite for mischief, and they 

chiefly infantry. The poet here hu- fall to with still more acrimony than be- 

morously applies the word agmina to fore, 
these fist-warriors. 63. Stones, fyc.] They picked up the 

56. 7. Half countenances.] Some hav- stones, wherever they could find them, 
ing an eye beat out, others their teeth, on the ground where they fought. 

and the like. Arms reclined.] They stooped, di- 

57. Other faces.] So mauled, as to be recting their arms downwards to the 
disfigured in such a manner, that they ground, to gather stones, which they be- 
could hardly be known to be the same gan to throw. 

persons. 64. Domestic weapons, <Sfc.] Domestica 

Bones gaping, fyc.~\ Their jaw-bones tela the commonly usual, familiar wea- 

fractured, and appearing through the pons, in such quarrels as these, among a 

wounds in their cheeks. rabble, who fell together by the ears. 

58. Blood of their eyes.] Which had Seditio means a mutinous rising also 
been torn, or knocked out of their quarrel, strife among people of the 
heads. same neighbourhood. 

59. Nevertheless, %c.] Notwithstanding 65. Turnus.] Who took up a stone, 
all this mischief, nobody had been killed ; and threw it at ./Eneas. This stone is 
they therefore had not the satisfaction said to have been so large, as hardly to 
of treading any of their enemies' dead be lifted by twice six men of moderate 
bodies under their feet ; therefore they strength and stature. See JEn. xii. 1. 
reckoned all that had hitherto happened 896 901. 

no more than mere sport no better than Ajax.] See II. ij. 1. 264 70. where 
children's play, as we say. Hector and Ajax are throwing stones at 
61. What purpose, fc.] What signifies, each other ; when Ajax takes up a mill- 
say they, such a number of fighting peo- stone, and throws it at Hector, which 
pie, if no lives be lost ? broke his shield. 


The naked hand rages : few cheeks without a wound : 54 
Scarce to any, or to none, in the whole engagement, a nose 
Whole : already you might see, throughout all the bands, half 
Countenances, other faces, and bones gapingfrom their broken 
Cheeks, fists full of the blood of their eyes. 
Nevertheless they believed themselves to play, and to exercise 
Puerile battles, because they can tread on no corpses : eo 
And indeed, for what purpose are so many thousands of a 


Multitude-, if all live? therefore the attack is sharper, and now 
Stones, gotten throughout the ground with arms reclined, 
They begin to throw, the domestic weapons 
Of sedition; nor these stones such as both Turnus and Ajax, 
Or with the weight with which Tydides struck the thigh 66 
Of ^Eneas : but those that right hands unlike to them 
Could send forth, and born in our time : 
For this race was decreasing, Homer being yet alive. 
The earth now brings forth bad men, and small ; ' 70 

Therefore whatever god hath beheld them, he laughs and 


Let the story be fetched back from the digression. After they 
Were increased with succours, one party dares to draw 
The sword, and to renew the fight with hostile arrows. 74 
They urge their enemies, giving their backs to swift flight, 

66. Tydides.'} Diomede, the son of Ty- Vix Mud lecti bis sex cervice sub- 
deus, who threw a stone, as big as two irent, 

men could lift, at JEneas, and wounded Qualia nunc hominum produdt cor- 

him on the hip. II. e. 1. 303, 4. pora tellws. 

The poet applies these silly stories, 70. The earth now brings forth, $c.] 

one should suppose, rather to laugh at The present race of men are bad as to 

them, than any thing else. their morals, and small as to their size, if 

67. Bui those, 3fc.] The stones with compared with those of old time ; thus 
which the Ombites and Tentyrites at- has the human race degenerated, 
tacked each other were not such as were 71. Whatever god, fe.] No superior 
wielded and thrown by Turnus, &c. but being can behold them, without laugh- 
such as could be managed by the hands ing at the ridiculous contentions of such 
of the present race of men, who are diminutive creatures, and hating the 
greatly inferior, in size and strength, to abominable principles which produce 
those Homerican heroes. them. 

69. For this race, <8fc.] This race had 72. Let the story, #c.] q. d. But to 

degenerated even in the days of Homer ; return to the story, from my digression 

for speaking of the stone which Diomede about Ajax, &c. 

threw at JEne&s, Homer says, 73. Increased with succours, $fc.] Were 

fj.tya tpyov, o ov Svo y' avSpe augmented by some auxiliaries. 

<pfpot(i> One party.] The Tentyrites. Coihp. 

Oi'oi vw Pporoi furiv. sat. xii. 115, note. 

A vast weight, which two men, such Dares to draw, fyc.] Ventures to 

as three are now, could not carry. II. e. draw the swords with which their auxi- 

L 303, 4. liaries had furnished them. Comp. 

So Virgil, speaking of the stone which 1. 53, 4. 

Turnus threwat;Eneas,jEn.xii. 899,900. 75. Urge their enemies.'} i. e. The 



Qui vicina colunt umbrosse Tentyra palmse. 
Labitur hie quidam, nimia foraridine cursum 
Prsecipitans, capiturque ; ast ilium in plurima sectum 
Frusta ac particulas, ut multis mortuus unus 
Sufficeret, totum corrosis ossibus edit 
Vietrix turba : nee ardenti decoxit aheno, 
Aut verubus : longurn usque adeo, tardumque putavit 
Expectare focos, contenta cadavere crudo. 
Hinc gaudere libet, quod non violaverit ignem, 
Quern summa coeli raptum de parte Prometheus 
Donavit terris. Elemento gratulor, et te 
Exsultare reor : sed qui mordere cadaver 
Sustinuit, nihil unquam hac carne libentius edit : 
Nam scelere in tanto ne quseras, aut dubites, an 
Prima voluptatem gula senserit. Ultimus autem 
Qui stetit absumpto jam toto corpore, ductis 
Per terrain digitis, aliquid de sanguine gustat. 
Vascones (ut fama est) alimentis talibus usi 
Produxere animas : sed res diversa : sed illic 
Fortunze invidia est, bellorumque ultima, casus 

Ombites, .who had turned their backs, 
and were running away as fast as they 

76. Who inhabit Tentyra, 8fc.~] Tentyra- 
orum, an island and city of Egypt, near 
which there was a mountain covered 
with palm-trees. q. d. The Tentyrites 
urged, pressed upon, the flying Ombites. 
This line should stand in construction 
before L 75. 

77. Here.] Just at this juncture. 

One, ^-c.] One of the flying Om- 
bites, in his over fear and haste, fell 
down, and was taken prisoner by the 

79. One dead man, tyc.] They cut this 
poor creature into as many pieces as 
they could, that every one might have a 
bit of him, sufficient for a taste. 

80. T/ie victorious rabble, Sfc.] Or mul- 
titude of the Tentyrites, entirely de- 
voured him. 

80, 81. Bones being ffnatved.'] They 
gnawed and picked his bones. 

81. Nor did they boil him.'] Decoxit is 
singular, but agrees with turba (LSI.), 
which being a noun of multitude, the 
singular verb is best translated here in 
the plural number. So putavit in the 
next line. 

82. Or tcith spits.'] Or roast the pieces 
of him on spits. 

So very long, $r.] Their impatience 
was too great for them to wait the kin- 
dling and burning of fire, and the tedious 
process of boiling or roasting. 

83. Content with the raw carcase.} They 
were perfectly contented with eating his 
dead body quite raw. Contenta here 
relates to the victrix turba. 

84. Hence we may rejoice, fyc.~\ The 
poet addresses his friend Volusius : and, 
I do suppose, with an intent here, as 
elsewhere, when he can find occasion, to 
sneer at the ^superstitious notions of his 
countrymen, relative to their mythology, 
particularly with regard to the fable of 
Prometheus. See sat. iv. L 133, note. 
We may on this occasion, says he, be 
glad that these Tentyrites offered no 
pollution to the sacred element of fire, 
by dressing human flesh with it. 

85. Which Prometheus, fy.] See sat. 
iv. 1. 133, note. 

From the highest part of heaven.] 
From Jupiter himself, and brought it 
down to earth. 

86. / congratulate the element.'} I wish 
it ioy of its escape from pollution. 

And tkee, %c.~\ At for thee, Vohuius, 



Who inhabit Tentyra near the shady palm-tree. 
Here one slips down, hastening his course with too much 
Fear, and is taken ; but him cut into a great many 
Pieces and particles (that one dead man for many 
Might suffice) the victorious rabble ate all up, the bones 80 
Being gnawed : nor did they boil him in a burning kettle 
Or with spits : they thought it so very long, and tardy 
To wait for fires, content with the raw carcase. 
Hence we may rejoice, that they did not violate fire, 
Which Prometheus, stolen from the highest part of heaven, 85 
Gave to the earth. I congratulate the element, and thee 
I think to exult : but he, who bore to gnaw the carcase, 
Never ate any thing more willingly than this flesh : 
For in so great wickedness ask not, nor doubt, whether 
The first gullet perceived a pleasure. But he 90 

Who stood farthest, the whole body now consumed, his fingers 
Being drawn along the ground, tastes something of the blood. 

The Vascons (as the report is) using such aliments, 
Prolonged their lives : but the matter is different : but there 
Is the envy of Fortune, and the utmost of wars, extreme 95 

I think thou must exult in the circum- 
stance as well as myself. The intro- 
duction of these reflections, in the close 
of his mock-heroic account of the battle, 
makes very much for supposing that he 
speaks ironically here, as where he in- 
troduces Turnus, Ajax, and Diomede, 
L 65, 6. 

87. He, u-ho bore, fyc.] The man who 
could endure to bite, and champ between 
his teeth, human flesh, did it, no doubt, 
with as much relish as he would eat any 
thing else, especially as his appetite was 
sharpened by the malice which he bare 
the Ombites. 

89. Ask not, nor doubt, fyc.] You need 
not question or doubt whether people, 
capable of committing so horrible a 
wickedness as this, to glut their revenge, 
had a delight in it ; and whether those 
who were present at the beginning of 
the meal, and so had their first share of 
the flesh, felt a pleasure in devouring 

90. 1. He u-ho stood.] He, whoever 
he was, that stood farthest off, perhaps 
not being able to get through the crowd 
to the spot where the flesh was devoured, 
till the whole was consumed 

91. His fingers, ifc.] He observing 

some of the blood on the ground, scraped 
it up with his fingers, and then sucked 
them with great satisfaction, as afford- 
ing him, at least, a taste of his enemy's 
blood. This must stand as a sufficient 
reason, against all doubt, that the eaters 
of the carcase had the highest pleasure 
in so doing L 89, 90. 

93. The, Vascons.'] A people of Spain, 
inhabiting between the river Ebro and 
the Pyrenean mountains. They were 
besieged by Metellus and Pompey, and 
reduced to such necessity, that the living 
were forced to eat the dead, but were 
at last relieved by Sertorius, a general 
of Marius's party. 

As the report is.~\ As the story goes, 
as we say. 

Using such aliments.] Eating human 

94. Prolonged their live*.] Which other- 
wise must have been lost in the strait- 
ness of the siege, which occasioned a 
severe famine. 

Different.] But this was a very dif- 
ferent thing from feeding on human flesh, 
as the Tentyrites did, out of choice, and 
out of revenge on their enemies. 

95. Envy of Fortune.] The poor Vns- 
cons were undor the frowns of Fortune ; 



Extremi, longse dira obsidionis egestas. 

Hujus enim, quod nunc agitur, miserabile debet 

Exemplum esse cibi : sicut modo dicta mihi gens 

Post omnes herbas, post cuncta animalia, quicquid 

Cogebat vacui ventris furor, (hostibus ipsis 100 

Pallorem, ac maciem, et tenues miserantibus artus,) 

Membra aliena fame lacerabant, esse parati 

Et sua. Quisnam hominmn veniam dare, quisve Deorum 

Viribus abnuerit dira atque immania passis ; 

Et quibus ipsorum poterant ignoscere manes, ior> 

Quorum corporibus vescebantur ? melius nos 

Zenonis prsecepta monent : nee enim omnia, quaedam 

Pro vita facienda putat. Sed Cantaber unde 

Stoicus, antiqui praesertim setate Metelli ? 

Nunc totus Graias, nostraque habet orbis Athenas. 1 10 

Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos : 

De conducendo loquitur jam rhetore Thule. 

Nobilis ille tamen populus, quern diximus : et par 

Virtute atque fide, sed major clade Saguntus 

they experienced the malice of that 
fickle goddess. See sat. iii. 1. 39, 40 ; 
and sat. vi. 1. 604. and HOR. lib. i. ode 
xxxiv. L 14, et seq. and ode xxxv. per 

95. Utmost of wars.'] The utmost dis- 
tress which war could occasion. ' 

95. 6. Extreme misfortunes.] The very- 
last symptoms of desperation. 

96. Dire want, $c.] See above, note 
on 1. 93, 4. 

97. Which is now in question.] i. e. The 
matter which I am now tretiting, viz. the 
Vascons eating human flesh. 

97. 8. Ought to be lamented, fyc.] Is not 
to be looked upon as a crime, but as a 
most lamentable instance of such a thing. 

98. As the nation, <5fe.] The Vascons 
just mentioned above. 

99. After all herbs, #c.] After they 
had consumed all sorts of herbs, and of 
beasts, and whatsoever else the cravings 
of their hungry stomachs had driven 
them to devour. 

100. The very enemies, c.~\ Their con- 
dition was so desperate, and their fa- 
mished looks and appearance so shock- 
ing, as to move even their enemies to 
pity them. See Ps. cvi. 46. 

101. Their slender limbs.'] The very 
flesh wasted from their bones. 

102. Tore for hunger, #<.] They tore, 

through stress of hunger, the limbs of 
those that had died, and were almost 
ready to serve themselves in the same 
manner. See Deut. xxviii. 53 7. 

103. Who of men, Sfc.} All this was 
excusable from the dire necessity of their 
situation, therefore they ought to be for- 
given, not only by men, but by the gods 

104. forces.] Viribus f. e. men who 
had suffered so much by exerting all the 
force of their strength and courage to de- 
fend their city against their besiegers. 

105. Whom the manes, $0.] Who could 
think of condemning a people under 
such circumstances of distress, when the 
ghosts which once inhabited the bodies 
which they devoured must be supposed 
to forgive them. 

107. The precepts ofZeno, #c.] He was 
the founder of the Stoics ; and taught, 
that though some things might be done 
to preserve life, (pro vita,) yet not every 
thing ; indeed, not any thing that was 
unbecoming or dishonest. 

108.^ Cantabrian.] The Vascons were 
a people of the Cantabrians, in the south- 
east of Spain. 

108, 9. Whence a Stoic.] How should 
such a barbarous and ignorant people 
know any thing about Zeno whence 
could a poor Vascon be made a Stoic ? 


Misfortunes, the dire want of a long siege. 
For the example of this food, which is now in question, ought 
To be lamented : as the nation, which I just now mentioned, 
After all herbs, after all animals, whatever 
The fury of an empty belly urged, (the very enemies them- 
selves 100 
Pitying their paleness, and leanness, and their slender limbs,) 
They tore for hunger the limbs of others, ready to have eaten 
Their own too. Who of men, or of the gods, would have 


To pardon forces that had suffered dire and cruel things, 
And whom the manes of those very people, whose bodies ios 
They were fed with, might forgive ? better us 
The precepts of Zeno admonish; he thinks not all things, some 
Are to be done for life. But a Cantabrian whence 
A Stoic especially in the age of old Metellus ? 
rso\\- the whole world has the Grecian, and our Athens: no 
Eloquent Gaul taught the British lawyers 
Thule now speaks of hiring a rhetorician. 
Yet that people whom we have spoken of were noble : and 

In valour and fidelity, but greater in slaughter, Saguntus, 

109. In the age of M Metettus.] Who Thule. Ainsworth calls it an island the 
lived before arts, sciences, and philoso- most remote in the northern parts, either 
phical knowledge, flourished as they do known to the Romans, or described by 
now. See L 93, note 1. the poets. 

110. Now the whole world ] Now The idea of such a remote and desolate 
learning and philosophy are every where part of the earth sending for a rhetorician 
extended, and Grecian as well as Roman to refine their speech, throws an air of 
letters disseminated. None, therefore, banter on what he has been saying, 
could now plead ignorance, and be ex- from 1. 107, about Zeno's precepts, &c. 
cusable on that account, as the poor Vas- as if, in such a case of necessity as that 
cons undoubtedly were. of the Vascons, precepts of learning and 

The Grecian, and our Athens.} The philosophy could countervail the calls 

Grecian Athens was the seat of learning of nature, sinking under the extremity of 

and philosophy, from whence the Ro- hunger. 

mans received them, and so cultivated 113. That people whom, fc.] The 

them, as to make Rome another Athens, Vascons. 

as it were. Were noble."] In their persevering 

111. Eloquent Gaul, fyc.~\ See sat. i. 1. and steady resistance, to the very last, 
44, note ; and sat vii. 147, 8. Some of in the defence of their besieged city, 
the Gallic orators came over to Britain, 113, 14. Equal in valour and fidelity, 
and taught eloquence. fyc."] Saguntus was a city of Spain beyond 

112. Thule.] To determine exactly, the river Ebro, a most faithful ally to the 
among so many different opinions as are Romans ; for when they had h olden out 
given about the part of the world here against Hannibal, and were almost 
meant by Thule, is not very easy : some famished, rather than submit, they chose 
say it means Iceland, others Schetland. to burn themselves, their wives, and 
It is certain that it was the farthest children, which was the cause of the 
northern part known to the Romans, second Punic war. Virtus here signifies 
VIRG. Georg. i. 1. 30, calls it ultima military courage. 




Tale quid excusat. Mseotide srevior ara 115 

jEgyptus : quippe ilia nefandi Taurica sacri 
Inventrix homines (ut jam, quse caraiina tradunt, 
Digna fide credas) tantum immolat : ulterius nil, 
Ant gravius cultro timet hostia. Quis modo casus 
Impulit hos? quse tanta fames, infestaque vallo 120 

Arma coegerunt tarn detestabile monstrum 
Audere ? anne aliam, terra Memphitide sicca, 
Invidiam facerent nolenti surgere Nilo ? 
Qua nee terribiles Cimbri, nee Britones unquam, 
Sauromatseque truces, aut immanes Aga thyrsi, 125 

Hac ssevit rabie imbelle et inutile vulgus, 

The Saguntines equalled the Vascons 
in the noble defence which they made, 
and exceeded them in the slaughter of 
themselves and families, rather than sub- 
mit to the enemy. 

115. Excuses, fc.] Such a thing as 
eating the flesh of dead men may stand 
excused, if excited by such distress as 
the Saguntines were in, especially when 
compared with the slaughter made 
upon themselves, and all that were 
dearest to them. 

Egypt is more cruel.] i. e. The Ten- 
tyrites, a people of Egypt, whose cruelty 
we have been relating. 

115, 16. Mceotk aitar.~] An altar near 
the lake Maeotis, sacred to Diana, where 
they sacrificed strangers which horrid 
cruelty continued till the coming of 
Pylades and Orestes. 

*il6. Tauric inventress."] Diana Taurica, 
so called from her being worshipped by 
the people of Taurica, where this altar 
was ; and therefore the poet calls her the 
inventress of these cruel rites, wherein 
strangers were sacrificed. 

Or Taurica may mean the country 
itself, which is called the inventress, &c. 
because Thoas, king of Chersonesus 
Taurica, was the inventor of this horrid 
barbarity. He was slain by Orestes, who 
went thither to fetch away his sister. 

117. What verses deliver."] You may, 
after the history which I have given you 
of the Tentyritcs, believe any thing that 
the poets have written on the subject of 
cruelty. He alludes to EURIP. Trag. 
Iphig. in Tauris. 

118. Nothing beyond."] Men are here 
killed in sacrifice, but nothing is further 
done, such as devouring their dead bodies, 
and the like : therefore the victim has 

nothing to fear, after having his throat 

120. Impelled these.] i. e. These Ten- 
tyrites what has driven them to such 
excess of barbarity ? what calamitous 
circumstances have happened to force 
them into such savageness ? 

So great hunffcr.] Can they plead 
the necessities of famine, like the be- 
sieged Vascons ? 

And arms.] The power of 
my's arms, to which they must either 
submit or die, like the Saguntines ? 

120. 1. Hostile to a rampart."] That 
are levelled at the rampart, or trench, 
which surrounds the besieged, witli a 
determination to destroy, and are calcu- 
lated for that purpose. 

121. Have compelled them.'] Like the 
poor people above spoken of. 

So detestable a monstrous tliingj] As 
to eat a dead human body, pick the very 
bones, and lick the blood from off the 

122. Other displeasure, <f-c.] The river 
Nile overflowed Egypt at a certain time 
of the year, and fertilized the country. 
If this did not happen, the Egyptians 
used to do some horrid act of cruelty, 
thinking thereby to provoke the river 
to overflow the country. This was taken 
from the example first set by Busiris, who 
slew a man in sacrifice ; but it was the 
very man himself who proposed the ex- 
pedient We have the story in OVID, 
de Art. Am. 

Imbribus, atque annos sicca fuisse 

Quum Thrasilm Busirin adti,monstmt- 

que piari 
Hospitis ejfuso sanguine posse Jorcin. 



Excuses something like this. Egypt is more cruel than 
the Maeotic 115 

Altar : for that Tauric inventress of a wicked 
Kite (as now you may believe what verses deliver, 
As worthy credit) only slays men : nothing beyond, 
Or more grievous, does the victim, fear, than a knife. But 

what calamity 

Impelled these ? what so great hunger, and arms hostile 120 
To a rampart, have compelled them, so detestable a mon- 
strous thing 

To attempt I could they have done other displeasure, the land 
Of Memphis being dry, to the Nile unwilling to rise ? 
With which neither the terrible Cimbri, nor the Britons ever, 
And the fierce Sauromatse, or the cruel Agathyrsi, 125 

With this fury the weak and useless vulgar raged, 

IUi Dasiris : fies Joins hostia primus, 
Inquit,vtJEgypto tu dabis hospes aquam. 
By this we see that an human sacrifice 
was offered to placate Jupiter ; this was 
the first intention, in order to obtain an 
overflowing of the Nile. In after-times 
the Egyptians lost sight of this, and ex- 
ercised acts of cruelty, thinking, by this, 
to irritate the Nile, and to make it over- 
flow the whole country. Solebant ac- 
colae immani quadam crudelitate ilium 
ad inundationem irritare. See MAR- 
SHALL, and BRITAN. in loc, 

Or did the miscreants try this conjuring 

In time of drought to make the Nik to 
swell 1 TATE. 

Having given the opinions of others 
on this passage, I now must give my 
own ; for doing acts of cruelty, in order 
to obtain a benefit from the river, which 
they might suppose to be already angry 
with them, from its withholding its water, 
appears to me very strange. 

I should think the poet's meaning to 
be, that these Egyptians, the Tentyrites, 
had, without any necessity compelling 
them to it, without any excuse to ex- 
tenuate their crime, been guilty of so 
monstrous a wickedness, that they could 
not have found out any other so likely 
to provoke the Nile to withhold its 
waters in a time of drought, and to 
bring a famine upon the country, by 
thus increasing the Nile's unwillingness 
to help them. 

So a late translator "What worse 

" impiety could they commit, to provoke 
" the Nile to stay within its banks when 
"the country of Egypt is chapt with 
" drought ? " 


By what fact 

Could they have more made their kind 
Nilrn slow 

To rise, and their parched Memphian 
land overflow ? 

122, 3. Land of Memphis.'] The city 
of Memphis (now Grand Cairo) was the 
grand metropolis of that part of Egypt, 
and therefore gave its name to it The 
Nile there divided, and intersected the 
land in various places, so as to resemble 
the form of a delta ; that part of Egypt 
was therefore called the Delta. 

124. GmbH.'] See sat viii. 1. 249, 
note. The poet calls them terribiles, 
not only from their hardy valour, but, 
probably, from the destruction and havoc 
which they had made of several of the 
Roman armies. 

Britons.] A hardy warlike people 
of Germany. Tacit 

125. Fierce Sauramata.'] See sat. ii. 
L 1, note. 

AgathyrsL'] A people of Sarmatia ; 
they were named after Agathyrsus, a 
son of Hercules. 

The poet means to say, that the Ten- 
tyrites raged with a fierceness and cruelty, 
with which these great, mighty, and 
warlike nations never did. 

126. Weak and useless vulgar.'] A con- 
temptible and worthless rabble. 



Parvula fictilibus solitum dare vela phaselis, 

Et brevibus pictse remis incumbere testse. 

Nee poenam sceleri invenies, nee digna parabis 

Supplicia his populis, in quorum mente pares sunt ] so 

Et similes ira alque fames. Mollissima corda 

Humaiio generi dare se natura fatetur, 

Quse lachrymas dedit : hsec nostri pars optima sensus. 

Plorare ergo jubet casum lugentis amici ; 

Squaloremque rei ; pupillum ad jura vocantem 135 

Circumscriptorem, cujus manantia fletu 

Ora puellares faciunt incerta capilli. 

Naturae imperio gemimus, cum funus adultae 

Virginis occurrit, vel terra clauditur infans, 

Et minor igne rogi. Quis enim bonus, aut face dignus uo 

Arcana, qualem Cereris vult esse sacerdos, 

Ulla alien a sibi credat mala ? Separat hoc nos 

127. Accustomed to spread, Sfc.] They 
made vessels of burnt clay, in which 
they sailed upon the Nile a fishing. 

128. The short oars, ,Sfc.] They painted 
their little earthen boats, by way of 
ornament,and rowed them with short oars. 

The poet mentions these circumstances 
of their boats, to shew the contemptible- 
ness and vanity of these Egyptians. 

129. Find a penalty, <Jc.] In short, the 
baseness and wickedness of the Tenty- 
rites exceed all power of finding any 
punishment or torture adequate to their 

130. In whose mind, $c.] They make 
no distinctions in their mind, between 
the necessity which has forced others to 
eat human flesh, and doing this them- 
selves from a mere principle of anger 
and malice. 

132. Nature confesses, <f-c.] From the 
evidence of what we feel within our- 
selves, we may gather, as from the con- 
fession of a fact the truth of it, that na- 
ture has furnished us with hearts suscep- 
tible of the tenderest feelings. 

1 33. Has given tears.] Those outward 
symptoms of sorrow and compassion, 
which are given to no other creature. 

This best part, #c.] Because by 
flowing in pity and commiseration, they 
bespeak the most amiable qualities of 
the mind. 

134. She commands, therefore, tyc.] To 
sympathize with our friends in their 

griefs may be called a dictate of nature. 
See Rom. xii. 15. 

1 35. Squalid appearance, fyc."] It was 
customary for persons arraigned in a 
court of judicature to appear in rags and 
dirtiness, in order to move the compas- 
sion of the judges. But as squalor sig- 
nifies sometimes, "the sorrowful and 
"mourning estate of those that are ar- 
"raigned or accused," this idea of the 
word may be here meant, at least inclu- 
sively. See AINSW. Squalor, No. 3. 

136. His defrauder, #e.] i. e. His guar- 
dian, who was left in trust with his per- 
son and estate during his minority, and 
has cheated and defrauded him. Cir- 
cumscriptor means cozener, a cheater, 
one that circumvents or over-reaches 

Girl-like hairs, #c.] The tenderness, 
youth, and innocence of the poor or- 
phan his air, like that of a girl, long 
and hanging loose, and dishevelled ; his 
smooth and delicate face, wet with the 
tears flowing from his eyes, and his ap- 
pearance altogether is such, as to ren- 
der it almost uncertain to the beholders 
of which sex the sufferer is, who is thus 
obliged to cite his iniquitous guardian 
into a court of justice, in order to obtain 
redress. See sat. x. 1. 222, note on 

138, 9. An adult virgin, fyc.] When 
we meet the funeral of a'beautiful young 
woman snatched away by the hand of 



Accustomed to spread little sails in earthen boats, 
And to ply the short oars of a painted earthen vessel. 
Nor can you find a penalty for the wickedness, nor prepare 
Punishments worthy these people, in whose mind equal 130 
And alike are hunger and anger. Most tender hearts 
Nature confesses herself to give to human kind, 
Who has given tears, this best part of our sense. 
She commands, therefore, to bewail the misfortune of a 

mourning friend ; 
And the squalid appearance of a criminal ; an orphan calling 

to the laws 135 

His defrauder, whose girl-like hairs make his 
Countenance, flowing with weeping, uncertain. 
By command of nature we groan, when the funeral of an 


Virgin occurs, or an infant is shut up in the earth, 
And less than the fire of the pile. For what good man, or 

worthy 140 

The secret torch, such as the priest of Ceres would have 

him to be, 
Thinks any evils alien from himself? This separates us 

death in all the bloom of youth, nature 
bids us mourn we can't resist its im- 

This circumstance, here introduced by 
our poet, reminds one of an exquisitely 
fine and tender passage on a like event. 
Hamlet, act v. sc. i. where the Queen 
says of the deceased Ophelia, who had 
been prematurely snatched away by 
death : 

[Scattering flowers. 

" Sweets, to thee sweet, farewell ! 

"I hop'd thou wovld?st have been my 

" Ifatnlefs wife ; 
" I thought thy bride-bed to have deck'd, 

" sweet maid, 

" And not t" have strew'd thy qrave. 
See TER. And. act i. sc. i. 1. 77109. 

139. An infant is shut up, <r.] The 
law forbad burning the bodies of infants 
that died before they had lived forty 
days or (according to some) before 
seven months old, when they had teeth. 
They used to bury them in a place 
which was called Suggrundarium. See 

140. Less than the fire, #c.] t. e. Too 
little to be burnt on a funeral pile. See 
the List note. 

140, 1. Mo/-% ///, .,;>< Mr//.] i. <. 

Worthy to be initiated into, or to be 
present at, the sacred rites, which were 
celebrated in honour of the goddess 

These rites were celebrated by night ; 
the worshippers carried lamps, or lighted 
torches, in their hands, in memory of 
Ceres, who, by fire-light, had sought 
after her daughter Proserpine, when 
she was stolen by Pluto out of Sicily. 
Ceres is febled to have lighted those 
fires, which have burned ever since, on 
the top of mount /Etna. 

141. Such as the priest of Ceres, Sfc.] 
None were admitted to the Eleusinian 
mysteries (for so the rites of Ceres were 
called, from Eleusis, a town in Attica, 
built by Triptolemus, who, being in- 
structed by Ceres, taught the people to 
sow corn) but those, who by the priest 
were pronounced chaste and good, free 
from any notorious crime. 

142. Thinks any evils, <5fc.] q. d. 
There is no real good man who can 
think himself unconcerned in the misfor- 
tunes of others, be they whjit they 
may ; his language will be like this in 
Terence : 

Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienvm 
putu. H EAUT, act i. sc. i. 1. 25. 



A grege brutorum, atque ideo venerabile soli 

Sortiti ingenium, divinorumque capaces, 

Atque exercendis capiendisque artibus apti, 145 

Sensum a coelesti demissum traximus arce, 

Cujus egent prona, et terram spectantia. Mundi 

Principio indulsit communis conditor illis 

Tantum animas ; nobis animum quoque, mutuus ut nos 

Affectus petere auxilium, et prsestare juberet, 150 

Disperses trahere in populum, migrare vetusto 

De nemore, et proavis habitatas linquere sylvas : 

_#Cdificare domes, Laribus conjungere nostris 

Tectum aliud, tutos vicino liinine somnos 

Ut collata daret fiducia : protegere armis 155 

Lapsum, aut ingenti nutantem vulnere civem ; 

Communi dare signa tuba, defendier isdem 

Turribus, atque una portarum clave teneri. 

142. This separates us, $c.] i. e. This 
distinguishes men from brutes, who know 
nothing of this. 

143. And therefore.] i. e. For this very 
end and purpose, that we may sympa- 
thize with others. 

144. A venerable disposition.] A dispo- 
sition and inclination to partake in 
others' sorrows, is deserving the highest 
esteem and reverence, and this has 
fallen to the lot of mankind alone. 

^Capable of divine things.] A capacity 
to apprehend divine things is the pro- 
perty of man alone. This is a very 
great truth ; but, alas ! how sad an use 
the wise men of this world made of this 
gloriously-distinguished faculty, may be 
seen, Rom. i. 21, 22, et seq. 

145. Apt for exercising, <<;.] The in- 
vention, understanding, and exercise of 
the arts, whether mechanical, or others, 
are also peculiar to man. 

146. We have drawv,.] Traximus i. e. 
we have derived, as we should say. 

Sense.] Moral sense, reason. 

Sent douii.] Demissum let down. 
Traximus demissum seems to be meta- 
phorical, taken from the idea of a cord, 
or chain, let down from on high, which 
a person below takes hold of, and draws 
down to himself. 

From the celestial top.] Arx sig- 
nifies the top, peak, or ridge of any thing, 
as of a rock, mountain, or hill ; also a 
palace, temple, or tower, often built on 
high. See sat. xiv. 1. 86 8. Hence 

heaven, or the residence of the gods, is 
called arx coeli. 

Nos tua progenies, cceli quibus annuls 
arcem. JEn. i. 254. 

147. Which.] i. e. Which moral sense. 
Prone things, S[c.] Beasts called 

prona, from their inclining, with the 
face stooping downward to the earth ; 
whereas man is erect, and looks upward. 
Here seems to be an imitation of OVID, 
Met. lib. i. 1. 847. 

Pronaque cum spectent animalia ctB- 
tera terram, 

Os homini sublime dedit ccdumquc. tueri 

Jussit, et erectos ad sidera toUere culr 

So Sallust. Omnes homines qui sese 
student prsestare caeteris animalibus, &c. 
quae natura prona, et ventri obedientia 
finxit. BelL Catil. ad init. 

148. The common builder, $c.] i. e. 
Common nature, for Juvenal ascended 
no higher the God of Nature he knew 
not Compare 1. 1324. See Acts 
xvii.23 9. 

To them.] i. e. To the brute crea- 

149. Only souls.] Animas, a principle 
of mere animal life ; which is called the 
spirit of a beast, Eccl. iii. 21. 

To us a mind also.] To us human 
beings nature has not only given a prin- 
ciple of animal life, but also a rational 
mind, by which we reflect, and judge, 
and reason. The anima, or soul, is that 
' by which we live ; the animus, or intel- 



From the herd of brutes, and therefore we alone having 


A venerable disposition, and being capable of divine things, 
And apt for exercising and understanding arts, 145 

Have drawn sense sent down from the celestial top, 
Which prone things, and things looking on the earth, want. 
The common builder of the world at the beginning indulged 

to them 

Only souls ; to us a mind also, that a mutual affection 
Might command us to seek, and to afford help : 150 

To draw the dispersed into a people, to migrate from the old 
Forest, and to leave woods inhabited by our ancestors : 
To build houses, to join to our habitations 
Another roof, that safe slumbers, by a neighbouring 
Threshold, a contributed confidence might give : to protect 

with arms 155 

A fallen citizen, or one staggering with a great wound : 
To give signs with a common trumpet, toj[>e defended with 

the same 
Towers, and to be secured by one key of the gates. 

lectnal mind, is that by which we are wise 
above the brutes. Sat. vi. 530, note. 

A mutual affection.] The end for 
which this intellectual mind is given us, 
so far as it relates to the purposes of 
society, is, to incline us to bestow, as well 
as to require, mutual good offices towards 
each other ; and therefore it disposes us 
to mutual affection. 

151. The dispersed, #e.] To collect 
men, who are naturally dispersed, and 
bring them together into society. 

To migrate, tye.] To depart from 
the woods and forests, the ancient abodes 
of the earliest ages, where men lived in 
common with the beasts, and to coalesce 
and unite in civil society. See sat. vi. 
L2 7. 

153. To build houses.'] For habitation, 
instead of living in dens and caves, like 

To Join, ifc.] To join our houses to 
one another, for the greater safety and 
convenience of the whole, against rob- 
bers, wild beasts, &c. 

155. Threshold.] Limine stands here, 
per syn. for the house itself. 

A contributed confidence.'] That by 
thus joining houses (the original of cities 
and towns) each might receive and im- 
part a confidential notion of safety, in 

the night-time particularly, when men 
sleep, and, of course, are mere exposed 
to dangers. 

To protect with arms, fyc.] To pro- 
tect in war, from the hands of the enemy, 
a fellow-citizen who had fallen, or was 
reeling with loss of blood from wounds. 

157. To gire signs, $c.] When on an 
expedition in time of war, to obey one 
common signal, given by the trumpet for 

158. Tovxrs.'] Tunis signifies a tower, 
or any thing like it ; so any fortified 

Secured by one key, $<] To be in- 
closed within the same walls, and locked 
up in security by the same key of the 

The poet, by what he has said, has 
shewn the great advantages of men above 
brutes, in having a rational mind, which 
can direct them to form societies, so that 
by mutual help and assistance, they can 
secure and protect each other. All this 
is agreeable to the dictates of their com- 
mon nature, and thus it ought to IK; ; but 
such is the corruption and depravity of 
mankind, that, as the poet proceeds to 
shew, there is little of this to be found ; 
on the contrary, leasts arc not so cruel 
to their own species as men are. 



Sed jam serpentum major concordia : parcit 

Cognatis maculis similis fera. Quando leoni 160 

Fortior eripuit vitam leo ? quo nemore unquam 

Expiravit aper majoris dentibus apri 2 

Indica tigris agit rabida cum tigride pacem 

Perpetuam : ssevis inter se convenit ursis. 

Ast homini ferrum lethale incude nefanda 165 

Produxisse parum est ; cum rastra et sarcula tantum 

Assueti coquere, et marris ac vomere lassi 

Nescierint primi gladios excudere fabri. 

Aspicimus populos, quorum non sufficit irse 

Occidisse aliquem ; sed pectora, brachia, vultum 

Crediderint genus esse cibi. Quid diceret ergo, 

Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc haec monstra videret 

Pythagoras? cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui 

Tanquam homine, et ventri indulsit uon omne legumen. 


159. Concord of serpents, fyc.] These 
venomous creatures do not hurt their own 
species ; they agree better than men now 
do with each other. 

160. Spares his kindred spots.'] The 
leopard recognizes the leopard, and 
avoids hurting him, whom he sees, by his 
spots, to be related to the same species 
with himself. 

165. But, fyc.'\ The poet having, in 
several instances, shewn the harmony 
and agreement which subsist among the 
most fierce and savage beasts, now pro- 
ceeds to apply this to his main argument 
in this place, which is to prove, that 
the concord between these creatures is 
greater than is to be found among the 
human race towards each other ; and in- 
deed, that man towards man is now so 
savage, as to fabricate weapons for their 
mutual destruction, and this without any 
remorse or concern. 

166. To have produced, $c.] Lit. to 
have lengthened out deadly iron, &c. i. e. 
by drawing it out, with hammering it on 
the anvil, into the length of a sword, a 
deadly weapon, and most fatal: the poet 
therefore calls the anvil on which it is 
made impious, as being instrumental to 

the forming of this mischievous weapon. 

7s little.] Is to be looked upon as a 
trifle, in comparison of what mankind are 
now capable of. Seel. 161 71. 

Whereas.] Cum although, albeit. 

Being accustomed, $c.] The first 
smiths set up their trade only to forge 
instruments of husbandry, and made 
nothing else. Coquere signifies, here, 
to heat in the fire. AINSW. 

167. Tired with mattocks, <Sfc.] They 
wearied themselves daily in making hoes 
or mattocks, or ploughshares, for tillage. 

168. Knew not how, $fe.] So far from 
hammering iron into swords, they did not 
even know how to set about it. 

169. We see people, $c.] Meaning the 
savage Tentyrites before mentioned, who 
ate human flesh, and looked upon it as a 
species of ordinary food. 

172. Pythagoras.] The famous philoso- 
pher, who left his country Samos, then 
under the tyrant Polycrates, and tra- 
velled over India, through Egypt, in 
search of knowledge. He forbad the eat- 
ing of animals on account of the trans- 
migration of souls ; he would not allow 
himself to eat all sorts of vegetables, but 
abstained from beans, which he is sup- 


But now the concord of serpents is greater : a similar 
Beast spares his kindred spots. When, from a lion, ieo 
Did a stronger lion take away life ? in what forest ever, 
Did a boar expire by the teeth of a larger boar ? 
The Indian tyger observes a perpetual peace with a fierce 
Tyger : there is agreement with savage bears among them- 

But for a man the deadly sword from the impious anvil 165 
To have produced is little ; whereas, being accustomed only 

to heat 

Rakes and spades, and tired with mattocks and the plough- 

The first smiths knew not how to beat out swords. 
We see people, to whose anger it does not suffice 
To have killed any one ; but the breasts, the arms, the face,i7o 
They believed to be a kind of food. What therefore would 

he have said, 
Or whither would he not have fled, if now Pythagoras could 

have seen 
These monstrous things I who abstained from all animals, 

as from 
A man, and did not indulge every kind of pulse to his belly. 

posed to have learnt from the Egyptian note 1 4, on this Satire. See also ANT. 
priests, when he was in that country, Univ. Hist vol. i. p. 53. 
who abstained from beans, and thought According to the story of his life, writ- 
it unlawful to sow or look upon them, ten by Jamblichus, we may suppose that 
HERODOT. Euterpe. neither Pythagoras, nor any of his fol- 
What, says the poet^ would Pythagoras lowers, would ever reveal the cause of 
have said, if he had seen these Egyp- abstinence from beans. It seems that 
tians, these Tentyrites, tearing and de- Dionysius the tyrant, the younger, de- 
vouring human flesh ? to what part of siring to know the secret, caused two 
the earth would not he have flown, to Pythagoreans to be brought before him, 
have avoided such a sight ? who, so far a man and his wife, who being asked, 
from holding it lawful to eat human flesh, " why the Pythagoreans would not eat 
would not eat the flesh of any animal " beans ? " " I will sooner die (said the 
any more than he would have eaten the " man) than reveal it." This, though 
flesh of a man, nor would he indulge his threatened with tortures, he persisted in, 
appetite with every kind of vegetable. and wtis, with indignation, sent away. 
The reason of this strange piece of The wife was then called upon, and being 
superstition, of abstinence from beans, is asked the same question, and threatened 
not known ; many causes have been also with tortures, she, rather than reveal 
assigned for it, which are full as absurd it, bit out her tongue, and spit it in the 
as the thing itself. The reader may tyrant's face. Of Pythagoras, see Ovid, 
find many of these collected in Holyday, Met. lib. xv. L 60, et seq. 



commanded in Egypt, (see sat. xv. 1. 45, note 2.) , he sets 
forth, ironically, the advantages and privileges of the soldiery, 
and how happy they are beyond others whom he mentions. 
Many have thought that this Satire was not written by Juvenal; 
but I think that the weight of evidence seems against that 

Quis numerare queat felicis prsemia, Galle, 

Militias ? nam si subeantur prospera castra, 

Me pavidum excipiat tyronem porta secundo 

Sidere : plus etenim fati valet hora benigni, 

Quam si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti, 5 

Et Samia geuitrix quse delectatur arena. 

Commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum 
Haud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus 

Line 1. Gattus.] Who this was does I have rendered the Nam si, as marking 

not appear ; some friend, doubtless, of the transition to the poet's wish for him- 

JuvenaX to whom he addresses this Sa- self. See AINSW. Nam, No. 5, 6 ; and 

tire. Si, No. 2. 

Can number, fyc.] *'. e. Can reckon Prosperous camps, ffc.] Where peo- 

up the advantages and emoluments pie make their fortunes, 
arising from a military life ? 3. Let the door.] Let my first entrance 

2. Now since.] The subject of the Sa- be attended with the good omen of some 

tire is proposed, 1. 1, though not entered favourable star. It was a great notion 

upon till 1.7. The intermediate lines, be- among the Romans, that their good or 

ginning at Nam si, &c. L 2, to the end ill fortune depended on the situation of 

of 1. 6, are digressional, and humorously the stars, at certain times, and on 

introduce the poet, now eighty years old, certain occasions. Sat. vii. 1. 194, 

and forced into the service as a punish- note. 

ment, wishing to enter into the army with A fearful beginner.] Tyro signifies a 

a lucky planet, as a soldier of fortune : fresh-water soldier, a young beginner, a 

the cheerfulness with which he seems to novice ; these are usually fearful at first, 

bear his misfortune must have afforded being unused to the fatigues and hazards 

no small disappointment to his enemies, of war. 



opinion, and that there are many passages so exactly in the 
style of Juvenal, as to afford the strongest internal evidence 
that it was written by him. It may be granted not to be a 
finished piece, like the rest; but if we only regard it as a 
draught or design of a larger work, it is a valuable hint on 
the oppression and inconveniences of a military government. 

WHO, O Gallus, can number the advantages of the happy 
Soldiery ? now since prosperous camps may be gone into, 
Let the door receive me, a fearful beginner, with a favourable 
Star : for an hour of kind fate avails more, 
Thau if an epistle of Venus were to commend us to Mars, 5 
And the mother who delights in the Saiman sand. 

Let us first treat common advantages : of which that will 
Hardly be the least, that a gownsman to strike you 

It is to be remembered, that Juvenal, another from his mother Juno, here 

who had passed his life in the study of meant by genitrix. The poet, in this 

letters, and in writing, was sent away place, is again sneering at the mythology 

from Rome into Egypt, under pretence of his country. Comp. sat. xiii. L 

of giving him a military command, but 40 7. 

indeed to exile him, for having satirized 6. DcliyJtts in the Samian sand.] Juno 

Paris the player, a minion of Domitian. was worshipped at Samos, a sandy island 

See sat. vii. 1. 9'2,note. This was in a very in the Icarian sea, where she was edu- 

advanced stage of our poet's life ; there- cated and married to Jupiter ; she was 

fore, though an old man, he might pro- said to have a great delight in this island, 

perly call himself a young soldier, un- See JEn. i. 1. 19, 20. 

skilled and fearful. 7. I* 't us first treatcommon adwintages.'] 

4. ' An hour of kind fute, fyc.~\ One The poet now enters on his subject ; and 

lucky hour under the influence of some begins, first, with those privileges of the 

friendly planet See Hon. lib. ii. ode military, which are common to all of 

xvii. 1. 1 7, et seq. them, from the highest to the lowest 

5. Epiftli- <>f \'< iiiia^ <$<.] Than if Ve- 8. A (townsman.] Any common Ro- 

nus, the mistress of the god of war, were man, called togatus from wearing a 

to write him a recommendatory letter in gown ; as a soldier is called annatus, from 

my favour, and this to be seconded by wearing anus 1. 34, post 



Audeat : immo etsi pulsetur, dissimilet, nee 

Audeat excussos prsetori ostendere denies, 

Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus offam, 

Atque oculos medico nil promittente relictos. 

Bardiacus judex datur haec punire volenti, 

Calceus et'grandes magua ad subsellia surae, 

Legibus antiquis castrorum, et more Camilli 

Servato, miles ne vallum litiget extra, 

Et procul a signis. Justissima Centurionum 

Cognitio est igitur de milite ; nee mihi deerit 

TJltio, si justse defertur causa querela3 : 

Tota oohors tamen est inimica, omnesque manipli 

Consensu magno officiunt. Curabitis ut sit 

Vindicta et gravior quam injuria. Dignum erit ergo 

Declamatoris Mutinensis corde Vagelli, 

9. May not dare.~\ No common man 
dare strike you if you are a soldier. 
77w' he.] Though he should be ever 

Let him dissemble.~\ Let him conceal 
it; let him counterfeit, and pretend, 
that he came by the marks, which the 
soldier's blows have left, some other 

10. Nor dare to shew, $c.] Though the 
soldier has knocked the man's teeth out 
of his head, yet let not the man dare to 
complain to the superior officer, or shew 
his mangled mouth. 

PrtetorJ] The praetor militaris was 
the general, or commander-in-chief. See 
AINSW. Praetor. 

11. Black bump^c] His face beat 
black and blue, as we say, and full of 
lumps and swellings. 

12. And eyes left, Sfc.] His eyes left 
in such a condition, as to make it im- 
possible for the surgeon to promise a re- 
covery of them. 

13. A Bardiac judge.~\ Bardiacus, or 
Bardaicus, a military judge, something 
like our judge-advocate in the army, who 
had the sole cognizance of all military 
causes, and of such as arose within the 
camp : so called from bardi, an ancient 
people of Gaul, who wore a particular 
sort of dress, that was adopted by the 
Romans, and used by the military. This 
judge, being of the army, wore this 
dress, and therefore is called Bardiacus, 
which signifies, of the country of Gaul, 
or dressed like Gauls. AINSW. 

Willing to punish, $c.] If a man 
will venture to complain, he will be re- 
ferred to the tribunal of the military 

14. A shoe, <5fc.] Calceus signifies any 
shoe, but probably means here a parti- 
cular shoe worn by soldiers, which, like 
those of our rustics, was filled with nails 
at the bottom. See sat. iii. 247, 8, 

Large buskins.] These seem to have 
been the upper parts of the caligse, as 
the lower were the calcei, or shoes ; for 
the caliga being a sort of harness for the 
foot and leg, the lower part, or calceus, 
covered the foot, the upper part, or su- 
ra, reached up to the calf of the leg : 
they were like our half boots, and in the 
front had the figure of a lion, or some 
fierce beast. 

At the great benches.'] The benches 
on which the superior magistrates sat 
were called tribunalia, those on which 
the lower magistrates sat were called 
subsellia ; so that the epithet magna, 
here, is probably ironical. 

The poet means, that the complainant 
is referred to a military judge, who takes 
his seat on the bench in his military 

15. Laws ofcamps.~\ These complaints 
were not tried by the civil laws and in- 
stitutionSj but by the old military laws. 

The custom of Camillus.~] L. Furius 
Ciimillus, during the ten years' siege of 
Veii, a city of Tuscciny, famous for the 
slaughter of the Fabii there, made a law. 



May not dare. Even tho" 1 he may be stricken, let him dis- 

Nor dare to shew his teeth beat out to the prsetor, 10 

And a black bump in his face with swelled bluenesses, 
And eyes left, the physician promising nothing. 
A Bardiac judge is given to one willing to punish these 


A shoe, and large buskins at the great benches, 
The ancient laws of camps, and the custom of Camillus u 
Being observed, that a soldier should not litigate without 

the trench, 

And far from the standards. Most just is therefore the trial 
Of centurions concerning a soldier ; nor will revenge 
Be wanting to me, if a cause of just complaint be brought: 
Yet the whole cohort is inimical, and all the companies 20 
Obstruct with great consent. You will take care, that there be 
Vengeance, heavier than the injury. It will, therefore, be 

The heart of the declaimer Vagellius of Mutina, 

that no soldier should be impleaded with- 
out the camp, or at a distance from the 
standard, that he might always be on 
the spot in case of an engagement : so 
that if a man received an injury, as in 
the case above put, from a soldier, he 
could prosecute him no where but be- 
fore the military judge, and that by the 
martial law. 

17. Most just is therefore, tyc.] The 
igitur, here, relates to what the poet men- 
tions in the preceding lines, concerning 
the trial of a soldier, which was ordained 
to be before a military tribunal ; no other 
had cognizance of the cause where a 
soldier was a party. Now as this was 
ordained by law, and to prevent the 
military from being absent at a distance 
from the camp, in case of a sudden attack 
from an enemy, and, for this reason, must 
be for the public good and safety, it must 
be deemed highly proper and just. 

1 8. A r or trill revenge, $fe.] q. d. Though 
a centurion be judge, yet were I, sup- 
posing myself a common person, who 
prosecute a soldier on good and reason- 
able grounds, really to make out my 
cause to be true and just, I shall have 
sentence in my favour, and, as far as the 
judge is concerned, I shall be avenged 
of my adversary ; but notwithstanding 

20. The whole cohort.] The whole 

regiment, as it were, will be against the 
man who complains against a soldier. 

All the companies.] Manipli, for 
manipuli, of which there were ten in a 
regiment, and answer to our companies 
of foot Here may be meant all the 
common soldiers. 

Manipulus was a small band of sol- 
diers, which, in the days of Romulus, 
when the Roman army was but in a 
poor condition, tied an handful of hay 
or grass to the top of a spear, and car- 
ried it by way of ensign. We have 
adopted this term, and often call a small 
detachment of soldiers an handful of 

21. Obstruct.] i. e. The course of jus- 

With great consent.} With the most 
hearty and earnest united opposition ; 
so that, if you should have the centurion, 
who tries the cause, on your side, his 
sentence can't be carried into execution 
for fear of a mutiny, the soldiers band- 
ing together as one man to oppose it. 

You it-ill take care, <fc.] You soldiers 
(tota cohors omnesque manipli) will 
take care, that vengeance, even heavier 
than the injury complained of, shall 
await the plaintiff, and that he shall find 
the remedy worse than the disease. 
Comp. 1. 24, and note. 

23. The heart of VatKllnis^c.] There- 



Cum duo crura habeas, offendere tot ealigatos, 

Millia clavorum. Quis tarn procul absit ab urbe \ 25 

Prseterea, quis tarn Pylades, molem aggeris ultra 

Ut veniat ? lachrymse siccentur protinus, et se 

Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos. 

Da testem, judex cum dixerit : audeat ille 

Nescio quis, pugnos qui vidit dicere, vidi ; so 

Et credam dignum barba, dignumque capillis 

Majorum : citius falsum producere testem 

Contra paganum possis, quam vera loquentem 

Contra fortunam armati, contraque pudorem. 

Prsemia nunc alia, atque alia emolumenta notemus 35 
Sacramentorum. Convallem ruris aviti 
Improbus, aut campum mihi si vicinus ademit ; 
Aut sacrum effodit medio de limite saxum, 
Quod mea cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo, 

fore the man who could affront a soldier, 
or sue him for an injury, and attempt to 
plead his cause against him, must have 
the resolution and impudence of that 
brawling lawyer of Mutina (hod. Mo- 
dena), who, for a fee, would undertake 
the most dangerous and desperate 

24. Since you have two legs.'] (Which 
are now safe and sound) to be objects of 
mischief to the soldiers, who will kick 
your shins with their clouted shoes, and 
break them. 

Common soldiers.] Caligatos having 
the caliga on their feet and legs stuck 
full of nails and spikes, hence called ca- 
ligati. See sat. iii. 22248, and notes. 

25. Thousands of nails."] Each soldier 
having a great number. 

So far from the city.'] Who can be 
so foolish and ignorant, so unacquainted 
with the ways of the world, and espe- 
cially with the manners of the soldiery, 
as to venture upon any quarrel with a 
soldier ? Quis tarn procul absit ab urbe ? 
q. d. Who can be so ignorant of the 
world ! 

The expression seems proverbial : the 
people in a town, or great city, as Rome 
was, must be supposed to know mankind 
better than rustics, who live in the coun- 
try, and are usually raw and ignorant ; 
hence called inurbani, rude, simple, 

So the Greeks used the word ooTejos, 
(from air-ru, a city, particularly Athens,) 

to denote a sharp man, well acquainted 
with the ways of the world ; answering, 
in great measure, to the English word 
politic, which is from the Latin politicus, 
and this from Gr. TTO\IS, a city. 

26. So much a Pylades.'] So much like 
Pylades ; alluding to Pylades, the friend 
of Orestes, who underwent all dangers 
with him and for him, and even exposed 
his life for him, when he went to Taurica 
to expiate his crimes at the altar of 
Diana Taurica. See EURIP. Iphigen. in 

Whom, beside all I have been saying 
of your own personal dangers from the 
soldiery, could you find such a friend, 
as to expose his safety for your sake, and 
enter within the camp to plead your 
cause, or to take your part ? 

Mole of the rampart.] The Romans 
used to surround their encampments with 
vast heaps or banks of earth, thrown up 
by way of rampart. The mass of earth 
which formed this might properly be 
called moles aggeris. A person could not 
get into the camp without first passing 
this. Who would, says the poet, ven- 
ture beyond this for your sake ? 

27. Let tears, #c.] Cease to implore 
with tears your friends to help you. 

28. About to excuse themselves.] For- 
bear to solicit your friends, who, instead 
of complying with such a request, will 
find a thousand excuses for not comply- 
ing with your solicitations. 

29. When the judge say*, tye.] But 



Since you have two legs, to offend so many common soldiers, 
Thousands of nails. Who can be so far from the city ? 25 
Besides, who is so much a Pylades, beyond the mole of the 

That he would come \ let tears immediately be dried up, 

and let us 

Not solicit friends about to excuse themselves. 
When the judge says " Give evidence :" let him dare, 
(I know not who,) who saw the blows, say " I saw," 30 
And I will believe him worthy the beard, and worthy the locks; 
Of our ancestors ; you might sooner produce a false witness 
Against a villager, than one speaking what is true 
Against the fortune of a soldier, and against his reputation. 
Now other advantages, and other emoluments, let us note, 3.5 
Of oaths. A vale of my ancestral estate, 
Or a field, if a wicked neighbour has taken away from me ; 
Or hath dug up the sacred stone from the middle border, 
Which my annual puls hath reverM with an old cake : 

suppose you could prevail on a friend to 
go with you, to be a witness for you in 
the cause, who saw you beaten by the 
soldier, and suppose the judge calls on 
the cause, and bids you produce your 
evidence ; let any man, (I know not 
who I name nobody,) but let me see 
the man who dares to swear publicly 
in the court that he saw the blows given 

31. Worthy tl* beard,' ^c.] I will al- 
low him to be a man of primitive virtue, 
fidelity, and courage : such as resided in 
our great ancestors, who knew not our 
modern effeminacy ; they neither shaved 
their beards, nor cut their hair. 

3'2. You miyltt sooner produce, fyc.] 
Paganus literally signifies one in, or of, 
the country, or country village ; here it 
is used in contradistinction to a soldier. 
It is more easy to bring a false accusa- 
tion, and support it by false testimony, 
;n;:iiii~.t such a one, than to bring a true 
accusation, and to support it by true tes- 
timony, against either the property or 
honour of a soldier armati. See ante, 
1. 8, note. 

36. Of oaths.] When soldiers were 
enlisted, they took an oath of allegiance 
and fidelity to the emperor, to their 
country, and to their general. 

Now, says Juvenal, let us consider 
some farther privileges of taking the 
oaths as a soldier, and, by this, bejng 
enrolled in the army. 

A vale."] Convallis signifies a vale 
or valley, enclosed on both sides with 
hills, commonly the most fruitful part ot 
an estate. See Ps. Ixv. 13. 

My ancestral estate.'] My family- 
estate, descended to me from my an- 
cestors. He speaks as a common per- 

37. Or afield.'} Some other favourite 

If a wicked neighbour hath by violence 
entered and disseised me of these. 

38. Hath dug up, $c.] If he hath re- 
moved my boundary. 

The stones which were set up for 
boundaries were held sacred ; they 
adorned them with chaplets, and every 
year offered to the god Terminus, on the 
top of the boundary stones, sacrifices of 
honey, meal, and oil, made into cakes. 
This composition was called puls. See 
Ai.\s\v. And the cakes, liba. See ib. 

Middle border.'] i. c. Which stood 
on the line between my estate and my 
neighbour's. It was always reckoned a 
grievous offence to remove a land-mark ; 
it was expressly forbidden in the divine 
law, Deut xxvii. 17. 

39. An old cake.'] This institution of a 
yearly sacrifice to the god Terminus, the 
god of boundaries, was as old as the 
days of Numa Pompilius, the successor 
of Romulus. 



Debitor aut sumptos pergit non reddere nummos, 40 

Vana supervacui clicens chirographa ligni ; 

Expectandus erit, qui lites inchoet, annus 

Totius populi : sed tune quoque mille ferenda 

Tsedia, mille morse ; toties subsellia tantum 

Sternuntur ; jam facuudo ponente lacernas 45 

Caeditio, et Fusco jam micturiente, parati 

Digredimur, lentaque fori pugnamus arena. 

Ast illis, quos arma tegunt, et balteus ambit, 

Quod placitum est, illis prsestatur tempus ageudi, 

Nee res atteritur longo sufflamine litis. .->o 

Solis prseterea testandi militibus jus 
Vivo patre datur : nam quse sunt parta labore 
Militia?, placuit non esse in corpore census, 
Omne tenet cujus regimen pater. Ergo Coranum 
Signorum comitem, castrorumque sera merentem, 5.5 

Quamvis jam tremulus captat pater. Hunc labor aequus 

40. A debtor goes on, $c.] A man that 
has borrowed a sum of money continues 
to refuse the payment. 

41. Saying the hand-writings, <Sff.] De- 
nying the validity of his bond. See 
sat. xiii. 137, note. 

42. The year, <Jc.] There were judges, 
or commissioners, chosen to hear certain 
civil causes among the people, of whom 
every tribe had three : there being 
thirty-five tribes in Rome, there were, 
of course, one hundred and five judges, 
though named centumviri, from the 
greatest number. 

By the year (annus) here, we are to 
understand a certain time of the year, 
when the judges sat to try causes ; what 
we should call term-time. Annus pro- 
perly signifies a circle, whence annulus, 
a ring. Being applied to time, it de- 
notes the annual progress of the sun 
through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, 
which we call a year ; but it may also 
denote the revolution of any certain 

Of tJie whole people.] Totius populi 
i. e. when the courts were open to 
the people at large, that they might get 
their causes heard and decided. 

Begin suits."] The time of year when 
the centumviri will open their commis- 
sion, and begin to try causes, must be 
waited for this may occasion much 

43. 4. Fatigues delays.} When the 
term is begun, and the cause is ready 
for hearing, there is no end of the delays, 
and of the uneasiness which these oc- 
casion. Tedium signifies irksomeness, 

44. So often the bcncltes, fy.] It so 
often happens that the seats are pre- 
pared for the judges, and they don't 
attend. Sternuntur may here signify 
the spreading of the benches for the 
judges with cushions, or the like. See 
AINSW. Subsellium, No. 2. 

45. Laying by his garments.] Lacerna 
signifies a cloak, a riding coat, and va- 
rious other species of garments ; but 
here, the robes or dress of the judges. 
One judge, says the poet, lays by his 
garments ; meaning, perhaps, that he 
goes out of court to do this, complaining 
that he can't bear the heat. Of Caedi- 
tius, see sat. xiii. 197, note. 

46. Fuscus, $fc.] Aurelius Fuscus, 
noted by Martial as a very drunken 
fellow. He is always going out of court 
to get rid of his liquor. 

Prepared.] That is, for the hearing. 

47. We depart.] By the strange avo- 
cations of the judges for different pur- 
poses, the day passes without the cause 
being tried, and the parties are forced 
to go away as they came. 

The slow sand, ifc.] A metaphor, 
taken from gladiators. See sat. ii. 143, 




Or a debtor goes on not to render money taken, 40 

Saying the hand-writings of the useless wood are void ; 
The year of the whole people, which will begin suits, 
Will be to be waited for : but then also a thousand fatigues 
Are to be borne, a thousand delays ; so often the benches 

are only 

Spread. Now eloquent Caeditius laying by his garments, 45 
And Fuscus now making water, prepared 
We depart, and fight in the slow sand of the forum. 
But to them, whom arms cover, and a belt goes round, 
What time of trial they please, to them is afforded : 
Nor is the affair worn out by a long impediment of the cause. 
Moreover, a right of making a will is given to soldiers 
alone, 51 

The father living. For what things are gotten by the labour 
Of warfare, it was thought good should not be in the body 

of the estate, 

The whole government of which the father possesses. There- 
fore, Coranus, 

An attendant of banners, and earning the money of camps, 
His father, tho 1 trembling, besets. Just labour 56 

note 2, ad fin. lenta arena for! for 
arena lenti fori. HypalL q. d. We, 
the litigating parties, carry on our con- 
tention in a slow dilatory manner, see- 
ing no end of the vexation and delay of 
the court 

48. Whom arms cover, $c.] q. d. But 
as for the soldiery, they meet with none 
of these disappointments they may 
bring on their cause when they please. 

50. Nor is Hie affair worn, ^c.] Their 
cause is not delayed from time to time, 
till the matter grows stale, and wears 
away by length of procrastination. Or 
res here may signify estate, goods, for- 
tune ; and we may explain the poet to 
mean, that they are not ruined in their 
fortunes, as others are, by the expences 
of dilatory proceedings, by long and 
vexatious delays. 

Long impediment.'} Sufflamine. Me- 
taph. See sat viii. 1. 148, note. 

51. A trill, ifc.~] By the laws of Rome, 
a son, during the life of his father, could 
not dispose of his effects by will Sol- 
diers were excepted, so that their last 
wills were valid, though made during 
the fathers life, and though they even 
excluded the fathers from any share of 
their effects which they bequeathed : 

vol.. n. 

but this related only to what they got 
by their military services. This was 
called peculium castrense. 

53. Was thought good, $c.] Placuit 
it pleased the legislature to ordain, that 
what was gotten by the toils of war, 
should not be looked .on as a part of, or 
incorporated with, their private fortune, 
over the whole of which the father had 
a power, so that they could not dispose 
of it by will in his life-time. 

54. Coranus.~\ Some valiant soldier, who 
had made a large fortune in the wars. 

55. An attendant of banners.} Who 
had followed and fought under the Ro- 
man banners. 

Earning the money of camps.~\ Re- 
ceiving his pay, and sharing the booty 
when enemies were defeated and plun- 

56. His father, tho" 1 trembling.'] An old 
man trembling with age, and not long 
for this world. 

Besets.} Captat wheedles him, in 
hopes of being his heir. See sat x. 1. 
202, and note. 

Just labour, &.] A diligent and 
faithful discharge of his duty as a sol- 
dier, has advanced this man to affluence 
and nink. 




Provehit, et pulchro reddit sua dona labori. 
Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur, 
Ut qui fortis erit, sit felicissimus idem ; 
Ut laeti phaleris omnes, et torquibus omnes. 

57. And renders, <Sfe.] And has amply 
rewarded all the glorious pains which he 
has taken in the service of his country. 

58. This certainly, <?fc.] q. d. It should 
certainly be the principal study of a 
general to promote and reward the 
brave ; and that they who render the 
greatest services to their country by their 
valour, should be most happy. See 
Amsw. Refero, No. 5. 

Referre ipsius ducis is of difficult con- 
struction, but seems equivalent to referre 
ad ipsum ducem. 

For "'tis a noble general's prudent part, 

To cherish valour and reward desert. 


60. Should be glad, Sfe.] Should re- 
joice in being distinguished by military 

Trappings.] Phalaras-arum some 
ornaments worn by men of arms, who 
had distinguished themselves. 

Collars.] Or chains of gold, worn 
about the necks of those whose valour 
and services in the army had rendered 
them worthy of military honours. 

q. d. It should be the peculiar care of 
the general, that all who have distin- 
guished themselves by their sen-ices 
under him should be made happy, by 
bearing those military honours about 
them, which are the rewards of military 




Promotes this man, and renders its rewards to his glorious 


This certainly seems to be a concern of the general himself, 
That he who shall be brave, the same may be most happy, 
That all should be glad with trappings, and all with collars, eo 

valour, and which tend to its encourage- 
ment. Quis enim virtutem amplectitur 
ipsam praumia si toilas ? See sat. x. 1. 
141, 2. 

Having now finished my task, as for 
as JUVENAL is concerned, I have to la- 
ment, that it has not been in my power 
to represent this great poet in all the 
beauty and excellence of his compo- 
sition ; these can only be known to men 
of letters, who can read and understand 
him in the original. If the homely 
dress, in which he must necessarily ap- 
pear in a literal translation, shall be 
found to have its use in leading my 
readers to a correct interpretation of the 

Latin, I may venture to suppose that I 
have done all that can be expected from 
it ; taste and genius must do the rest ; 
these alone can assimilate' the imagina- 
tion to that of the poet, so as to enable 
the reader to enter fully into the pro- 
priety, elegance, and beauty of his lan- 
guage ; as a real inclination to what is 
right and commendable can alone dit- 
pose us to embrace that system of vir- 
tuous conduct, which is so highly com- 
mended, and to shun, with indignation 
and abhorrence, that system of vice and 
profligacy, so strongly delineated, and 
so severely reprobated in the preceding 





Mordaci radcre vero. 

Sat L 1. 107. 


AULUS PERSIUS FLACCUS was born at Volateroe, in 
Etruria (now Tuscany), about the twentieth year of the 
emperor Tiberius, that is to say, about two years after the 
death of Christ. Flaccus, his father, was a Roman knight, 
whom he lost when he was but six years of age. His 
mother, Fulvia Sisennia, afterward married one Fusius, a 
Roman knight, and within a few years buried him also. Our 
poet studied, till the age of twelve years, at Volaterrae ; he 
then came to Rome, where he put himself under the in- 
struction of Remmius Paleemon, a grammarian, and Vir- 
ginius Flaccus, a rhetorician ; to each of which he paid the 
highest attention. At sixteen he made a friendship with 
Annaeus Cornutus, (by country an African, by profession 
a Stoic philosopher,) from whom he got an insight into the 
Stoic philosophy. By means of Cornutus he became ac- 
quainted with Annseus Lucanus, who so admired the writ- 
ings of Persius, that on hearing him read his verses, he 
could scarcely refrain from crying out publicly, that " they 
were absolute poems." 

He was a young man of gentle manners, of great modesty, 
and of remarkable sobriety and frugality : dutiful and af- 
fectionate towards his mother, loving and kind to his sisters : 
a most strenuous friend and defender of virtue an irrecon- 
cileable enemy to vice in all its shapes, as may appear from 
his Satires, which came from his masterly pen in an early 
time of life, when dissipation, lewdness, and extravagance 
were cultivated and followed by so many of his age, and 
when, instead of making them his associates, he made them 
the objects of his severest animadversion. 


He died of a disorder in his stomach about the thirtieth 
year of his age, and left behind him a large fortune ; the 
bulk of which he bequeathed to his mother and sisters; 
leaving an handsome legacy to his friend and instructor 
Cornutus, together with his study of books: Cornutus 
only accepted the books, and gave the money, which Persius 
had left him, to the surviving sisters of Persius. 

Some have supposed, that Persius studied obscurity in 
his Satires, and that to this we owe the difficulty of un- 
ravelling his meaning ; that he did this, that he might with 
the greater safety attack and expose the vicious of his day, 
and particularly the emperor Nero, at whom some of his 
keenest shafts were aimed : however this may be, I have 
endeavoured to avail myself of the explanations which the 
learned have given, in order to facilitate the forming of my 
own judgment, which, whether coincident with theirs or 
not, I have freely set down in the following notes, in order 
that my readers may the more easily form theirs. 

As to the comparisons which have been made between 
Horace, Persius, and Juvenal, (the former of which is so 
often imitated by Persius,) I would refer the reader to Mr. 
Dryden's Dedication to the Earl of Dorset, which is prefixed 
to the translation of Juvenal and Persius, by himself and 
others, and where this matter is very fully considered. For 
my own part, I think it best to allow each his particular 
merit, and to avoid the invidious and disagreeable task of 
making comparisons, where each is so excellent, and wherein 
prejudice and fancy too often supersede true taste and sound 

However the comparative merit of Persius may be deter- 
mined, his positive excellence can hardly escape the readers 
of his Satire^, or incline them to differ from Quintilian, who 
says of him, Inst. Orator, lib. x. cap. 1. " Multum et ver<s 
" gloria, quamvis uno libra Persius meruit" 


Martial seems of this opinion, lib. iv. epig. xxviii. 1. 7, 8. 

" Saepius in libro memoratur Persius uno, 
" Quam levis in tota Marsus Amazonide." 

On which the Scholiast observes, by way of note: "Gratior 
" est parvus liber Satirarum Persii, quam ingens volumen 
" Marsi, quo bellum Herculis scripsit contra Amazonas" 

Nor were the Satires of Persius in small esteem, even 
among those of the most learned of the early Christian writers 
such as Cassiodore, Lactantius, Eusebius, St. Jerome, and 
St. Austin. This is observed by Holy day, who concludes 
his preface to his translation with these remarkable words : 
" Reader, be courteous to thyself, and let not the example of 
" an heathen condemn thee, but improve thee." 









" The design of the author was to conceal his name and 
quality. He lived in the dangerous times of Nero, and 
aims particularly at him in most of his Satires: for 
which reason, though he was of equestrian dignity, and 
of a plentiful fortune, he would appear, in this Prologue, 

NEC fonte labra prolui Caballino : 

Nee in bicipiti somniasse Parnasso 

Memini ; ut repente sic poeta prodirem. 

Heliconidasque, pallidamque Pirenen 

Illis remitto, quorum imagines lambunt 5 

Line 1. Cabattine fountain.'] A fountain 
near Helicon, a hill in Bceotia, sacred to 
the Muses and Apollo, which the horse 
Pegasus is said to have opened with his 
hoof: therefore sometimes called Hip- 
pocrene, from the Gr. Itnros, an horse, 
and Kpi)vi), a fountain. 

The poet in derision calls it caballinus, 
from caballus, which is a name for a 
sorry horse, a jade, a packhorse, and the 

The poets feigned, that drinking of 
this sacred fountain inspired, as it were, 
poetic fancy, imagination, and abilities. 
Thus VIRG. JEn. viL 641 ; and JEn. x. 

PandUe nunc Helicona, Deo, cantusque 

Persius means to ridicule this notion. 

2. Have dreamed, fc.] Parnassus is a 
mountain of Phocis, in Achaia, in which 
is the Castalian spring, and temple of 
Apollo. It was a notion, that whosoever 
ascended.this hill, and stayed there for any 
time, immediately became a poet. It 
hath two tops, Cyrrha and Nisa, or, as 
others, Helicon and Cytheron, the for- 
mer sacred to Apollo and the Muses, the 
latter to Bacchus. Hence our poet says 
bicipiti Parnasso. 

He is supposed to allude to the poet 
Ennius, who is said to have dreamed 
that he was on mount Parnassus, and 
that the soul of Homer entered into 

3. Suddenly.'] i. e. All on a sudden 
without any pains or study by imme- 
diate inspiration, as it were. 




but a beggarly poet, who writes for bread. After this he 
breaks into the business of the first Satire, which is chiefly 
to decry the poetry then in fashion, and the impudence 
of those who were endeavouring to pass their stuff upon the 
world" DRYDEN. 

I HAVE neither moistened my lips with theCaballine fountain, 

Nor to have dreamed in two-headed Parnassus, 

Do I remember, that thus I should suddenly come forth apoet. 

Both the Heliconides, and pale Pirene, 

I leave to those, whose images the pliant ivy-boughs 5 

4. Helicomdes.] The Muses, so called 
from Helicon. See L 1, note. 

Pirene.] Pirene was another foun- 
tain near Corinth, sacred to the Muses ; 
so called from Pirene, the daughter of 
Achelous, who is fabled to have wept 
forth from her eyes the fountain called 
by her name. The epithet pale may 
refer to the complexion of Pirene pale 
with grief: or, as some think, is to be 
understood figuratively, to denote the 
paleness of those poets who studied and 
laboured hard to make their verses. See 
sat i. 1. 124, and note. 

5. Those, whose itnages, $c.~\ The poet 
feigns himself to be an untutored rustic, 
and to write merely from his own rude 
genius, without those assistances which 
others have derived from the Muses and 

the sacred fountains : these, says he, I 
leave to such great men as have their 
images set up in the temple of the 
Muses, and crowned with ivy, in token 
of honour. 

Me doctarum hederce prccmia frortiium 

Diis miscent superis. 

Hon. ode i. lib. i. L 29, 30. 

The pliant try.] The ivy bends, and 
entwines whatever it is planted against, 
and may be said to follow the form and 
bent thereof: hence the epithet sequaces. 
So, when gathered and made into chap- 
lets, it follows exactly the circular form 
of the head on which it is placed, easily 
bending and entwining it. Some think 
that sequaces here intimates its follow- 
ing distinguished poets as their re- 



Hederae sequaces. 

Ad sacra vatum carmen affero nostrum. 

Quis expedivit psittaco suum xaipe \ 
Picasque docuit verba nostra conari ? 
Magister artis, ingenique largitor 
Venter, negatas artifex sequi voces. 

Quod si dolosi spes refulserit nummi, 
Corvos poetas, et poetrias picas, 
Cantare credas Pegaseium melos. 

6. Touch softly."] Lambo properly sig- 
nifies to lick with the tongue hence, to 
touch gently or softly. 

/, half a clown.] See above, note on 
1. 5. 

7. Consecrated repositories, Qc.~] i. e. 
The temple of Apollo and the Muses 
built by Augustus on mount Palatine, 
where the works of the poets were kept 
and recited. See Juv. sat. i. L 1, 

8. Who has expedited, <5fc.] Expedivit 
lit hastened. q. d. Who has made a 
parrot so ready at speaking the word 
X&ipf- This, like salve, ave, or the like, 
was a salutation among the ancients at 
meeting or parting: this they taught 
their parrots, or magpies, who used to 
utter them, as ours are frequently taught 
to speak some similar common word. See 
MART. lib. xiv. ep. 736. 

9. Taught magpies, <fr.J The magpie, 
as we daily see, is another bird which is 
often taught to speak. 

11. The &e%.] i. e. Hunger, which is 
the teacher of this, as of many other 
arts the giver of genius and capacity 
skilful and cunning to follow after the 
most difficult attainments from which it 
can hope for relief to its cravings. 

Cunning.~\ Artifex-icis. adj. See 

Denied words.] This hunger is a 
great artist in this way, of teaching birds 
to utter human language, which naturally 
is denied them. 

The birds are, in a manner, starved 
into this kind of erudition, the masters 
of them keeping them very sharp, and 
rewarding them with a bit of food, when 
they shew a compliance with their en- 
deavours, from time to time. On this 



Touch softly. I, half a clown, 

Bring my verse to the consecrated repositories of the poets. 

Who has expedited to a parrot his X a ^P 
And taught magpies to attempt our words ? 
A master of art, and a liberal bestower of genius, 10 

The belly, cunning to follow denied words. 

But if the hope of deceitful money should glitter, 
Raven-poets, and magpie-poetesses, 
You may imagine to sing Pegaseian melody. 

principle we have, in our day, seen won- 
derful things, quite foreign to the nature 
of the animals, taught to horses, dogs, and 
even to swine. 

The poet means, that as parrots and 
magpies are starved into learning to 
speak, which by nature is denied them, 
so the scribblers, which he here intends 
to satirize, are driven into writing verses, 
by their poverty and necessity, without 
any natural genius or talents whatso- 

12. If the Jiopc, #e.] These poor poets, 
who are without svll natural genius, and 
would therefore never think of writing ; 
yet, such is their poverty, that if they 
can once encourage themselves to hope 
for a little money by writing, they will 
instantly set about it. 

12. Deceitful money.] Money may, on 
many accounts, deserve the epithet here 

given it. But here, in particular, it is 
so called from its deceiving these scrib- 
blers into doing what they are not fit 
for, and by doing of which they expose 
themselves to the utmost contempt and 

13. Raven-poets, &;c.~] Once let the 
gilded bait come in view, you will hear 
such a recital of poetry, as would make 
you think that ravens and magpies were 
turned poets and poetesses, and had been 
taught to receive their performances. 

14. Pegaseian melody."] They would 
do this with so much effrontery, that in- 
stead of the wretched stuff which they 
produced, you would think they were 
reciting something really poetical and 
sublime, as if they had drunk of Hip- 
pocrene itself, (see above, note on 1. 1.) 
or had mounted and soared aloft on the 
winged Pegasus. 



This Satire opens inform of a dialogue between Persius and 
a friend. We may suppose Persius to be just seated in Ms 
study, and beginning to vent his indignation in satire. An 
acquaintance comes in, and, on hearing the first line, dis- 
suades the poet from an undertaking so dangerous; advising 
him, if he must write, to accommodate his vein to the taste of 
the times, and to write like other people. 

Persius acknowledges, that this would be the means of gaining 
applause ; but adds, that the approbation of such patrons 
as this compliance would recommend him to was a thing 
not to be desired. 


P. CURAS hominum ! o quantum est in rebus inane ! 
M. Quis leget hsec? P. Min 1 tu istud ais? M. Nemo, 

Hercule. P. Nemo 2 

M . Vel duo, vel nemo ; turpe et miserabile. P. Quare 2 
Ne mihi Polydamas et Troiades Labeonem 
Praetulerint ? nugso ! Non, si quid turbida Roma 5 

Line I. O the cares, &c.] Persius is oath among the Romans, 
supposed to be reading this line, the first Nobody ?] Says Persius Do you 
of the Satire which he had composed, literally mean what you say ? 
when his friend is entering and overhears 3. Per/taps two, <fe.] It may be, re- 
it. Comp. Eccl. i. 2 14. plies the friend, that here and there a 

2. Who will read these ?] Says his few readers may be found ; but I rather 

friend to him i. e. Who, as the present think that even this will not be the case : 

taste at Rome is, will trouble themselves I grant this to be very hard, after the 

to read a work which begins with such pains which you have bestowed, and 

serious reflections ? Your very first line very shameful. 

will disgust them they like nothing but Wherefore ?] Wherefore do you call 

trifles. it a miserable, or a shameful thing, not 

Do you say that, fc.] Do you say to have my writings read ? Are you 

that to me and my writings ? afraid that I should be uneasy at seeing 

Nob<>d.yJ] Yes I do, and aver that my performances thrown aside, and 

you will not have a single reader ; nay, those of a vile scribbler preferred ? 
I will swear it by Hercules an usual 4. Polydamus and the 7VoJ</s,5fc.]The 



After this, he exposes the wretched taste which then prevailed in 
Home, both in verse and prose, and shews what sad stuff the 
nobles wrote themselves, and encouraged in others. He 
lam? at* tlmf /' dares not speak out, as Lucilius and Horace 
did but it is no very difficult matter to perceive that he 
frequently aims at the emperor Nero. 

He concludes, with a contempt of all blockheads, and says, that 
the only readers, whose applause he courts, must be men of 
<-'<rtni' and sense. 


P. O THE cares of men ! O how much vanity is there in 
things ! 

M. Who will read these ! P. Do you say that to me ? 
M. Nobody, truly. P. Nobody ? 

M. Perhaps two, perhaps nobody ; it is a shameful and la- 
mentable thing. P. Wherefore ? 

Lest Polydamas and the Troiads should prefer Labeo 

To me ? trifles ! do not, if turbid Rome should disparage 5 

poet dares not speak out, therefore de- 5. Trifles.] So far from its being the 

signs Nero and the Romans, under the miserable thing which you imagine, I 

feigned name of Polydamas and the look on it as ridiculous and trifling, nor 

Trojans, in allusion to Hector's fearing do I trouble my head about it 

the reproaches of Polydamas (the son- If turbid Rome, ifc.] Metaph. from 

in-law of Priam, and who is said to have waters, which, by being disturbed, are 

betrayed Troy to the Greeks) and of the muddy, thick, turbid, as we say. 

Trojan men and women, if he retired If the people of Rome, says the poet, 

within the walls of Troy. See II. x- 1- turbid, i. e. muddy, not clear in their 

100 5. judgment, having their minds vexed and 

Labeo.] A wretched poet, who made disturbed too with what is written 

a miserable translation of Homer's Iliad, against them, disparage any work, and 

Jle was a court-poet, and a minion of speak lightly of it, through anger and 

Nero. prejudice, I desire you will not agree with 




Elevet, accedas : examenve improbum in ista 
Castiges trutina : ne te qua?siveris extra. 
Nam Roma? quis non ? Ah, si fas dicere ! Sed fas 
Tune, cum ad canitiem, et nostrum istud vivere triste, 
Aspexi, et nucibus facimus qusecunque relictis : 
Cum sapimus patruos tune, tune ignoscite. M. Nolo. 
P. Quid faciam ? nam sum petulanti splene cachinno. 
M. Scribimus inclusi, numeros ille, hie pede liber, 

them in what they say, or accede to their 
opinion. The word elevet is metapho- 
rical, and alludes to scales, where that 
which is lightest is raised up, and signi- 
fies undervaluing, disparaging, or, as we 
say, making light of any thing. 

6. Nor correct, $fe.] Examen properly 
signifies the tongue, needle, or beam of 
a balance, which always inclines towards 
the side where the weight preponde- 
rates where this does not act truly, and 
in due proportion, it shews that the ba- 
lance is false : how false it is, and, of 
course, how it may be properly judged 
of and corrected, may be seen, by weigh- 
ing the same thing in a true scale, or by 
a true balance ; this will exactly discover 
the deficiency. 

The poet, alluding to this, advises his 
friend not to attempt correcting one 
false balance by another : he means, 
that, if any thing should be amiss, which 
the people in general find fault with, yet 
it is not to be weighed or considered 
according to their opinion, which, like a 
false balance, is erroneous ; much less to 
be corrected by their standard of judg- 

7. Seek not thyself, fyc.~] i. e. Judge for 
yourself, by your own conscience and 
opinion, not by what other people say. 
The more exact meaning of this Stoical 
maxim seems to be You can judge of 
yourself better by what passes within 
you, than by the opinions of others ; so, 
go not out of yourself, in order to draw 
just and true conclusions concerning 
yourself. The Stoics maintained, that 
a wise man should not make other peo- 
ple's opinions, but his own reason, his 
rule of action. 

The conscience is the test ofev'ry mind; 

Seek not thyself, witJiout thyself, to find. 

The poet seems to urge this sentiment 
upon his friend, in order to guard him 
against such an attention to popular 

opinion, as might lead him to assent to 
it, contrary to his own opinion, judg- 
ment, and conscience. In this view it 
answers to what he has before said : 

Non, si quid turbida Roma 

Elevet, accedos. L. 5, 6. 

8. WlM does notI'} i. e. Who does 
not leave his own judgment and con- 
science out of the question, and suffer 
himself to be led away by popular opj- 
nion? This is an aposiopesis: but I 
think the nam refers us to the preceding 
sentence to make out the sense. This 
view of it furnishes a farther argument 
against trusting the opinions of others, 
since even they don't judge for them- 

Ah! if I might say .'] i.e. Alas ! if I 
were but at liberty to speak out plainly. 

But I may, 5fe.] Persius lived in 
the reign of Nero, a dangerous period for 
the writers of satire ; he was therefore, 
as he hints in the preceding line, afraid 
to speak out : but yet he will not quite 
refrain : the objects of satire were too 
many, and too gross, for him to be 
silent, and therefore he determines to 
attack them. 

9. When I have beheld greyness.'} When 
I have turned my eyes on the grey hairs 
of old age. 

Our grave way of life.] Vivere, here, 
for vita, a Graecism these often occur 
in Persius. 

When I behold, says the poet, the 
gravity and austerity with which we ap- 
pear to live. 

1 0. Whatever we do, $c.] The manner 
in which people employ themselves, as 
soon as they have left their playthings, 
and are become men. 

Nuces, lit. nuts and tali, little square 
stones, or bones with four sides were 
the usual playthings of children. The 
nuces were little balls of ivory, or round 
stones. See FRANCIS' Hor. lib. ii. sat. 
iii. 1. 1 72. Hence nucibus relictis sig- 



Any thing, agree with it, nor correct a false balance 

By that scale : seek not thyself out of thyself. 

For at Rome who does not ? Ah, if I might say ! But I 

Then, when I have beheld greyness, and that our grave way 
of life, 

And whatever we do after our playthings are left ; 10 

When we have the relish of uncles then, then forgive. J/. I 
will not. 

P. What shall I do ? for I am a great laugher with a petu- 
lant spleen. 

M, We write shut up. One numbers, another prose, 

nifies ceasing to be children. Sec Hon. 
lib. ii. sat. iii. 1. 171, 2. 

11. Relish of uncles, <Sfc.] Patruus is a 
father's brother, on whom sometimes the 
care of children devolved on the loss of 
their father. The father's brother, thus 
having the authority of a father, without 
the tenderness and affection of a father, 
was apt to be very rigid and severe : 
this was so much the case, as almost to 

control my natural temper and disposi- 
tion ? 

A greed laugher.'] Cachinno-onis, 
from cachinnus, a loud laughing, a laugh- 
ter in derision or scorn. AINSW. 

A petulant spleen.'] The spleen, or 
milt, was looked upon by the ancients to 
be the organ of laughter. See CHAM- 
BERS, tit Spleen. Also the receptacle 
of the atrabilious, or melancholic hu- 
mour. Hence, when people are low- 
spirited or melancholy, they are said to 
be splenetic ; so when they are disgusted 
and out of humour. Thus SWIFT, in 
his City Shower : 

" Sauntering in coffee-house is Dulman 

become proverbial ; hence patruus sig- 
nified a severe, rigid reprover. See 
Aixsw. Hence HOR. lib. ii. sat iiL 
L 87, 8. 

Sive ego prove, 

Seu rede hoc volui, ne sispatruus mihi. 
Comp. lib. iiL ode xiL 1. 3, where we 

Metuentes patruce verbera lingua. 
See also the note there, in edit Delph. 

The poet's meaning seems to be as 
follows : 

"When I consider the vanity and 

folly in which we Romans (he speaks in natural disposition to laugh at the follies 
the first person, as if he meant to include 
himself, to avoid offence) are employed, 
from our first becoming men to our old 
age, and, at the same time, that pre- 

" Rails on the climate and complains 
" of spleen."" 

Our poet gives his friend to under- 
stand, that he can't take his advice to 
suppress his Satires ; for that his spleen, 
which is of the petulant kind, and his 

tended ^md assumed gravity and seve- 
rity which we put on, insomuch that we 
have the relish or savour of morose un- 

of men, make it impossible for him 
resist the temptation of publishing. 

13. We write shut up.] Persius having 
expressed his turn for satire, from his 
natural disposition, and having asked his 
friend what he should do, were he to be 
silent, and lay by his intention of writ- 

cle-guardians in our reproofs of others, ing the friend gives him to understand, 
and in our carriage towards them, though that he may indulge his desire for writ- 
we are in truth as vain and foolish as intr, without writing satires " Do as 

those whom we reprove, then, then I 
think I may be forgiven if I write and 
publish my Satires, when the times so 
evidently stand in need of reproof." 

/ will not.] Says the friend All 
you say does not convince me that you 
slv.mld publish your Satires. 

1 i What shall Idol] Says Persius 
How can I contain myself? how can I 

ing, without writing 
" others do, who indulge their genius for 
" writing on popular and inoffensive sub- 
jects, some in verse, others in prose, 
"shut up in their studies, for their 
" greater quiet and privacy, where they 
" compose something in a grand and lofty 
" style." " Aye," says Persius, inter- 
rupting him, u so grand as to require a 
" very large portion of breath to last 



Grande aliquid P. Quod pulmo animse prselargus anhelet. 
Scilicet ha?c populo, pexusque togaque recenti, is 

Et natal itia tandem cum sardonyche albus, 
Sede leges celsa, liquido cum plasmate guttur 
Mobile collueris, patranti fractus ocello. 
Hie, neque more probo videas, neque voce serena, 
Ingente? trepidare Titos ; cum carmina lumbum 20 

"through their periods and sentences, 
"which are too bombast and long-winded 
" to be read by ordinary lungs." The 
speaker uses the first person plural 
scribimus inclusi we nous autres (as 
the French say). By this mode of 
speech, the pointedness and personality 
of what is said are much lessened ; con- 
sequently the prejudice and offence with 
which a more direct charge on the per- 
sons meant would have been received. 
HOR. lib. ii. epist. i. 1.117. 
Scribimus indocti, doctique poemata 

" But ev'ry desperate blockhead dares 

" to write, 

" Verse is the trade of every living 
right. 1 " 


13. One numbers.'] i. e. One pens 

Another prose.] Pede liber a peri- 
phrasis for prose-writing, which is free 
from the shackles of feet and numbers, 
by which writers in verse are confined. 

14. Something grand ] The speaker 
is going on with his advice, and in his 
enforcing it from the examples of the 
writers of his day ; but at the words 
grande aliquid, Persius interrupts him, 
as though not able to bear such an epithet 
as grande, when applied to the bombast 
and fustian which were daily coming 
forth in order to catch the applause of 
the vulgar. In this Persius has, no 
doubt, a stroke at Nero's writings, some 
samples of which we met with in a sub- 
sequent part of this Satire,!. 93 5, and 
1. 99102. 

Which lungs, ce.] See note on 1. 
.14. The word anhelet is well applied 
here. Anhelo signifies to breathe short 
and with difficulty to pant, as if out of 
breath also to labour in doing a thing 
and well denotes the situation of one 
who has to read aloud the poems and 
performances in question. 

Large of air.~\ Capable of contain- 
ing a very large portion of air, and greatly 

15. Doubtless these to the people, <?><.] 
Persius, as we shall find, by using the 
second person singular, 1. 17, leges, and 
collueris, 1. 1 8, is not to be understood as 
confining what he says to the person 
with whom he is discoursing, but means 
covertly to attack and expose all the 
poetasters at Rome, who shut themselves 
up to compose turgid and bombast poems 
and declamations, to recite in public, in 
order to get the applause of their igno- 
rant and tasteless hearers. 

The Monitor had said scribimus, 1. 
1 3 : hence the poet addresses him par- 
ticularly ; but, no doubt, means to carry 
his satire to all the vain scribblers of the 
time, and especially to those who exposed 
themselves in the ridiculous manner after 
described ; not without a view to the 
emperor Nero, who was vain of his 
poetry, and used to recite his poems in 
public. See my note on 1. 1 34, ad fin. 
and comp. Juv. viii. 220 30, and notes 

I would observe, that in the arrange- 
ment of the dialogue, v. 13, 14, I have 
followed Mr. Brewster, whose ingenious 
version of Persius is well worthy the 
reader's attention. 

According to the usual arrangement, 
whereby scribimus indocti, &c. is given 
to Persius, he receives no answer to his 
question, quid faciem, 1. 12, but abruptly 
introduces a new subject ; whereas, ac- 
cording to the above method, the Monitor 
very naturally begins an answer, which 
introduces the chief subject of tins 
Satire, and the poet as naturally inter- 
rupts, at the words grande aliquid, 1. 1 4, 
in order to pursue it ; which he does by 
describing the vanity and folly of these 
scribblers, some of whom, at an advanced 
time of life, when they ought to be 
wiser, are writing trifling and lascivious 



Something grand. P. Which lungs,Iarge of air, may breathe. 
Doubtless these to the people, combed, and with a new 

gown, 15 

White, and lastly with a birth-day sardonyx, 
You will read, in a high seat, when with a liquid gargle you 

have wash'd 

Your moveable throat, and effeminate with a lascivious eye : 
Here, neither in a modest manner, nor with a serene voice, 
You may see the great Titi tremble, when the verses enter 

the loins, 20 

poems, and reading them to the people in 
public ; this, with every disgraceful cir- 
cumstance of dress and manner. 

l.">. (\,mb"d.] Or crisped, curled, and 
set in an effeminate style. 

A new gown] Made, and put on, 
on the occasion. 

16. White.} Albus. This can't agree 
with toga, therefore some refer it to the 
man himself, as supposing him to look 
white, or pale, with fear and anxiety, 
for the success of his poem, and make 
it equivalent to pallidus. HOR. epod. 
vii. 1. 1 ,5, says, albus pallor ; and albus, 
in one sense of it, signifies pale or wan. 

But I do not see why we may not 
read albus toga recenti, to denote the 
person's being clad in a new white gar- 
ment lit. white with a new gown. ' 

His hair being first kerned and smooth, 
and then bcdight 

In a fair comely garment fresh and 

ichite. HOLYDAY. 

The Romans wore white garments, as 
a piece of finery, on certain festival oc- 
casions, as on a birth-day, and the like. 
So OVID : 

Scilicet expedas soUtum tibi moris ho- 

Pendeat ex humeris vestis ut alba meis. 

A birth-day sardonyx.] This species of 
precious stone, set in a ring, and worn 
on the finger, was reckoned a piece of 
finely, which the Romans were very 
ambitious of displaying. See Juv. sat 
vii. 1. 14-2,3. 

By a birth-day sardonyx, the poet 
probably means a present that had been 
made to the man, on his birth-day, of 
this ring, which he wore on this occasion. 
1 1 was usual to send presents to a person 
on his birth-day. See Juv. sat xi. L 84, 

1 7. You u-ill read.] i.e. Rehearse aloud. 

In a high seat.'] When authors read 
their works publicly, they had a sort 
of desk, or pulpit, raised above the au- 
ditory, by which means they could be 
better seen and heard. 

Liquid gargle, fyc] Plasma, a gar- 
gle, or medicine, to prevent or take away 
hoarseness, and to clear the voice. 

18. Moveable throat.] Mobilis . e. 
pliant, tractable, easily contracting or 
dilating, according to the sounds which 
are to be formed. 

A laseiviovs eye.] Suiting the lewd- 
ness of his look to the obscenity of his 
subject See AINSW. Fractus, No. 4. 
and Patrans, ib. 

19. Here.] In such a place, and on 
such an occasion. The poet having de- 
scribed the reader's dress, preparation, 
and manner, now describes the effect 
which he had on his auditory. 

Neither in a modest manner] But 
quite the contrary, betraying very inde- 
cent emotions. 

Nor with a serene voice.] Nor giving 
their applause with a calm decency of 
expression, but with a confused and 
broken kind of voice, like people agi- 
tated with disorderly passions. 

20. TJie great Titi, fro.] The poet in 
derision calls the Roman nobles Titi, 
from Titus 'fa this, a king of the Sabines: 
a peace being made between the Sa- 
bines and Romans, at the instance of 
the Sabine women, he became a partner 
with Romulus in a joint-government for 
five years. Persius means to exhibit a 
contrast between what the great Ro- 
mans were in the days of Titus Tatius, 
and what they were now ; hence calls 
them, ironically, ingentes Titi, the great 
descendants of Titus Tatius. See Juv. 
sat iii. L 60, note. 

Tremble.] Arc agitated with lust, 
at hearing the recital of the obscene 



Intrant, et tremulo scalpuntur ubi intima versu. 

Tun', vetule, auriculis alienis colligis escas ? 
Auriculis ! quibus et dicas cute perditus, Ohe. 

" Quo didicisse, nisi hoc fermentum, et quae semel intus 
" Innata est, rupto jecore exierit caprificus f 25 

En pallor, seniumque ! O mores, usque adeone 
Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter ! 

" At pulchrum est, digito monstrari, et dicier, Hie est. 
" Ten 1 cirratorum centum dictata fuisse, 

performance, which enters their very 
loins, as it were, and irritates their most 
inward parts. 

21. ScratcVd.'] i. e. Titillated, irri- 

Tremulous verse.] With the lasci- 
vious verses, which are read with an 
effeminate, soft, and trembling accent, 
suited to the nature of the subject. 

22. Dost thou, O old man,, $c.~] Per- 
sius, in this apostrophe, inveighs against 
these lascivious old fellows, who wrote 
such poems as are before mentioned. 

Dost thou, who art old enough to be 
wiser, put together such obscene and 
filthy stuff, in order to become food for 
the ears of your libidinous hearers ? 

23. For ears, #c.] He repeats the 
word auriculis, in order to make his 
reproof the more striking. 

To which even thou, $c.] The poet's 
imitations of Horace, in all his Satires, 
are very evident ; in none more than in 
this line. There can be little doubt 
that Persius had in his eye that passage 
of HORACE, lib. ii. sat v. L 968. 
Importunus amat laudari 1 donee ohe 

Ad ccelum manibus sublatis dixerit, 

urge, et 

Crescentem tumidis infta, sermonibus 

Should hist 

Of empty glory be the blockhead's gust, 
Indulge his eager appetite and puff 
The glowing bladder with inspiring 


Till he, u-ith hands uplifted to the skies, 
Enough! Enough! in glutted rapture 

cries. FRANCIS. 

Thus Persius represents the reciter of 
the obscene verses to be so flattered, as 
to be ready to burst with the vanity 
created within him ; so that he is forced 
to stop the fulsome applause and com- 

pliments of his hearers, with crying, 
"Enough! forbear! I can endure no 

Jam satis est! 

HOR. sat. v. lib. L 1. 12, 13. 

Cute perditus has perhaps a reference 
to the fable of the proud frog, who 
swelled till she burst See HOR. sat. iii. 
lib. ii. 1. 31419. 

24. Unless this ferment:*} The old 
man answers To what purpose, then, 
is all my study and pains to excel in 
this kind of writing, unless they appear 
thus, and shew themselves in their effects 
on myself and hearers ? In vain would 
you mix leaven with the dough of which 
bread is made, unless it ferments and 
lightens the mass ; so all my science 
would be vain, if it lay dormant and 
quiet within me, and did not shew itself 
visibly to others, by being productive of 
such compositions which raise such a 
ferment in the minds of my hearers. 
Fermentum here is metaphorical. 

"And what once," fyc.~\ In order to 
understand this line, we are to observe, 
that the caprificus was a sort of wild 
fig-tree, which grew about walls and 
other buildings ; and by shooting its 
branches into the joints of them, burst 
a passage through them, and, in time, 
weakened and destroyed them. See 
Juv. sat. x. 1. 145, note. 

The apologist farther illustrates his 
meaning, by comparing his natural, as 
well as acquired talents, to the caprifi- 
cus these having once taken root with- 
in, will burst forth, through the inmost 
recesses of the mind, to the observation 
of all, as the caprificus does through the 
clefts of rocks, or stone-quarries, or 
stone- walls : and, " unless this were the 
"case, what good would these inbred 
" talents do me?" The ancients reckoned 



And when the inwards are scratched with the tremulous verse. 

Dost thou, O old man, collect food for the ears of others 2 

For ears, to which even thou, in skin destroyed, may'st say 

" Enough. 11 
" For what purpose to have learnt, unless this ferment, 

" and what once 

" Is within innate, the wild fig-tree, should come forth from 

" the bursten liver T 1 25 

Lo, paleness and old-age ! O manners ! is your knowing, 

Altogether nothing, unless another should know that you 

know it ? 
" But it is pleasant to be shewn with the finger, and to 

" be said This is he." 
" For thee to have been the exercisesof an hundred curl-pates, 

the liver as the seat of the concupiscible 
and irascible passions. See Juv. sat L 
1. 45, note. Here Persius uses the word 
jecore for the inward mental part, which 
contained the genius and talents of the 
poet, and was to be broken through by 
the energy of their exertions. 

26. Lo, paleness and old-age .'] These 
words are by some supposed to be the 
end of the apologist's speech, as if he 
had said See how pale I am with study 
and application, and that in my old-age, 
a time of life when others retire from 
labour and shall I meet with no reward 
for all this ? 

Others suppose the words to be the 
reply of Persius, find a continuation of 
his reproof. " Lo, paleness of counte- 
" nance and old-age ! and yet thou dost 
" not cease from such vain toils !" See 
Juv. vii. 96, 7. 

O manners .'] Like that of Tully 
O tempora ! mores ! 

/. </. What are we come to ! what 
can we say of the manners of the times, 
when an old fellow can write such ob- 
scenity, and can find hearers to approve 
his repetition of it ! 

27. Altogether nothing, unless, #c.] 
Persius here imitates a passage of Lu- 

Id me 

Nolo scire mihi cujus sum consciu' solus, 
Ne faciam. Sdre est nescire, 

nisi id me 
Scire alias sciret. 

\V r hat, says Persius, is all your science, 
then, nothing worth, uuless you tell all 

the world of it ? have you no pleasure 
or satisfaction in what you know, with- 
out you exert a principle of vain glory, 
by cultivating the applause of others ? 
Is this the end of your study and appli- 
cation ? Scire tuum i. e. scientia tua. 
Graecism. Comp. istud vivere, L 9. 

28. "Sheicn with the finger."] Here is 
an ironical prolepsis the poet antici- 
pates some of the pleas of these writers 
for their proceedings. It is a pleasant 
thing, perhaps, you may say, to be so 
famous for one's writings, as to be 
pointed at as one goes along by the pas- 
sers by, and to hear them say, " That's 
" he " u that's the famous poet." 

Horace disgraces one of his finest odes, 
by mentioning, with pleasure, such a 
piece of vanity 

Quod monstror diyito prtetereuntium 

Romanes Jidicen lyrae. 

Ode iii. lib. iv. L 22, 3. 

CICERO, Tusc. v. 36, mentions it as 
an instance of great weakness in De- 
mosthenes, in that he professed himself 
much pleased with hearing a poor girl, 
who was carrying water, say to another, 
as he passed by, " There, that's the fa- 
" mous Demosthenes." " Quid hoc le- 
" vius ?" says Tully " At quantus ora- 
a tor ? Sed apud alios loqui videlicet 
" didicerat, non multum ipse secum." 

29. The exercises, $e.] Dictata. Pre- 
cepts or instructions of any kind parti- 
cularly, and most frequently, lessons 
which the roaster pronounceth to his 
scholars ; school-boys' exercises. A i N s \\ . 
The poet continues his banter 



" Pro nihilo pendas f Ecce, inter pocula, quserunt 
Romulidse saturi, quid dia poemata narrent ! 
Hie aliquis, cui circum humeros hyacinthina lama est, 
(Rancidulum quiddam balba de nare locutus,) 
Phyllidas, Hypsipylas, vatum et plorabile si quid, 
Eliquat ; et tenero supplantat verba palato, 
Asserisere viri Nunc non cinis ille poetse 
Felix 2 nunc levior cippus non imprimit ossa 2 
Laudant convivse nunc non e raanibus illis, 
Nunc non e tumulo, fortunataque favilla, 
Nascentur violse 2 Rides, ait, et nimis uncis 

Is it nothing, think you, to have your 
verses taught to the children of the no- 
bles at school ; to have an hundred such 
boys getting them by heart, and repeating 
them as their lessons, or writing themes 
on passages of your works ? The poet, 
here, has a fling at the emperor Nero, 
who ordered his poems to be" taught in 
the schools for youth. 

29. Curl-pates.'} i. e. The young nobi- 
lity, BO called, from having their hair 
dressed and curled in a particular man- 

30. 31. Satiated Romans, #c.] .He 
calls the Roman nobility, Romulidae, 
dim. from Romulus, their great progeni- 
tor ; and he means hereby to insinuate, 
sarcastically, their declension and defec- 
tion from the sober and virtuous man- 
ners of their ancestors. Comp. Juv. 
sat. i. 1. 100, note. 

Here we see them at table, gorman- 
dizing, and filled with eating and drink- 
ing ; then calling for somebody to repeat 
passages from the writings of poets for 
their entertainment, or perhaps that they 
might inquire into the merit of them. 

31. Divine poems.'] Dia, from Gr. Stos, 
divinus. The science of poetry was 
reckoned divine ; but the poet's use of 
the epithet, in this place, is ironical, 
meaning to satirize those productions 
which these Romulidae saturi were so 
pleased with. Quid narrent i. e. what 
they m.iy contain and set forth. 

32. Here.~\ i. e. Upon this occasion. 

Some one, ffc.] Some noble and de- 
licate person, dressed in a violet-coloured 
garment, whic,h was a sign of effemi- 
nacy, and greatly in fashion among such 
of the Roman nobility who were the 
beaux of the time. 

33. Something rankish, $c.] i. c. Re- 

peated something of the obscene or filthy 
kind, though with a bad voice, uttered 
through his nose by way of preface to 
what follows. 

34. Phylisses.'] Phyllis, the daughter 
of Lycurgus, who fell in love with De- 
mophoon, the son of Theseus, on his re- 
turn from Troy, and entertained him at 
bed and board. He, after some time, 
going from her, promised to return 
again ; but not performing his promise, 
she hanged herself upon an almond- 

Hypsipylee.'] Hypsipylc was the 
daughter of Thoas, and queen of Lem- 
nos, who, when all the women in the 
island slew their male kindred, preserved 
her father ; for which pious deed she 
was banished. She entertained Jason 
in his way to Colchos, and had twins 
by him. 

The poet mentions the names of these 
women in the plural number ; by which 
we may understand, that he means any 
women of such sort of character, who 
have suffered by their amours in some 
disastrous way or other, and have been 
made subjects of verse. Eliquo signifies 
to melt down, or make liquid. Hence, 
to sing, or speak softly and effeminate] y. 

Some lamentable matter, 8[c.~\ Some 
mournful love-tale, either invented or 
related by the poets. 

35. Supplants words, &e.] He does not 
utter the words in a plain, manly man- 
ner, but minces and trips them up, as it 
were, in their way through his palate, 
to make them sound the more apposite 
to the tender subject. 

A metaphor, from wrestlers, who, 
when they trip up their antagonists, are 
said supplantarc. 



u Dost thou esteem as nothing ?" Lo, among their cups, the 

satiated 30 

Romans inquire, what divine poems may relate. 
Here, some one, who has round his shoulders a hyacinthine 


(Having spoken something rankish from a snuffling nostril,) 
If he hath gently sung Phyllises, Hypsipylse, and some 

lamentable matter 

Of the poets, and supplants words with a tender palate, 35 
The men have assented : now are not the ashes of that poet 
Happy 2 now does not a lighter hillock mark his bones ? 
The guests praise : now will there not from those manes, 
Now will there not from the tomb, and the fortunate ember, 
Violets spring up? You laugh, says he, and too much 

indulge 40 

His refining throat 

Fritters, and melts, and minces tv'ry note. 

His dainty palate trijrpiny forth his words. 


36. The men have, assented.] The poet 
uses the word viri here as a mark of 
censure that those who were called 
men, should be delighted with such 
verses, so repeated. 

They all assented to the approbation 
given by some of the company. 

Ashes of that poet, &;c.] Cinis ille 
poetse t. e. cinis illius poetse. Hypal- 
lage. It was the custom to burn the 
bodies of the dead, and to gather up 
their ashes, and put them into urns, in 
order to preserve them. 

To be sure, the very ashes of a poet, 
thus approved by a set of drunken peo- 
ple, must be happy ! Iron. 

37. Lighter hillock.] Cippus is a grave- 
stone, or monument ; also a little hill of 
earth, such as are raised over graves. 

This line alludes to the usual super- 
stitious wish which the Romans expressed 
for a deceased friend Sit tibi terra lo- 
vis may the earth be light upon thce ! 
The cippus marked the grave. 

38. T/tc ipicsts praise.] Now they all 
break forth' into the highest commenda- 

Manes.] Signifies the spirit, or 
ghost, of one departed sometimes what 
we call the remains, or dead body. 

Scpulchra diruta, nudati manes, Liv. 
and this seems the sense of it here. 

39. From the tomb.] Tumulus signifies 
an hillock, or heap of earth ; also a 
tomb, grave, or sepulchre. AINSW. 

Fortunate ember.] Favilla (from 
(paw, to shine) a hot ember ; the white 
ashes wherein the fire is raked up. 

Here it means the embers of the fu- 
neral pile, some of which were mixed 
with the bones in the urn. 

40. Violets spring up.] It was usual 
among the Greeks and Romans, when 
they would extol a living person, to 
speak of flowers springing up under his 
footsteps ; and of the favoured dead, to 
speak of sweet-smelling flowers growing 
over their graves. Perhaps this idea was 
first derived from the custom of strewing 
flowers in the way of eminent persons 
as they walked along, and of strewing 
flowers over the graves of the departed. 

It is easy to see that Persius is jeering 
the person to whom he is speaking, when 
he mentions the above circumstances of 
honour and happiness, attending the 
writers of such verses, as are repeated 
to, and approved by, a set of drunken 
libertines at a feast. 

Juvenal, on another occasion, has col- 
lected all the above ideas, as the gifts of 
the gods to the good and worthy. Sat. 
vii. 1. 207, 208. 

You latujh, says he, fy.] The de- 
fender of such writings is not a little 
hurt with the ironical sneer of Pcrsius. 
O, says the galled poet, you are laughing 
all this while ; you are too severe upon 



Naribus indulges. An erit qui velle recuset 
Os populi meruisse ? et cedro digna locutus, 
Linquerc nee scombros metuentia carmina, nee thus 2 

Quisque es, o raodo quern ex adverse dicere feci, 
Non ego, cum scribo, si forte quid aptius exit, 
(Quando hsec rara avis est,) si quid tamen aptius exit, 
Laudari metuam : neque enim mihi cornea fibra est. 
Sed recti finemque extremumque esse recuso 
Euge tuum et Belle : nam Belle hoc excute totum : 
Quid non intus habet ? Non hie est Ilias Acci, 
Ebria veratro ? Non si qua elegidia crudi 
Dictarunt proceres ? Non quicquid denique lectis 
Scribitur in citreis ? Calidum scis ponere sumen : 
Scis comitem horridulum trita donare lacerna ; 
Et verum, inquis, amo ; verum mihi dicite de me. 



41. Hooked nostrils."] Uncis naribus, 
indulges a phrase for indulging scorn 
and sneering ; taken from the wrinkled 
and distorted shape assumed by the nose 
on such occasions. Thus Hon. lib. i. 
sat. vi. 1. 5, where he is observing, that 
" Maecenas does not, as too many are apt 
" to do, look with scorn and contempt 
" on people of obscure birth," expresses 
himself in this manner : 


Utplerique soletit,nftsosuspendisadunco 


The ideas of scorn and contempt are 
often expressed among us by turning up 
the nose. 

Will there be, Sfe.] *. e. Is such a 
person to be found, who is so lost to all 
desire of praise, continues the apologist, 
as to have no concern at all to merit the 
approbation and countenance of the 

42. Worthy of cedar, #c.] i. e. Wor- 
thy to be preserved. Cedar was looked 
upon as an incorruptible wood, which 
never decayed. From the cedar they 
extracted a juice, which being put on 
books, and other things, kept them from 
moths, worms, and even decay itself. 

43. To leave verses, fc.] i. e. In no 
danger of being used as waste paper, 
either for fishmongers, to wrap or pack 
their fish in when they sell it, or by per- 
fumers, for their frankincense or other 
perfumes. See HOR. lib. ii. epist. i. 1. 
266, &c. here imitated by Persius. 

44. Whoever thou art, <Sfc.] The poet 

here, after having severely satirized a 
desire of false praise, and empty com- 
mendation of what really deserves no 
praise at all, now allows, that praise, 
where properly bestowed, is not to be 

Made to speak, Sfc.'] i. e. Whom I 
have been setting up as a supposed ad- 
versary, or opponent, in this dispute. 
Whosoever thou art, that findest what 
I have been saying applicable to thy- 
self, let me confess to thee, that 

45. /, when I write, %c.~] i. e. When 
I compose verses if by chance any 
thing well adapted to the subject, and 
well expressed, flows from my pen, (since 
I confess this happens but seldom, and 
therefore gives me the greater satisfac- 
tion,) I should not fear commendation. 
Comp. Juv. vi. 1. 164. 

47. Inwards so horny.'] Fibra, the in- 
wards or entrails here, by met. the in- 
ward man, the moral sense. 

Horny hard insensible like horn. 
See sat. i. 1. 31. 

q. d. I am not so callous, so insensible, 
or unfeeling, as not to be pleased, as well 
as touched, with deserved praise. 

48. But to be the end, <Sfc.] But that 
the eulogies of fools and sots should be 
the end and aim of writing, I deny ; 
or, indeed, that merely to - gain applause 
should be the view and end of even 
doing right, I cannot allow. 

49. Your " Well done ! O fine /] 
Euge ! belle ! like our Well done ! fine ! 
bravo! which were acclamations of 


Your hooked nostrils. Will there be, who can refuse to be 


To have deserved the countenance of the people 2 and, hav- 
ing spoken things worthy of cedar, 

To leave verses fearing neither little fishes, nor frankincense \ 
Whoever thou art, thou, whom I just now made to 

speak on the adverse part, 

I, when I write, if haply something more apt comes forth, 45 
(Since this is a rare bird,) yet if something more apt comes 

Would not fear to be praised ; nor indeed are my inwards 

so horny. 

But to be the end extreme of right I deny 
Your " Well done !" and your " O fine !" for examine this 

whole " fine," 

What has it not within 2 Is not the Iliad of Accius here, 50 
Drunk with hellebore ? Is there not, if crude nobles have 


Any little elegies 2 Is there not, lastly, whatever is written 
In citron beds 2 You know how to place a hot sowVudder; 
You know to present a shabby client with a worn garment ; 
And " I love truth (say you); tell me the truth concerning me." 

applause. See Juv. sat. vii. 1. 44, this constantly bestowed upon them ? 

note. 52. 7* there not, lastly, #c.] The citron 

Examine this whole " O fine /"] wood was reckoned very valuable and 

Sift, canvass well this mark of applause precious ; of this the nobles had their 

which you are so fond of. beds and couches made, on which they 

50. What has it not u-ithin? fyc.~\ used to lie, or sit, when they wrote. 
What is there so absurd, that you will Lastly, says Persius, all the trash which 
not find it applied to as the object of it ? issues forth from the citron couches of 
in short, what is not contained within it? the great is contained within the compass 

The Iliad of Accius.] Accius Labeo, of this mark of applause ; therefore your 

who made a wretched translation of making it your end and aim is but very 

Homer's Iliad. See note above, 1. 4. little worth your while : it is so un- 

Is not even this contained within the worthily bestowed, as to be no sort of 

compass of your favourite terms of ap- criterion of excellence and desert, 

plause ? 53. How to place, #c.] The poet still 

51. Drunk with hellebore.] The an- continues to satirize empty applause, by 
cients made use of hellebore, not only shewing that it may be gained by the 
when they were disordered in the head, lowest and most abject means. 

but also when in health, in order to He therefore attacks those who bribe 

quicken the apprehension. This the for it. You know how, says he, to place 

poet humorously supposes Accius to on your table a dainty dish. See Juv. 

have done, but in such a quantity as to sat. xi. 81, note. 

stupify his senses. 54. You know to present, #e.] You 

Is there not, if crude nobles, tyc.~] know the effect of giving an old shabby 

Are not the flimsy and silly little elegies coat to one of your poor dependents, 

and sonnets, which our raw and inex- Comp. Hor. epist. xix. lib. ii. 1. 37, 8. 

perienccd nobles write and repeat, all 55. " / lore truth,' 1 ' 1 $c.~\ Then, when 

subjects of your favourite belle ? Is not you have given a good dinner to some, 



Qui pote ? Vis dicam ? Nugaris, cum tibi, calve, 
Pinguis aqualiculus propenso sesquipede extet. 

O Jane, a tergo quern nulla ciconia pinsit, 
Nee manus auriculas imitata est mobilis albas ; 
Nee linguae, quantum sitiat canis Appula, tantum ! GO 

Nos, O patricius sanguis, quos vivere fas est 
Occipiti cceco, posticse occurrite sannse ! 

" Quis populi sermo estf Quis enim, nisi carmiua molli 
Nunc demum numero fluere, ut per Iseve severos 
Effundat junctura ungues ? Scit tendere versum, 65 

Non secus ac si oculo rubricam dirigat uno. 
Sive opus in mores, in luxum, in prandia regum, 
Dicere res grandes nostro dat Musa poetse. 

and still meaner presents to others, in 
order to purchase their applause, you 
ask them their opinion, desiring them to 
speak the truth. 

56. Hmv is it possible ?] i. e. That 
they should speak the truth, when they 
are afraid of offending you if they did ? 
You have obliged them, and they fear to 
disoblige you, which, if they spake their 
real thoughts, they would most probably 

Would you have me say it?] Says 
Persius, who am no dependent of yours, 
or under any obligation to disguise my 

You trifle, <$fe.] I tell you plainly, 
and without disguise, that you are 
an old trifler, to pretend to wit or 
poetry, with that great belly of yours, 
that hangs down at least a foot and an 
half below your middle, and bespeaks a 
genius for gluttony, but for nothing else. 
Perhaps the poet hints at the Greek 
Ilaxeitt yaffrrip \eirrov ov riKTfi voov. 

"A fat betty produceth not a subtle 

58. O Janus .'] Janus was the first 
king of Italy, who gave refuge to Saturn, 
when he fled from his son Jupiter from 
Crete. From his name the first month 
of the year is called January. He was 
pictured with two faces, one before and 
one behind, as regarding the time past 
and future. 

q. d. Thou art happy, Janus, inas- 
much as, being able to see both before 
and behind, thou art in no danger of 
being ignorant of what passeth behind 
thy back, and, therefore, of enduring the 

flouts and jeers, which our nobles receive 
behind their backs, from those who flat- 
ter them to their faces. 

58. Whom no stark pecks, $fc.] There 
were three methods of scoff and ridicule : 
one was holding out the finger, and 
crooking it a little to imitate the bill of 
storks ; "they held it towards him who 
was the object of derision, moving it 
backwards and forwards, like the peck- 
ing of the stork. See AINSW. 

59. The moveable hand, <fc.] Another 
mode of derision was, putting the thumbs 
up to the temples, and moving them 
in such manner as to imitate asses' 
ears, which, in the inside, are usually 

60. Nor so much oftlie tongue, <(c.] A 
third method was to loll out the tongue, 
like a dog when thirsty. 

Appula was the hottest part of Italy, 
of course the dogs most thirsty, and 
most apt to loll out their tongues the 

None of all this could happen to Janus 
without his seeing it. 

61. O patrician blood, tyc.] Ye sons of 
senators, ye nobles of Rome, whose for- 
tune it is to be born without eyes at the 
back of your heads, and who therefore 
can't be apprized of what passes behind 
your backs. 

62. Prevent flouts, fyc.] By avoiding 
.ill occasions of them ; by not writing 
verses, for which your flatterers will 
commend you to your face, and laugh at 
you behind your backs. 

63. What is the speech, $c.~\ Persius 
here seems to go back to the de me, 1. 
55 ; all between which, and this L 63, 



How is it possible? Would you have me say it? you trifle, 

when, O bald head, 
Your fat paunch stands forth with a hanging-down foot and 

an half. 

O Janus ! whom no stork pecks behind your back, 
Nor has the moveable hand imitated white ears, 
Nor so much of the tongue, as an Appulian bitch when athirst. 
Ye, O patrician blood, whose condition it is to live with 61 
The hinder part of the head blind, prevent flouts behind 

your backs ! 
What is the speech of the people? What forsooth, 

unless that the verses 
Now at last flow with soft measure, so that, across the 

polish, the joining 

May pour forth severe nails. He knows how to extend a verse, 
Not otherwise than if he should direct the rubric with one eye ; 
Whether the work is on manners, on luxury, or the dinners 

of kings, 
The Muse gives our poet to say great things. 

is to be understood as a parenthesis, 
very properly introduced in the course 
of the subject. 

Now, says the great man to his flat- 
terer, after having treated him with a 
good dinner (1. 53.), what does the world 
say of me and my writings ? 

What forsooth.} i. e. What should 
they say, what can they say, unless to 
commend ? 

64. Xuw at last, <$<;.] That after all 
the pains you have taken, you have at 
last produced a charming work the 
verses flow in soft and gentle num- 

Across the. polish, $c.] Your verses 
are so highly finished, that they will 
stand the test of the severest and nicest 

Metaph. taken from polishers of mar- 
ble, who run their nail over the surface, 
in order to try if there be any uneven- 
ness ; and if the nail passes freely, with- 
out any stop or hindrance whatsoever, 
even over where there are joinings, then 
the work is completely finished. (Camp. 
HOR. de Art Poet L 294.) The sur- 
face being perfectly smooth, was said 
effundere unguem, it passing as smoothly 
as water poured forth over it 

65. //oio to extend a verse.] This 
period is also metaphorical, and alludes 

to the practice of carpenters and others, 
who work by line and rule, and who, 
when they would draw a straightline,shut 
one eye, the better to confine the visual 
rays to a single point So, says the flat- 
terer, this poet of ours draws forth his 
verses to their proper length, and makes 
them as exact as if he worked by line 
and rule. 

66. The rubric.'] Rubrica, a sort of 
ruddle, or red chalk, with which carpen- 
ters draw their lines on their work. 

67. On manners.] Whatever the sub- 
ject may be whether he writes comedy, 
and ridicules the humours of the 

On luxury.'] Or if he write satire, 
and lash the luxury of the great 

Or the dinners of kings.] Or writes 
tragedy, and chooses for his subject the 
sad feasts of tyrants. Perhaps Persius 
here alludes to the story of Thyestes, the 
son of Pelops, and brother of Atreus, 
with whose wife he had committed 
adultery ; to revenge which, Atreu 
dressed the child born of her, and served 
him up to his brother at his own table. 
On this Seneca wrote a tragedy. 

68. The Muse gives our poet, $c.] In 
short, be the subject what it may, a Muse 
is ever at hand, to inspire our poet with 
the most sublime and lofty poetry. 



Ecce, modo, heroas sensus afferre videmus 
Nugari solitos Grsece ; nee ponere lucum 
Artifices ; nee rus saturum laudare, ubi corbes, 
Et focus, et porci, et fumosa Palilia foeno ; 
Unde Remus, sulcoque terens dentalia, Quinti, 
Quern trepida ante boves dictatorem induit uxor ; 
Et tua aratra domum lictor tulit. Euge, poeta ! 

Est mine, Brisaei quern venosus liber Acci, 
Sunt quos Pacuviusque, et verrucosa moretur 
Antiopa, " aerumnis cor luctificabile fulta." 

Hos pueris monitus, patres infundere lippos 
Cum videas, qua3risne unde hsec sartago loquendi 

Such is the account which the great 
man receives of himself from his flat- 
terer, as an answer to his question, 
L 63, "What does the world say of 

69. Behold now we see, $fc.] Our poet 
proceeds to satirize other writers of his 
time, who, allured with the hopes of 
being flattered, attempted the sublime 
heights of epic writing, though utterly 
unfit for the undertaking. 

Heroic thoughts, <$(c. J Heroas sensus. 
Sensus signifies not only sense, meaning, 
understanding, but also thought. 

Heroas, from herous-a-um, before, 
stands here for heroos, masc. '. e. 
heroicos. Heroi sensus is to be under- 
stood of sublime matters for poetry, such 
as heroic or epic subjects. 

Now-a-days, saith Persius, we see cer- 
tain writers attempting and bringing 
out heroic poems, who used to be writ- 
ing trifles in Greek, such as little epi- 
grams, or the like. Some copies, in- 
stead of videmus, read docemus, as if 
the poet attacked schoolmasters, and 
other instructors of children, for teach- 
ing boys to write in heroics, at a time 
when they are not fit for it : but as it is 
not the purpose of these papers to enter 
into controversy with editors and com- 
mentators, I take videmus, as it stands 
in the Delphin edition, Farnaby, and 

70. Nor to describe a grove, <c.] They 
are so unskilled, and such bad artists 
even in the lighter style of composition, 
that they know not how to describe, as 
they ought, the most trite and common 
subjects, such as a grove, fields, &c. 
Pono-ere, literally signifies to put or 

place: but it also signifies to paint, draw, 
or portray, and so to describe. See HOK. 
lib. iv. ode viii. 1. 8. 

Hie saxo, liquidis Hie coloribus 
Solersnunc hominem ponere,nunc deum. 

71. Nor to praise a fertile country.] So 
as to set forth its beauties. 

Where are baskets, c\c.] Instead of 
describing the great and leading features 
of a fine plentiful country, they dwell 
upon the most trivial circumstances : 

His lay 

Recounts its chimnies, panniers, hoys, 
and hay. BREWSTER. 

72. Feasts of Pales, SfcJ] Pales was 
the goddess of shepherds, who kept 
feasts in honour of her, in order to pro- 
cure the safe parturition of their cattle. 
The reason of the epithet fumosa is, that 
during the feast of Pales the rustics 
lighted fires with hay, straw, or stubble, 
over which they leaped, by way of puri- 
fying themselves. These feasts of Pales 
were sure to be introduced by these 
jejune poeta. 

73. From whence Remus.'] Another 
circumstance which they introduce is a 
description of the birth-place of Remus 
and Romulus. 

Thou, O Quintius, i\c.] Cincinnatus, 
who was called from the plough to be 
made dictator of Rome he too is intro- 
duced on the occasion. 

74. Thy trembling wife, $e.] They tell 
us, how his wife Racilia was frightened 
at the sight of the messengers from 
Rome, and how she helped him on with 
his dictator's robe, as he stood by the 
oxen which were in the plough ; and 
how one of the Roman officers, who had 
attended the embassy to call hint to the 



Behold now we see those bring heroic thoughts, 
Who used to trifle in Greek, nor to describe a grove 70 
Skilful ; nor to praise a fertile country, where are baskets, 
And a fire-hearth, and swine, and the feasts of Pales smoky 

with hay : 
From whence Remus, and thou, O Quintius, wearing coulters 

in a furrow, 

Whom thy trembling wife clothed dictator before the oxen, 
And thy ploughs the lictor carried home. Well done, O 
poet ! 75 

There is now, whom the veiny book of Brissean Accius ; 
There are those whom both Pacuvius, and rugged Antiopa 
Might detain, having propped her mournful heart with sor- 
When you see blear-eyed fathers pour these admonitions 


Their children, do you seek whence this bombast manner of 
speaking 80 

dictatorship, carried his plough home 
upon his shoulders. 

75. Well done, O poet !] Iron. Finely 
done, to be sure, to introduce such 
weighty matters as these into thy poem ! 
thou art in a fair way to gain the highest 
applause ! 

Persius, in this passage, glances at 
some poetaster of his time, who, in a 
poem on the pleasures of a country life, 
had been very particular and tedious 
upon the circumstances here recited. 
See C'asaubon. 

76. There is now, fyc.] The poet now 
proceeds to censure those who affected 
antiquated and obsolete words and 
phrases, and who professed to admire 
the style of antiquated authors. 

The veiny book] Venosus metaph. 
from old men, whose veins stand out 

and look turgid, owing to the shrinking see such advising their children to study 
the old barbarous Latin poets, and to be 
fond of obsolete words 

80. Do you seek, fyc] Are you at a 
loss to know whence this jargon, of ob- 
solete and modern words, is heard in our 
common speech ? 

Sartago literally signifies a frying-pan ; 
perhaps, calls the mixture 

band, on account of her intrigue with 
Jupiter. The poet says, verrucosa An- 
tiopa, to express the roughness and rug- 
gedness of the style in which this tra- 
gedy was written. Verrucosus, full of 
warts, tumps, or hillocks so uneven, 

78. Might detain.] Moretur f. e. 
might detain their attention. 

Having propped, c.] This stran 

to be 

fustian expression is probably 
found in the tragedy. The poet appears 
to cite it, as a sample of the style in 
which the play is written. 

There are those, says Persius, who, 
now-a-days, can spend their time in 
reading these authors. 

79. Blear-eyed fathers, fy.] In old men 
the eyes are apt to be weak, moist, and 
to distil corrosive matter. When you 

of the flesh, through old age. Venosus 
liber hence signifies a book of some old 
and antiquated author a very old book. 
Briseean Accius.] Brisas was a town 
in Thrace, where Bacchus was wor- 
shipped with all the mad rites used at 
his feasts ; hence he was called Brisaeus. 
Persius gives this name to Accius, on ac- 
count of the wild and strange bombast 
which was in his writings. 

and the poet, per 

or jargon of old words and new, sartago 
loquendi, in allusion to the mixture of 

77. Pacuvitts.] An ancient tragic poet ingredients, of which they made their 
of Brundusium, who wrote the tragedy fried cakes, as bran, fat, honey, seeds, 
of Antiopa, the wife of Lycus, king of cheese, and the like. 
Thebes, who was repudiated by her hus- Some think that he alludes to the 



Venerit in linguas ? unde istud dedecus, in quo 
Trossulus exultat tibi per subsellia Isevis ? 
Nilne pudet, capiti non posse pericula cano 
Pellere, quin tepiduin hoc optes audire, Decenter ? 

Fur es, ait Pedio : Pedius quid 2 crimina rasis 85 

Librat in antithetis ; doctas posuisse figuras 
Laudatur : bellum hoc hoc bellum ? An, Romule, ceves ? 
Men 1 moveat quippe, et, cantet si naufragus, assem 
Protulerim ? cantas, cum fracta te in trabe pictum 
Ex huraero portes ? Verum, nee nocte paratum 90 

Plorabit, qui me volet incurvasse querela. 

crackling, bouncing, and hissing noise of 
the frying-pan, with these ingredients in 
it, over the fire ; this seems to relate to 
the manner of utterance, more than to 
what was uttered. See AINSW. Sar- 
tago, No. 2. 

81. Whence that disgrace.'] That style 
of writing, and of speaking, so disgrace- 
ful to the purity and smoothness of the 
Latin language. 

82. Smooth Trossulus, &;c.~] The Roman 
knights were called Trossuli, from Tros- 
sulus, a x:ity of Tuscany, which they 
took without the assistance of any in- 
fantry. Here the poet joins it with the 
epithet laevis, soft, effeminate ; therefore 
Trossulus, here, appears to signify a 
beau, a coxcomb, a petit-maitre. See 
AINSW. Trossulus ; and Casaubon in loc. 

Thro" 1 the benches.] Subsellia the 
seats at the theatre, or at the public re- 
citals of poetry, and other compositions. 
These fine gentlemen were so pleased 
with the introduction of obsolete words 
and phrases, that they could hardly keep 
their places ; they spread a general ap- 
plause through 'all the benches where 
they sat, and leaped up with ecstasy in 
their seats, charmed with such a poet. 

83. Does it nothing shame you, $c.~] 
Persius now proceeds to censure the va- 
nity of the orators, who paid more re- 
gard to the commendations of their au- 
ditories, than to the issue of the most 
important causes, even where life or 
fame was at stake. 

Are you not ashamed, says Persius, 
ought you not to blush at your vanity 
and folly, that, if accused of some capi- 
tal crime, instead of using plain argu- 
ments to defend your life from the dan- 
ger which awaits it, and to make that 
your end and aim, you are endeavour- 
ing so to speak, as to catch the applause 

of your judges, and of the auditory, 
and make it your chief wish to hear 
them say " Well, the man speaks de- 
" cently :" a poor lukewarm expression 
at best. 

85. Pedius.'] Pedius Blesus was ac- 
cused, in the time of Nero, by the Cy- 
renians, of having robbed and plundered 
the temple of ./Esculapius. He was 
condemned, and put out of the senate. 

Hence the poet uses the name of Pe- 
dius here, as denoting any supposed 
person accused of theft. 

" Thou art a thief," says some accuser, 
laying a robbery to his charge. 

What Pedius ?] i. e. What says Pe- 
dius, or what doth he, on such an accu- 
sation ? 

86. He weighs in polished antitlieses.] 
He opposes to his accusation curious 
figures of speech, affected phrases, sen- 
tences, and periods, in order to catch 
applause, instead of producing weighty, 
pertinent, and plain arguments for his 
defence. He puts, as it were, his accu- 
sation in one scale, and his affected pe- 
riods in the other, and thus weighs one 
against the other. Antithesis (from avn, 
contra, and n6rifj.i, pono) is a rhetori- 
cal flourish, when contraries are opposed 
to each other. Here, by synec. it stands 
for all the affected flowers of speech. 

87. He is praised."] The judges and 
auditory are highly delighted with the 
learned figures of speech which he has 
laid before them in his oration. 

This is fine!] Say his hearers finely 
spoken ! finely said ! 

This is fine /] Answers Persius, with 
indignation at the absurdity of such ill- 
timed applause, of such affected and 
ill-timed flourishes. 

O Romulus, Sfc.'] Can any Roman 
shew himself thus degenerate from his 



Came on their tongues ? Whence that disgrace, in which 
The smooth Trossulus exults to thee thro 1 the benches ? 
Does it nothing shame you, not to be able to drive away 

dangers from 
Your grey head, but you must wish to hear this lukewarm 

Decently ? 
Thou art a thief (says one to Pedius) What Pedius? 

his crimes 85 

He weighs in polished antitheses : to have laid down learned 

He is praised : this is fine ! this is fine ? O Romulus, do 

you wag the tail \ 
For if a shipwrecked mariner sings, could he move me, and 

a penny 
Should I bring forth ? do you sing, when yourself painted 

on a broken plank 
You carry from your shoulder 2 A true (misfortune) , not 

prepared by night, 90 

He shall deplore, who would bend me by his complaint. 

great and virtuous ancestor Romulus, as 
to fawn and flatter on such an occasion, 
and be like a dog that wags his tail when 
he would curry favour ? Ceveo signifies 
to wag, or move the tail, as dogs do when 
they fawn upon one. Hence, metaph. 
it is used to express fawning andflattery. 

Persius used the word Romule, as 
Juv. sat iii. 1. 67, uses Quirine. See 
the note there. 

88.7/" shipwrecked mariner sings, fycJ\ 
If a poor sailor, that had been cast away, 
should meet me in the street, and ask an 
alms, at the same time appearing very 
jolly and merry, would this be the way 
to move my compassion ; to make me 
pull some money out of my pocket and 
give it him ? 

89. Do you sing, fyc."] It was the cus- 
tom for persons that had been ship- 
wrecked, and had escaped with their 
lives, to have themselves, together with 
the scene of their misfortune and danger, 
painted on a board, which they hung by 
a string from their shoulders upon their 
breast, that the passers-by might be 
moved with compassion at the sight, and 
relieve them with alms. These tables 
were afterwards hung up in the temples, 
and dedicated to some god, as Neptune, 
Juno. &i-. hence they were called voti- 
v:v tribute. See HOR. lib. i. ode v. ad 
fin. Juv. sat xii. 1. '27. 

The poet here allegorizes the case of 
Pedius. Do you sing, when you are 
carrying your miserable self painted on 
a board, and represented as suffering 
the calamity of shipwreck, in order to 
move compassion ? i.e. Are you study- 
ing and making fine flourishing speeches, 
filled with affected tropes and figures, 
at a time when you are accused of such 
a crime as theft, and are standing in 
the dangerous situation of an arraigned 
robber ? Is this the way to move com- 
passion towards you ? 

90. A true, $e.] There wants plura- 
tum, dolorem, or some such word, after 
verum plorare verum dolorem, like vi- 
vere vitam, for instance. 

Not prepared l>y night.] Not conned, 
studied, or invented beforehand ; over 
night, as we say. 

91. Bend me by his complaint.] i. e. 
Make me bow or yield to the feelings 
of commiseration for his sufferings. 

The poet means, that the complain- 
ant who would move his pity must 
speak the true and native language of 
real grief from the heart, not accost 
him with an artful studied speech, as if 
he had conned it over beforehand. 

Si vis meflere, dolendum est 

Primum ipsi tibi. 

H<m. il,- Art. Poet. 1. 102, 3. 
So Pedius, however lie might get the 


M . Sed numeris decor est, et junctura addita crudis. 
P. Claudere sic versum didicit : Berecynthius Attin, 
Et qui coeruleum dirimebat Nerea delphin : 
Sic costam longo subduximus Apennino. 95 

M. Arma virum, nonne hoc spumosum, et cortice pingui ? 
P. Ut ramale vetus prsegrandi subere coctum. 

M. Quidnam igitur tenerum, et laxa cervice legendura ? 
P. " Torva Mimalloneis implerunt cornua bombis ; 
" Et raptum vitulo caput ablatura superbo 100 

" Bassaris ; et lyncem Msenas flexura corymbis, 
" Evion ingeminat : reparabilis adsonat echo." 

applause of his hearers, by his figurative 
eloquence and flowery language, when 
on his trial, could never excite pity for 
his situation. 

92. But there is beauty, $c.] Well, 
but however the flights which you have 
been mentioning, says the poetaster, and 
the studied and flowery style, may be 
suitable in declamation, especially on 
such occasions, yet surely they have a 
peculiar beauty in our verses, which 
would be quite raw, and appear crude 
and undigested without them. 

And composition added, $fc.] Junc- 
tura is literally a coupling, or joining 
together ; hence a composition, or join- 
ing words in a particular form, as in 

Notum si callida verb/urn 

Reddiderit junctura novum. 

HOR. de Art Poet. 1. 47, 8. 

The poetaster would fain contend for 
the great improvement made in writing 
verses by the modern studied composi- 
tion, and the introduction of figurative 

93. TJius hath he learnt to conclude a 
versed] The didicit here, without a nomi- 
native case, is rather abrupt and obscure, 
but the poet affects to be so ; he does 
not venture to name the person meant, 
though his quoting some verses of Nero, 
as instances of the great improvements 
which had been made in the composi- 
tion of verse, plainly shews his design, 
which was to ridicule the emperor, 
whose affected, jingling, and turgid style, 
was highly applauded by his flatterers. 

" Berecynthian Attin."~\ This and 
the next verse rhyme in the original. 

94. "And the dolphin," $c.] Alluding 
to the story of Arion, who was carried 
safe to land, when thrown overboard, on 

the back of a dolphin. 

Nereus, a sea god, is here affectedly 
put for the sea itself. 

95. " Thus we removed" tyc.] There 
is a jingle in this verse between the 
longo in the middle, and Apennion at 
the end. The writer of these three 
quoted lines changes Atys or Attis into 
Attin, to make it rhyme with Del- 

Atys, or Attis, the subject of this 
poem, was a handsome youth of PTirygia, 
beloved by Cybele, who from Berecyn- 
thus, a mountain of Asia Minor, where 
she was worshipped, was called Bere- 
cynthia : hence the writer of the poem 
affects to call Atys Berecynthius. 

" Thus we removed a rib," fyc.~\ The 
end of this verse is spondaic, which Nero 
much affected in his heroics. He calls 
Hannibal's opening a way for his army 
over the Alps, removing a rib from the 
Apennine mountains a strange, affected 
phrase ! 

96. " Arms and the man," fyc.] Anna 
virumque JEn. i. 1. 1. Well, replies the 
poetaster, if you find fault with what you 
have quoted, I suppose you will find 
fault with Virgil's arma virumque cano, 
and perhaps with his whole jEneid, as 
frothy, turgid, and, like a tree with a 
thick bark, appearing great, but having 
little of value within. 

97. As an old bough, 4fC.] Ramale is a 
dead bough cut from a tree. Persius 
answers, Yes, Virgil is like an old bough 
with a thick bark ; but then we must 
understand, such a bough as has been 
cut from the tree, and whose bark has 
been dried for many years by the sun, 
so that all its gross particles are exhaled 
and gone, and nothing but what is solid 
remains. Suber signifies the cork-tree, 



M. But there is beauty and composition added to crude 

P. Thus hath he learnt to conclude a verse : " Berecyn- 

" thian Attin, 

" And the dolphin which divided cserulean Nereus 
" Thus we removed a rib from the long Apennine." 95 

M. "Arms and the man" is not this frothy, and with a 

fat bark ? 
P. As an old bough dried with a very large bark. 

M. What then is tender, and to be read with a loose neck ? 
P. " They fuTd their fierce horns with Mimallonean blasts, 
" And Bassaris, about to take away the head snatched from 
" the proud 100 

" Calf, and Msenas, about to guide a lynx with ivy, 
" Redoubles Evion : the reparable echo sounds to it." 

which is remarkable for its thick bark 
therefore put here for the bark ; syn. 
thus cortex, the bark, is sometimes put 
for the tree, which is remarkably light. 
HOR. ode ix. lib. iii. 1. 22. 

98. What tlicn is tender, $c.~\ Well, 
says the opponent to Persius, let us have 
done with heroics, and tell me what you 
allow to be good of the tender kind of 

With a loose neck.} With a head re- 
clined, in a languishing, soft, and tender 
manner. This is humorously put in 
opposition to the attitudes made use of 
in reading the bombast and fustian he- 
roics of these poetasters, who stood 
with the neck stretched as high as 
they could, and straining their throats, 
to give force and loudness to their utter- 

99. " TtieyfiWd their fierce horns, 1 " $e.] 
Giving a fierce and warlike sound. Some 
render torva here writhed, twisted, or 
crooked, quasi torta. 

Persius, deriding the querist, quotes 
four more lines, which are supposed to 
have been written by Nero, and which 
exhibit a specimen of one of the most ab- 
surd rhapsodies that ever was penned. 

"Mimallonean blasts."] The Mimal- 
lones were priestesses of Bacchus ; they 
were so called from Mimas, a mountain 
of Ionia, sacred to Bacchus. 

Bombus signifies a hoarse sound or 
blast, as of a trumpet or horn. 

100. "jRaxsum."] Agave, or any other 
of the priestesses ; called Bassaris, from 

Bassarus, a name of Bacchus. 

Having given the alarm, Agave and 
the rest of the Mimallones cut off the 
head of Pentheus (the son of Agave and 
Echion), and tore him to pieces, because 
he would drink no wine, and slighted 
the feasts of Bacchus. Pentheus is 
thought to be meant here by the superbo 

101. " M^nos."] These priestesses of 
Bacchus were also called Maenades 
(from Gr. /jMiveo-Qcu, insanire. See 
Juv. sat. vi. 1. 316. 

"To guide a li/rur.'"'} These were 
beasts of the leopard or tiger kind, and 
represented as drawing the chariot of 
Bacchus. The word flexura here, like 
flectere, VIRG. G. ii. 357, means to 
guide. So again, ./En. i. 156, flectit 
equos " he guides or manages his 
" horses." Thus the priestesses of 
Bacchus might be said flectere, to guide 
or manage lynxes with bands or rods of 
ivy. This was sacred to Bacchus, be- 
cause, returning conqueror from India, 
he was crowned with ivy. 

102. "Redoubles .&non."] Ingemino 
signifies to redouble to repeat often, 
Evios, or Evius, a name of Bacchus, on 
which the Bacchantes used to call (Et/ot, 
Gr.) till they wrought themselves into 
a fury like madness. See Juv. sat. vii. 
1. 62, and note. 

"The reparable ecfio,'" fyc.] So 
called from repeating, and so repairing 
the sounds, which would otherwise be 


Hsec fierent, si testiculi vena ulla paterni 
Viveret in nobis ? Summa delumbe saliva 
Hoc natat in labris ; et in udo est Msenas et Attin ; 
Nee pluteum csedit, nee demorsos sapit ungues. 

M. Sed quid opus teneras mordaci radere vero 
Auriculas ? Vide sis, ne majorum tibi forte 
Limina frigeseant. Sonat hie de nare canina 
Litera P. Per me, equidem, sint omnia protinus alba 
Nil moror. Euge, omnes, omnes bene mirse eritis res. 
Hoc juvat ; hie, inquis, veto quisquaui faxit oletum ; 
Pinge duos angues : pueri, sacer est locus, extra 
Meite : discedo. Secuit Lucilius urbem, 



103. Would these be made.'] i. e. 
Would such verses as these be made, 
but more especially would they be com- 

If any vein, 3fe.] If there were the 
least trace of the manly wisdom of our 
ancestors among us ? 

104. This feeble stuff".} Delumbis 
weak, feeble, broken - backed, as it 

105. Swims in the lips.'] The poet, by 
this phrase, seems to mean, that the flat- 
terers of Nero had these lines always at 
their tongues' end, (as we say,) and were 
spitting them out, i. e. repeating and 
quoting them continually. 

And in the wet.] In udo esse, and 
in summa saliva natare, seem to imply 
the same thing ; viz. that these poems of 
Attys and Msenas were always in peo- 
ple's mouths, mixed with their spittle, as 
it were. 

106. Nor does he beat Ms desk, $&] 
The penman of such verses as these is 
at very little pains about them. He 
knows nothing of those difficulties, 
which, at times, pains-taking poets are 
under, so as to make them smite the 
desk which they write upon, and gnaw 
their nails to the quick, with vexa- 

See HOR, lib. ii. sat iii. L 7, 8. 
Cidpantur frustra calami, frustraque 


Iratis natus paries Dis atque poetis. - 
And again, lib. i. sat. x. 1. 70, 1. 

In versu faciendo 

Saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet 

107. Where's the need, <5fc.] We are 
to recollect, that this Satire opens with 

a dialogue between Persius and his 
friend : that the latter persuades Persius 
against publishing ; that Persius says, 
he is naturally of a satirical turn of mind, 
and does not know how to refrain, (1. 12.) 
and then launches forth into the severest 
censure on the writers of his day. His 
friend perceiving that what he first said 
against publishing would not have its 
effect, still farther dissuades him, by 
hinting at the danger he ran of getting 
the ill-will of the great. 

" Where is the necessity, (says his 
friend,) supposing all you say to be 
true, yet where is the necessity to hurt 
the ears of those who have been used 
to hear nothing but flattery, and there- 
fore must be very tender and sus- 
ceptible of the acutest feelings of un- 
easiness and displeasure, on hearing 
such bitter and stinging truths as you 
deliver ?" 

108. See to it.'] Vide sis (i.e. si vis) 
take care, if you please. 

Lest haply the thresholds, $c.~\ Lest 
it fall out, that you should so offend 
some of the great folks, as to meet with 
a cool reception at their houses. 
So HOR. sat. i. lib. ii. 1. 60 3. 

O puer, tit sis 

Vtialis metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus 
Friffore teferiat. 

109. Here.] i. e. In these Satires of 
yours, there is a disagreeable sound, 
like the snarling of a dog, very unpleasant 
to the ears of such people. 

109, 10. From the nostril sounds the 
canine letter.'] R is called the dog's let- 
ter, because the vibration of the tongue 
in pronouncing it resembles the smirling 
of a dog. See Alchymist, act ii. se. YK 



Would these be made, if any vein of our paternal manli- 

Lived in us ? This feeble stuff, on the topmost spittle, 
Swims in the lips, and in the wet is Msenas and Attys. 105 
Nor does he beat his desk, nor taste his gnawn nails. 
M. But where's the need to grate tender ears with biting 

truth ? 

See to it, lest haply the thresholds of the great 
Should grow cold to you : here from the nostrils sounds the 
canine letter 109 

P. For my part, truly, let every thing be henceforward white. 
I hinder not. O brave ! all things, ye shall all be very won- 
This pleases. Here, say you, I forbid that any should make 

a pissing place : 

Paint two snakes : boys, the place is sacred : without 
Make water I depart. Lucilius cut the city, 

110. For my part, truly, %c.] Well, 
answers Persius, if this be the case, I'll 
have nothing to do with them ; all they 
do and say shall be perfectly right, for 
me, from henceforward. The ancients 
put black for what was bad, and white 
for what was good, according to that 
of Pythagoras : 

To jue/ \evKov TTJS Ayadov <J>u<rej, 
TO Sf fj,t\av KOKOV. 

White is of the nature of good black 
of evil. 

111.7 hinder not.'] I shall say nothing 
to prevent its being thought so. Or nil 
moror may be rendered, I don't care about 
it Comp. HOR. sat. iv. lib. i. L 13. 

O brave! Jje.] Well done! every 
thing, good people, that ye say and do 
shcill be admirable. Iron. This wretched 
verse is supposed to be written at a 
banter on the bad poets. 

112. This pleases.] Surely this conces- 
sion pleases you, my friend. 

Here, say you, I forbid, $c.~\ Me- 
taph. It was unlawful to do thoir oc- 
casions, or to make water, in any sacred 
place ; and it was customary to paint 
two snakes on the walls or doors of such 
places, in order to mark them out to the 
people. The poet is ironically com- 
paring the persons and writings of the 
great (glancing, no doubt, at Nero) to 
such sacred places ; and as these were 
forbidden to be denied with urine and 
excrement, so he understands his friend 

to say, that neither the persons or writ- 
ings of the emperor and of the nobles 
were to be defiled with the abuse and 
reproofs of satirists. Juv. sat. i. 131. 

113. Paint two snakes.] These were 
representatives of the deity or genius 
of the sacred place, and painted there 
as signals to deter people, children espe- 
cially, who were most apt to make free 
with such places, from the forbidden de- 
filement Mark out, says Persius, these 
sacred characters to me, that I may 
avoid defiling them. Iron. 

114. / depart^ Says Persius, I am 
gone I shall not tarry a moment on 
forbidden ground, nor drop my Satires 

Lucilius cut the city.'] Lucilius, whose 
works are not come down to us, was 
almost the father of the Roman satire. 
He was a very severe writer ; hence our 
poet's saying, secuit urbem, he cut up, 
slashed as with a sword, the city, t. e. 
the people of Rome, from the highest to 
the lowest So Juv. sat i. 1. 156. 

Ease wlut stricto quoties Lucilius ar- 

Infrcmuit, fyc. 
Comp. HOR. sat. iv. lib. i. 1. 112. 

Persius seems to bethink himself. 
He has just said, I depart t. e.. I shall 
not meddle with the great people 
" But why should I depart ? Lucilius 
" could lash all sorts of people, and 
" why should not I ?" 



Te, Lupe, te, Muti; et genuinum fregit in illis. 115 

Omne vafer vitium ridenti Flaccus amico 

Tangit ; et admissus circum prsecordia ludit, 

Callidus excusso populum suspendere naso. 

Men' niutire nefas ? Nee clam, nee cum scrobe ? M. Nus- 


P. Hie tamen infodiam : " Vidi, vidi ipse, libelle : 120 

" Auriculas asini quis non habet f Hoc ego opertum, 
Hoc ridere meum, tarn nil, nulla tibi vendo 
Iliade. - Audaci quicunque afflate Cratino, 
Iratum Eupolidem prsegrandi cum sene palles, 
Aspice et hsec : si forte aliquid decoctius audis, 125 

Inde vaporata lector mihi ferveat aure. 

115. Thee, Lupus, thee, Mutius.~\ Pub. 
Rutilius Lupus, the consul, and Titus 
Mutius Albutius, a very powerful man. 

q. d. Lucilius not only satirized the 
great, but did it by name. 

Brake his jaio teoth, fyc.~\ Metaph. 
from grinding food between the jaw- 
teeth, to express the severity with which 
he treated them, grinding them to pieces 
as it were ; brake his very teeth upon 

116. Sly Horace touches, <3fc.] Horace, 
though he spared not vice, even in his 
friends, yet he was shrewd enough to 
touch it in such a manner as to please 
even while he chastised. 

117. And admitted, SfC.] He insinuated 
himself into the affections, and seemed 
in sport, having the happy art of im- 
proving, without the least appearance of 
severity or sneering. 

118. Cunning to hang up, fc.] Sus- 
pendere, to hang them or hold them up 
to view, as the subjects of his satires. 

Excusso naso here stands in opposi- 
tion to naribus uncis, supr. 1. 41. see 
note there, and to the naso adunco of Ho- 
race ; and means the unwrinkled and 
smooth appearance of the nose when 
in good-humour, and so, good-humour 
itself : Quasi rugis excusso. 

119. To mutter, V.] If others, in 
their different ways, could openly sa- 
tirize, may not I have the liberty of 
even muttering, secretly with myself, 
or among a few select friends pri- 
vately ? 

Nor with a ditch."] Alluding to the 
story of Midas's barber, who, when he 
saw" the ass's ears which Apollo had 
placed on the head of Midas, not daring 

to tell it to others, he dug a ditch or 
furrow in the earth, and there vented 
his wish to speak of it, by whispering 
what he had seen. 

120. Nevertheless I ivill dig here, $c.~] 
Though I can't speak out, yet I will use 
my book as the barber did the ditch ; 
I will secretly commit to it what I have 
seen. Infodiam relates to the manner 
of writing with the point of an iron bod- 
kin, which was called a style, on tablets 
of wood smeared with wax, so that the 
writer might be said to dig or plough 
the wax as he made the letters. 

"0 little 6oo/t."] Here, with indigna- 
tion, the poet relates, as it were, to his 
book (as the barber did to his ditch) 
what he had seen ; namely, the absurdity 
and folly of the modern taste for poetry, 
in Nero, in the nobles, and in all their 

121. " The ears of an ass."] Alluding 
still to the story of Midas, who, finding 
fault with the judgment of the country 
deities, when they adjudged the prize to 
Apollo, in his contention with Pan, had 
asses' ears fixed on him by Apollo. 

Who, says the poet, does not judge of 
poetry as ill as Midas judged of music ? 
One would think they had all asses' ears 
given them for their folly. SUET, in 
Vit. Persii, says, that thjs line originally 
stood for Mida rex habet, which Cornu- 
tus, his friend and instructor, advised 
him to change to quis non habet? lest 
it should be thought to point too plainly 
at Nero. 

/ thin hidden thing. ,] This secret joke 
of mine. 

122. This lawjh of mine.'] Hoc ridero, 
for hunc risum, a Grsecism ; meaning his 



Thee, Lupus, thee, Mutius; and he brake his jaw-tooth 

upon them. 115 

Sly Horace touches every vice, his friend laughing : 
And admitted round the heart, plays 
Cunning to hang up the people with an unwrinkled nose. 
Is it unlawful for me to mutter? neither secretly, nor with a 

ditch? M. No where. 
P. Nevertheless I will dig here. " I have seen, I myself 

" have seen, O little book : 120 

" Who has not the ears of an ass f I this hidden thing, 
This laugh of mine, such a nothing, I sell to thee for no 
Iliad. O thou whosoever art inspired by bold Cratinus, 
Art pale over angry Eupolis, with the very great old man, 
These too behold : if haply any thing more refined you hear, 
Let the reader glow towards me with an ear evaporated from 

thence. 126 

Satires, in which he derides the objects 
of them. See L 9, and note. 

Such a nothing.'} So insignificant 

and worthless in thine opinion, my friend, 
(comp. 1. 2, 3.) and perhaps in the eyes 
of others, that they would not think 
them worth reading, as you told me. 

/ sell to thee, fyc.~\ Nero, as well as 
Labeo, had written a poem on the de- 
struction of Troy ; to these the poet may 
be supposed to allude, when he says he 
would not sell his Satires his nothing, as 
others esteemed them for my Iliad : 
perhaps the word nulla may be under- 
stood as extending to Homer himself. 

123. O thou whosoever, 3fo.] Afflate 
hast read so much of Cratinus, as to be 
influenced and inspired with his spirit 
Cratinus was a Greek comic poet, who, 
with a peculiar boldness and energy, sa- 
tirized the evil manners of his time. The 
poet is about to describe what sort of 
readers he chooses for his Satires, and 
those whom he does not choose. 

124. Art pale.] With reading and 
studying hast contracted that paleness 
of countenance, which is incident to stu- 
dious people. See Juv. sat vii. 1. 97; 
and Pers. sat v. L 62. 

Angry Eupolis.'] This was another 
comic poet, who, incensed at the vices of 
the Athenians, lashed them in the se- 
verest manner. He is said to have been 
thrown into the sea by Alcibiades, for 
some verses written against him. 

With the wry great old man.} The 

poet here meant is Aristophanes, who 
lived to a very great age. He was of a 
vehement spirit, had a genius turned to 
raillery, wit free and elevated, and cou- 
rage not to fear the person when vice 
was to be reproved. He wrote thirty- 
four comedies, whereof eleven only re- 

HOR. lib. i. sat iv. 1. 1, mentions all 
these three poets together. 

Persius gives him the epithet of prae- 
grandi, either on account of his age, for 
he lived till he was fourscore, or on ac- 
count of the great eminence of his writ- 
ings, for he was the prince of the old 
comedy, as Menander was of the new ; 
but so as we must join, says Ainsworth, 
Eupolis and Cratinus with the former, 
Diphilus and Polemon with the latter. 

125. These too behold.} Look also on 
these Satires of mine. 

If haply any thing more refined, [c.~\ 
The poet speaks modestly of his own 
writings, si forte, (see before, 1. 44, 5.) 
if it should so happen, that thou should- 
est meet with any thing more clear, well 
digested, pure, refined than ordinary. 
Metaph. taken from liquors, which, by 
being often boiled, lose much of their 
quantity, but gain more strength and 
clearness. It is said of Virgil, that he 
would make fifty verses in a morning, or 
more, and in the evening correct and 
purge them till they were reduced to 
about ten. 

126. Let the reader glotc, fy.] If, says 



Non hie, qui in crepidas Graioruin luclere gestit 

Sordidus, et lusco qui possit dicere, Lusce : 

Sese aliquem credens, Italo quod honore supinus, 

Fregerit heminas Areti sedilis iniquas. 

Nee, qui abaco numeros, et secto in pulvere metas, 

Scit risisse vafer ; multum gaudere paratus, 

Si Cynico barbam petulans Nonaria vellat. 

His, mane, edictum ; post prandia, Callirhoen, do. 


Persius, there be any thing in my writ- 
ings better than ordinary, let the reader, 
who has formed his taste on the writ- 
ings of the poets above mentioned, glow 
with a fervour of delight towards the 
author. This I take to be the meaning 
of the line, which literally is 

Let the reader glow towards me with 
an ear evaporated (t. e. purified from the 
false taste of the present times) from 
thence (i, e. from, or by, reading and 
studying the writings of Cratinus, &c.) 
such I wish to be my readers. Vaporo 
signifies to send out vapours, to evapo- 
rate : thus the metaphor is continued 
through both the lines. 

127. Not he, u-ho delights, <?re.] Persius 
now marks out those who were not to be 
chosen for his readers. 

The first class of men which he objects 
to are those who can laugh at the per- 
sons and habits of philosophers ; this 
bespeaks a despicable, mean, and sordid 

Slippers of the, Grecians.'] Crepidas 
Graiorum, a peculiar sort of slippers, or 
shoes, worn by philosophers here put by 
synec. for the whole dress : but it is most 
likely, that Persius here means the phi- 
losophers themselves, and all their wise 
sayings and institutes ; these were ori- 
ginally derived from Greece. 

128. Sordid.'] See note, No. 1, above, 
atl. 127, ad fin. 

Say to the blinkard, fy:.] Luscus is 

he that has lost an eye, a one-eyed man. 
Persius means those who can upbraid 
and deride the natural infirmities or mis- 
fortunes of others. 

Can mock the blind : and has the wit to 


{Prodigious wit!) " Why,fiiend,you 
" want an eye ?" BREVVSTER. 

129. Thinking himself somebody.] A 
person of great consequence. 

Lifted up, $fc.] Puffed up with 
self-importance, because bearing an of- 
fice In some country-district of Italy ; 
and therefore flippant of his abuse, by 
way of being witty, 1. 127, 8. 

130. An cedile, fyc.] An inferior kind 
of country-magistrate, who had juris- 
diction over weights and measures, and 
had authority to break and destroy 
those which were false. Juv. sat. x. 1. 

Aretium.'] A city of Tuscany, fa- 
mous for making earthen- ware, but, per- 
haps, put here for any country town. 

So heminas, half sextaries, little mea- 
sures holding about three quarters of a 
pint, are put for measures in general. 
Comp. Juv. sat x. 101, 2. 

131. Nor ivho, arch, #c.] Another 
class of people, which Persius would ex- 
clude from the number of his readers, 
are those who laugh at and despise all 
science whatsoever. 

Abacus signifies a bench, slate, or 
table, used for accounts by arithmeti- 



Not he, who delights to sport on the slippers of the Grecians, 
Sordid, and who can say to the blinkard, thou blinkard : 
Thinking himself somebody ; because, lifted up with Italian 


^Vn aedile he may have broken false measures at Aretium. 
Nor who, arch, knows to laugh at the numbers of an ac- 
countable, 131 
And bounds in divided dust ; prepared to rejoice much, 
If petulant Nonaria should pluck a Cynic's beard. 
I give to these, in the morning, an edict ; after dinner, Cal- 

cians, and for figures by arithmeticians 
here put for arithmetic and mathe- 

132. Bounds in divided dust.] The 
geometricians made their demonstrations 
upon dust, or sanded floors, to the end 
that their lines might easily be changed 
and struck out again here geometry is 

133. Petulant Nvnaria, -c.] Who 
think it an high joke, if they see an im- 
pudent strumpet meet a grave Cynic in 
the street, and pull him by the beard ; 
which was the greatest affront that could 
be offered. Comp. Hoa. sat iii. lib. i. 
L 133,4. 

The ninth hour, or our three o'clock 
in the afternoon, was the time when the 
harlots first made their appearance ; 
In-nee they were called Xonariae. Per- 
haps our poet may allude, in this line, 
to the story of Diogenes, (mentioned by 
Athen. lib. xiii.) who was in love with 
Lais, the famous courtezan, and had his 
beard plucked by her. 

134. In the morning, an edict. ,] To 
such people as these I assign employ- 
ments suitable to their talents and 
characters. It has been usually thought, 
that edictum here means the praetor's 
edict, and that by Callirhoe is meant 
some harlot of that name ; and therefore 
this line is to be understood, as if Persius 

meant that these illiterate fellows should 
attend the forum in the morning, and 
the brothel in the evening ; but the 
former seems too serious an employ for 
men such as he is speaking of. 

Marcilius, therefore, more reasonably, 
takes edictum (consonant to the phrases 
edictum ludorum, edictum muneris gla- 
diatorii, &c.) to signify a programma, a 
kind of play-bill, which was stuck up, as 
ours are, in a morning ; aud Callirhoe to 
be the title of some wretched play, writ- 
ten on the story of that famous parricide 
(who slew her father because he would 
not consent to her marriage) by some of 
the writers at which this Satire is level- 
led, and which was announced to be 
performed in the evening. 

q. d. Instead of wishing such to read 
my Satires, I consign these pretty gen- 
tlemen to the study of the play-bills in 
the morning, and to an attendance on 
the play in the evening. Thus this 
Satire concludes, in conformity with the 
preceding part of it, with lashing bad 
writers and their admirers. 

Marcilius contends, that this line is to 
be referred to Nero, against whom, as a 
poet, this Satire is principally, though 
covertly, levelled who, by ordering 
bills to be distributed, called the people 
together, in order to hear him sing over 
his poems on Callirhoe, , 



It being customary among the Romans for one friend to send a 
present to another on his birth-day Persius, on the birth- 
day of his friend Macrinus, presents him with this Satire, 
which seems (like Juv. Sat. x.) to be founded on Plato's 
dialogue on prayer, called The Second Alcibiades. 

The Poet takes occasion to expose the folly and impiety of those, 
who, thinking the gods to be like themselves, imagined that 
they were to be bribed into compliance with their prayers by 
sumptuous presents ; whereas, in truth, the gods regard not 
these, but regard only the pure intention of an honest heart. 


HUNC, Macrine, diem numera meliore lapillo, 
Qui tibi labentes appouit candidus annos. 
Funde merum genio : non tu prece poscis emaci, 
Quae, nisi seductis, nequeas committere divis : 

Line 1. Macrinus.} Who this Macri- WhiteJ] i. e, Happy, good, propi- 

nus was does not sufficiently appear ; he tious. 

was a learned man, and a friend of Per- Adds to thee sliding years.] Sets one 

sius, who here salutes him on his birth- more complete year to the score, and 

day. begins another. 

Better stoneJ] The ancients reckoned Sliding years.~\ 

happy days with white pebbles, and un- Eheu fugaees, Posthume, Posthume, 
happy days with black ones, and at the Labuntur anni. 
end of the year cast up the reckoning, HOR. ode xiv. lib. ii. 

by which they could see how many Years that glide swiftly, and almost im- 

happy, and how many unhappy days perceptibly away. N 
had past. 3. Pour out wine to your geniusJ] The 

The poet here bids his friend dis- genius was a tutelar god, which they 

tinguish his birth-day among the hap- believed to preside at their birth, whom 

piest of his days, with a better, a whiter they worshipped every year on their 

stone than ordinary. See Juv. sat. birth-day, by making a libation of wine, 

xii. 1. They did not slay any beast in sacrifice 

2. Which.'] i. e. Which day to their genius on that day, because they 



In the course of this Satire, which seems to have given occasion 
to the tenth Satire of Juvenal, Persius mentions the impious 
and hurtful requests which men make, as well as the bad 
means which they employ to have their wishes fulfilled. 

The whole of this Satire is very grave, weighty, and in- 
structive; and, like that of Juvenal, contains sentiments, 
more like a Christian than an heathen. 

Bishop Burnet says, that " this Satire may well pass for one 
" of the best lectures in divinity." 


THIS day, Macrinus, number with a better stone, 
Which, white, adds to thee sliding years. 
Pour out wine to your genius. You do not ask with merce- 
nary prayer, 
Which you cannot commit unless to remote gods ; 

would not take away life on the day on 
which they received it. They supposed 
a genius not only to preside at their 
birth, but to attend and protect them 
constantly through their life ; therefore, 
on other days, they sacrificed beasts to 
their genii. Hence HOR. lib. iii. ode 
xvii. 1. 1416. 

Cras genium mero 

Gurabis, et porco bimestri, 
Cumfamulis operum solutis. 
The libation of wine on their birth- 
day was attended also with strewing 
flowers. The former was iin emblem of 
cheerfulness and festivity : the latter, 
from their soon fading, of the frailty and 
shortness of human life. 

TeUurem porco, Sylvanum lacte pia- 


Floribus et vido genium, memorem 
brevis tevi. 

HOR, epist i. lib. ii. 1. 143,4. 

3. Mercenary prayer. ~\ Emaci, from 
emo, to buy t. e. with a prayer, with 
which, as with a bribe, or reward, 
you were to purchase what you pray 

4. Which you cannot commit, fyc.~\ 
Which you must offer to the gods in 
secret, and as if the gods were taken 
aside, that nobody but themselves should 
hear what you say to them. 

Committero, here, has the sense of 
to intrust, to impart. 



At bona pars procerum tacita libabit acerra. 5 

Haud cuivis promptum est, murmurque humilesque susurros 

Tollere de templis, et aperto vivere voto. 

" Mens bona, fama, fides ;" hsec clare, et ut audiat hospes. 

Ilia sibi introrsum, et sub lingua immurmurat, " O si 

" Ebullit patrui prseclarum funus ! et, si 10 

" Sub rastro crepet argenti mihi seria, dextro 

" Hercule ! Pupillumve utinam, quern proximus hasres 

" Impello, expungam ! namque est scabiosus, et acri 

" Bile tumet Nerio jam tertia ducitur uxor." 

Hsec sancte ut poscas, Tiberino in gurgite mergis 15 

Mane caput, bis, terque ; et noctem flumine purgas. 

Heus age, responde ; minimum est quod scire laboro : 

5. A good part.] A great many, a 
large portion. 

So HoR.lib. i. sati L 61. Bona pars 
hominum ; a good many, as we say. 

Tacit censer.] Acerra properly sig- 
nifies the vessel, or pan, in which the 
incense is burnt in sacrifice : they said 
their prayers as the smoke of the incense 
ascended ; but these nobles spake so 
low, as not to be heard by others, so 
that the incense seemed silently to 
ascend, unaccompanied with any words 
of prayer. This seems to be the meaning 
of tacita libabit acerra. In short, their 
petitions were of such a nature, that 
they cared not to utter them loud 
enough for other people to hear them ; 
they themselves were ashamed of them. 

6. It is not easy, 6fe.] As times go, 
people are not very ready to utter their 
wishes and prayers publicly, and to re- 
move from the temples of the gods those 
inward murmurs and low whispers in 
which their impious petitions are de- 

7. And to live, fyc.] i. e. To make 
it their practice to utter their vows and 
prayers openly, in the sight and hearing 
of all. 

8. "A good mind, reputation," fyc] 
These things, which are laudable and 
commendable, and to be desired by 
virtuous people, these they will ask for 
with a clear and audible voice, so that 
any stander-by may hear them perfectly. 

9. Those, 3fc.] *. e. Those things that 
follow (which are impious and scanda- 
lous) and which he does not care should 
be heard by others, he mutters in- 

Under his tongue.'] Keeps them 
within his mouth, fearing to let them 
pass his lips. 

10." Tlie pompous funeral.''' 1 ] One prays 
for the death of a rich uncle. 

" Bubble up."] i. e. Appear in all its 
pomp. Ebullit, for ebullierit metaph. 
from water when boiling up, which 
swells, as it were, and runs over. 

11. "A pot of silver," 4"c.] Another 
prays that he may find a vessel of hid- 
den treasure, as he is raking his field. 
See HOR. lib. ii. sat. vi. L 10. 

" Hercules," Sfc.] He was supposed 
to preside over hidden treasures. 

12. Or my v-ard.] If it were not 
to be his lot to have his avarice gratified 
by finding hidden treasure, yet, says this 
covetous suppliant, " I have a rich or- 
" phan under my care, to whom I am 
" heir-at-law, that I could but put him 
"out of the way!" Expungam blot 
him out. 

13. " Impel."] A metaph. taken from 
one wave driving on another, and suc- 
ceeding in its place. 

" He is scabby," fyc.] Here is an in- 
stance of the petitioner's hypocrisy he 
pretends not to wish his pupil's death, 
that he might inherit his estate ; but out 
of compassion to an unhealthy young 
man, pretends to wish him dead, that 
he may be released from his sufferings, 
from his scrofulous disorders. 

14. "A third u-ife," $c.] Another 
prays for the death of his wife, that he 
may be possessed of all she has, and 
that he may get a fresh fortune by mar- 
rying again. He thinks it very hard 
that he can't get rid of one, when Ne- 



But a good part of our nobles will offer with tacit censer. 5 
It is not easy to every one, their murmur, and low whispers 
To remove from the temples, and to live with open prayer. 
" A good mind, reputation, fidelity ; these clearly, that a 

" stranger may hear. 
Those inwardly to himself and under his tongue he mutters 


" The pompous funeral of my uncle might bubble up ? O if 10 
" Under my rake a pot of silver may chink, Hercules being 

" propitious 

" To me ! or my ward, whom I the next heir 
" Impel, I wish I could expunge ! for he is scabby, and with 

" sharp 

" Bile he swells. A third wife is already married by Nerius." 
That you may ask these things holily, in the river Tiber 

you dip 15 

Your head in the morning two or three times, and purge 

the night with the stream. 
Consider, mind, answer, (it is a small thing which I labour 

to know,) 

rius, the usurer, has been so lucky as to 
bury two, and is now possessed of a 
third. On the death of the wife, her 
fortune went to the husband ; even what 
the father had settled out of his estate, 
if his daughter survived him. 

15. That you may ask, %c.] T hat the 
gods may be propitious, and give a fa- 
vourable answer to your prayers, you 
leave no rite or ceremony unobserved, to 
sanctify your person, and render your- 
self acceptable. 

In the river Tiber, #e.] It was a 
custom among the ancients, when they 
had vows or prayers to make, or to go 
about any thing of the religious or sa- 
cred kind, to purify themselves by wash- 
ing in running water. 

Attrectare nefas, donee meflumine vivo 

Abluero See JEn. ii. L 719, 20. 

Hence the Romans washed in the ri- 
ver Tiber sometimes the head, some- 
times the hands, sometimes the whole 

You dip.] Or put under water. 
Those who were to sacrifice to the in- 
fernal gods only sprinkled themselves 
with water ; but the sacrificers to the 
heavenly deities plunged themselves into 
the river, and put their heads under 

water. See Juv. sat vi. 1. 522. 

16. In the morning.'] At the rising of 
the sun ; the time when they observed 
this solemnity in honour of the celestial 
gods : their ablutions in honour of the 
Dii Manes, and infernal gods, were per- 
formed at the setting of the sun. Juv. 
ubi supra. 

Two or three times.'} The number 
three was looked upon as sacred in re- 
ligious matters. Juv. ubi supra. 

Terna tibi heecprimum triplici diversa 

Licia circumdo, terquehaecaltariacircum 

Effigiem duco : numero Deus impare 


VIRG. ecL viii. 1. 73 5 ; and note 
there, 75. Delpb, See G. i. 345. 

Purge the night, ifc.] After noctur- 
nal pollution they washed. Comp. 
Deut xxiiL 10, 11. The ancients 
thought themselves polluted by the night 
itself, as well as by bad dreams in the 
night, and therefore purified themselves 
by washing their hands and heads every 
morning, which custom the Turks ob- 
serve to this day. 

17. Consider, mind, $c.] The poet, 
having stated the impiety of these wor- 
shippers, now remonstrates with them 



De Jove quid sentis ? Estne ut prseponere cures 

Hunc cuiquam ! Cuinam ? vis Staio? an, scilicet, hseres? 

Quis potior judex ? puerisve quis aptior orbis ? 20 

Hoc igitur, quo tu Jovis aurein impellere tentas, 

Die agedum Staio. Proh Jupiter ! O bone, clamet, 

Jupiter ! At sese non clamet Jupiter ipse \ 

Ignovisse putas, quia, cum tonat, ocyus ilex 

Sulfure discutitur sacro, quam tuque domusque ? 25 

An, quia non fibris ovium, Ergennaque jubente, 

Triste jaces lucis, evitandumque bidental, 

Idcirco stolidam praebet tibi vellere barbam 

Jupiter 2 Aut quidnam est, qua tu mercede deorum 

Emeris auriculas 2 pulmone, et lactibus unctis ? 30 

Ecce avia, aut metuens divum matertera, cunis 
Exemit puerum, frontemque, atque uda labella, 
Infami digito, et lustralibus ante sal i vis 

on their insult offered to the gods. See 
AINSW. Heus, No. 3. 

" Come," says he, " let me ask you a 
" short question." 

18. What think you of Jove ?] What 
are your notions, what your conceptions 
of the god which you pray to, and pro- 
fess to honour ? 

Is he, that you would care, tye.] Do 
you think him preferable to any mortal 

19. To whom'] Do you prefer him? 
Will you to Staius ?] Will you prefer 

him to Staius ? 

Do you doubt, 3fc.] Do you hesitate 
in determining ? which is the best judge, 
or the best guardian of orphans, Jupiter 
or Staius? From this it appears, that 
this Staius was some notorious wretch, 
who had behaved ill in both these capa- 

22. Say it to Status.'] As you must al- 
low Staius not comparable to Jupiter, 
but, on the contrary, a very vile and 
wicked man, I would have you, that 
you may judge the better of the nature 
of your petitions, propose to Staius what 
you have proposed to Jupiter---how 
would Staius receive it ? 

O Jupiter ! 3fc. would he cry.~\ Even 
Staius, bad as he is, would be shocked 
and astonished, and call on Jupiter for 
vengeance on your head. 

23. And may not Jupiter, fyc.] Think 
you that Jupiter then may not, with 

the highest justice, as well as indigna- 
tion, call on himself for vengeance on 

24. To have forgiven."] Do you suppose 
that Jupiter is reconciled to your treat- 
ment of him, because you and yours are 
visited with no marks of divine venge- 
ance ? 

26. Dmvels of sheep."} Offered in sacri- 
fice by way of expiation. 

Eryenna."] Ergennas was the name 
of some famous soothsayer, whose office 
it was to divine, by inspecting the en- 
trails of the sacrifices. 

27. A sad bidental.] When any person 
was struck dead by lightning, imme- 
diately the priest (aliquis senior qui pub- 
lica fulgura condit, Juv. sat. vi. 1. 586.) 
came and buried the body, enclosed the 
place, and erecting there an altar, sacri- 
ficed two two-year-old sheep (bidentes) 
hence the word bidental is applied by 
authors, indifferently, to the sacrifice, to 
the place, or (as here) to the person. 

In the groves."] Or woods, where the 
oak was rent with lightning, and where 
you remained unhurt. Comp. L 24, 5. 

28. Jupiter offer you, $c.] Because 
you have hitherto escaped, do you ima- 
gine that you are at full liberty to insult 
Jupiter as you please, and this with im- 
punity, and even with the divine per- 
mission and approbation ? 

Plucking or pulling a person by the 
beard was one of the highest marks of 




What think you of Jove? is he, that you would care to prefer 
Him to any one I to whom I will you to Staius ? what ! do 
you doubt ? 19 

Who is the better judge? who the fittest for orphan children? 
This, therefore, with which you try to persuade the ear of Jove, 
Come, say it to Staius : O Jupiter ! O good Jupiter ! would 

he cry : 

And may not Jupiter cry out upon himself I 
Do you think him to have forgiven, because, when he 

thunders, the oak sooner 

Is thrown down, by the sacred sulphur, than both you, and 

your house ? 25 

Or because, with the bowels of sheep, Ergenna commanding, 

You do not lie a sad, and to-be-avoided bidental, in the groves, 

Therefore does Jupiter offer you his foolish beard to pluck? 

Or what is it ? with what reward hast thou bought the ears 

Of the gods ? with lungs, and with greasy entrails ? 30 

Lo ! a grandmother, or an aunt fearing the gods, from 

the cradle 

Takes a boy, and his forehead and his wet lips, 
With infamous finger, and with purifying spittle, she before- 

contempt and insult that could be of- 
fered see sat. i. L 133, note ; for the 
beard was cherished and respected as a 
mark of gravity and wisdom see Juv. 
sat xiv. 12, note; and Juv. vi. L 15,16. 

29. Or what is it ?] i. e. What hast 
thou done, that thou art in such high fa- 
vour with the gods ? 

With what reward, #.] With what 
bribe hast thou purchased the divine at- 
tention ? 

30. With lungs.'] Contemptuously put 
here, per melon, for any of the larger 
intestines of beasts offered in sacrifice. 

And u-ith greasy entrails.] Lactes 
signifies the small guts, through which 
the meat passeth first out of the stomach : 
perhaps so called from the lac-teals, or 
small vessels, the mouths of which open 
into them to receive the chyle, which is 
of a white or milky colour. The poet 
ays, unctis lactibus, because they are 
surrounded with fat 

The poet mentions these too in a 
sneering way, as if he had said, "What ! 
" do you think that you have corrupted 
" the gods with lungs and guts ?" 

SI. Lo! a grandmother, fyc.] The poet 
now proceeds to expose the folly of those 

luasi mater 
aunt on 
is on the fa- 

prayers which old women make for chil- 

An auut.~\ Matertera quai 
altera the mother's sister, the 
the mother's side, as i 
ther's side. 

Fearing theffods.] Metuensdiv 
superstitious ; for all superstition pro- 
ceeds from fear and terror ; it is there- 
fore that superstitious people are called 
in Greek ScitriScu/xoce?, from 5fi5a>, to 
fear, and Satfjuoy, a daemon, a god. See 
Acts xvii. 22. 

32. His forehead, $c.] Persius here 
ridicules the foolish and superstitious 
rites which women observed on these 

First, after having taken the infant out 
of the cradle, they, before they began 
their prayers, wetted the middle finger 
with spittle, with which they anointed 
the forehead and lips of the child, by 
way of expiation, and preservative against 

Wet lips.'] i. e. Of the child, which 
are usually wet with drivel from the 

33. Infamous finger.'] The middle fin- 
ger, called infamis, from its being made 



Expiat ; urentes oculos inhibere perita. 

Tune manibus quatit, et spem macram, supplice voto, 35 

Nunc Licini in campos, nunc Crassi mittit in sedes. 

" Hunc optent generum rex et regina ! puella3 

"Hunc rapiant ! quicquid calcaverit hie, rosa fiat !" 

Ast ego nutrici non mando vota : negate, 

Jupiter, hsec illi, quamvis te albata rogarit. 40 

Poscis opem nervis, corpusque fidele senectaB : 
Esto, age : sed grandes patinee, tucetaque crassa 
Annu^re his superos vetuere, Jovemque morantur. 

Rem struere exoptas, caeso bove ; Mercuriumque 
Arcessis fibra : " da fortunare penates ! 45 

" Da pecus, et gregibus foetum f Quo, pessime, pacto, 

use of in a way of scorn to point at infa- 
mous people. See sat. x. 1. 53, and note. 

33. Purifying spittle.'] They thought 
fasting spittle to contain great virtue 
against fascination, or an evil eye : 
therefore with that, mixed with dust, 
they rubbed the forehead and lips by 
way of preservative. Thus in Petronius 
" Mox turbatum sputo pulverem, anus 
"medio sustulit digito, fronternque re- 
" pugnantis signat." 

She beforeJiand.'] i. e. Before she 
begins her prayers for the child. 

34. Expiates.] See above, note on L 32, 
ad fin. 

Skilled to inhibit., fy.] Skilful to 
hinder the fascination of bewitching 
eyes. Uro signifies, lit. to burn ; also 
to injure or destroy. VIRG. G. ii. 1. 196. 
One sort of witchcraft was supposed to 
operate by the influence of the eye. 
VIBG. eel. iii. 103. 

35. Tlten shakes him, c.] Lifts him 
up, and dandles him to and fro, as if to 
present him to the gods. 

Her slender hope.} The little tender 

With suppliant wish.] Or prayer. 
Having finished her superstitious rites 
of lustration, she now offers her wishes 
and prayers for the infant. 

36. She now stands, %c.] Mittit is a 
law term, and taken from the praetor's 
putting a person in possession of an 
estate which was recovered at law. 
Here it denotes the old woman's wish- 
ing, and, in desire, putting the child in 
possession of great riches, having her 
eye on the possessions of Crassus and 
Licinius, the former of which (says 

Plutarch) purchased so many houses, 
that, at one time or other, the greatest 
part of Rome came into his hands. 
Licinius was a young slave of so saving 
a temper, that he let out the offals of 
his meat for interest, and kept a register 
of debtors. Afterwards he was made 
a collector in Gaul, where he acquired 
(as Persius expresses it, sat iv. 1. 56. 
quantum non milvus oberret) "more 
" lands than a kite could fly over." 

37. K King and queen wish," fe.] May 
he be so opulent as that even crowned 
heads may covet an alliance with him 
as a son-in-law. 

37. 8, " Girls seize him."} May he be 
so beautiful and comely, the girls may 
all fall in love with him, and contend 
who shall first seize him for her own. 

38. " Shall liave trodden upon" 0.] 
This foolish, extravagant hyperbole well 
represents the vanity and folly of these 
old women, in their wishes for the 

39. But to a nurse, fyc.~\ For my part, 
says Persius, I shall never leave it to my 
nurse to pray for my child. 

39. 40. Deny, O Jupiter, frc.] If she 
should ever pray thus for a child of 
mine, I beseech thee, O Jupiter, to deny 
such petitions as these, however solemnly 
she may offer them. 

40. Tho 1 clothed in white.] Though 
arrayed in sacrificial garments. The 
ancients, when they sacrificed and of- 
fered to the gods, were clothed with 
white garments, as emblems of innocence 
and purity. 

41. You ask strength, $c.] Another 
prays for strength of nerves, and that 



Expiates, skilled to inhibit destructive eyes. 

Then shakes him in her hands, and her slender hope, with 

suppliant wish, 35 

She now sends into the fields of Licinius, now into the houses 

of Crassus. 
" May a king and queen wish this boy their son-in-law ; 

" may the girls 
" Seize him; whatever he shall have trodden upon, may it be- 

" come a rose !" 

But to a nurse I do not commit prayer : deny, 
O Jupiter, these to her, tho 1 cloth' d in white she should ask. 40 
You ask strength for your nerves, and a body faithful to 

old age : 

Be it so go on : but great dishes, and fat sausages, 
Have forbidden the gods to assent to these, and hinder Jove. 
You wish heartily to raise a fortune, an ox being slain, and 

You invite with inwards "grant the household gods to 

" make me prosperous ! 45 

" Give cattle, and offspring to my flocks I" Wretch, by what 


his body may not fail him when he 
comes to be old. 

42. Be it so go on.] I see no harm 
in this, says Persius ; you ask nothing 
but what may be reasonably desired, 
therefore I don't find fault with your 
praying for these things go on with 
your petitions. 

Great dishes.] But while you are 
praying for strength of body, and for 
an healthy old age, you are destroying 
your health, and laying in for a dis- 
eased old age, by your gluttony and 

Sausages.] Tuceta, a kind of meat 
made of pork or beef chopped, or other 
stuff, mingled with suet. 

43. Hare forbidden, Sfc.] While you 
are praying one way, and living another, 
you yourself hinder the gods from grant- 
ing your wishes. 

Hinder Jove.] Prevent his giving 
you health and strength, by your own 
destroying both. 

The poet here ridicules those incon- 
sistent people, who pray for health and 
strength of body, and yet live in such 
a manner as to impair both. Nothing 
but a youth of temperance is likely to 
ensure an old age of health. This is 

vol.. n. 

finely touched by the masterly pen of 

our Shakespeare : 

Thoitffh I look old, yet I um strong and 


For in my youth I never did 
Hot and rebellious liquors in my i 
Nor did not ivith unbashfulforeheadiroo 
The means of weakness and debility ; 
Therefore my age is as a lusty winter. 

Frosty, but kindly 

As you like it, act ii. sc. iii. 

44. You wish, fyc.] Another is endea- 
vouring to advance his fortune by offer- 
ing costly sacrifices, little thinking that 
these are diminishing what he wants to 

Ox being slain. ~\ i. e. In sacrifice 
in order to render the god propitious ; 
but you don't recollect that by this you 
have an ox the less. 

Mercury.] The god of gain. 

45. You invite.] Arcessis send for, as 
it were invite to favour you. 

With intvards.] Extis, the entrails 
of beasts offered in sacrifice. 

The household gods," %c.] " Grant 
" Mercury," say you, " that my do- 
" mestic affairs may prosper !" See 
AINSW. Penates. 

46. Give catttf," fyc.] Grant me a 




Tot tibi cum in flammis junicum omenta liquescant? 

Et tamen hie extis, et opimo vincere farto 

Intendit : " jam crescit ager, jam crescit ovile ; 

" Jam dabitur, jam jam :" donee deceptus, et exspes, so 

Nequicquam fundo suspiret nummus in imo. 

Si tibi crateras argenti, incusaque pingui 
Auro dona feram, sudes ; et pectore Isevo 
Excutias guttas : Isetari prsetrepidum cor. 
Hinc illud subiit, auro sacras quod ovato 55 

Perducis facies. Nam, fratres inter ahenos, 
Somnia pituita qui purgatissima mittunt, 
Praecipui sunto ; sitque illis aurea barba. 

Aurum vasa Numse, Saturniaque impulit sera : 
Vestalesque urnas, et Tuscum fictile mutat. 60 

number of cattle, and let all my flocks 
be fruitful, and increase ! 

46. Wretch, by u-hat means'?'] How, 
thou silliest of men, can this be ? 

47. When the cauls of so many, fyc.] 
When you are every day preventing all 
this, by sacrificing your female beasts 
before they are old enough to breed, 
and thus, in a two-fold manner, destroy- 
ing your stock ? 

The cauls.] Omentum is the caul or 
fat that covers the inwards. 

Melt in JlainesJ] Being put on the 
fire on the altar. 

For you.'} In hopes to obtain what 
you want. 

48. For this man, %c.] Thinks he shall 
overcome the gods with the multitude 
of sacrifices vhich he offers this is his 

With bouvls.] The inwards of beasts 
offered in sacrifice. 

A rich pudding.'] They offered a 
sort of pudding, or cake, made of bran, 
wine, and honey. 

49. "Now the field increases."] Says 
he, fancying his land is better for what 
he has been doing. 

" Now the sheep-fold."] " Now me- 
" thinks my sheep breed better." 

50. "Now it shall be given" fyc.] 
"Methinks I already see my wishes 
" fulfilled every thing will be given me 
" that I asked for." 

" Now presently."] " I shall not 
" be able to wait much longer." 

Till deceived and hopeless.] Till, at 
length, he finds his error, and that, by 
hoping to increase his fortune by the 

multitude of his sacrifices, he has only 
just so far diminished it he has nothing 
left but one poor solitary sesterce at the 
bottom of his purse, or chest : which, 
finding itself deceived, and hopeless of 
any accession to it, sighs, as it were, in 
vain, for the loss of its companions, 
which have been so foolishly spent and 
thrown away. 

The Roman nummus, when mentioned 
as a piece of money, was the same with 
the sestertius, about one penny three 
farthings. The prosopopeisi here is very 

53. If to thee cups, %c.] Men are apt 
to think the gods like themselves, pleased 
with rich and costly gifts to such the 
poet now speaks. 

If, saith Persius, I should make you a 
present of a fine piece of silver plate, 
or of some costly vessel of the finest 

You ivould sweat.] You would be 
so pleased and overjoyed, that you 
would break into a sweat with agita- 

Left breast.] They supposed the 
heart to lie on the left side. 

54. Shake out drops.] i.e. You would 
weep, or shed tears. Lachrymas excu- 
tere, to force tears. TER. Heaut. act i. 
BC. L 1. 115. Tears of joy would drop, 
as it were, from your very heart. La- 
thrymor prae gaudior. TER. Some un- 
derstand Ireva here in the sense of fool- 
ish, silly ; as in VIRH. eel. i. 1 6. Ca- 

Your over-trembling heart, $c.] Palpi- 
tating with unusual motion, from the 



When the cauls of so many young heifers can melt for you 

in flames ? 
And yet this man to prevail with bowels, and with a rich 


Intends : " Now the field increases, now the sheep-fold 
" Now it shall be given, now presently :" till deceived, and 

hopeless, 50 

In vain the nummus will sigh in the lowest bottom. 

If to thee cups of silver, and gifts wrought with rich gold 
I should bring, you would sweat, and from your left breast 
Shake out drops your over-trembling heart would rejoice. 
Hence that takes place, that with gold carried in triumph you 
Overlay the sacred faces. For, among the brazen brothers, 56 
Let those who send dreams most purged from phlegm 
Be the chief, and let them have a golden beard. 

Gold has driven away the vessels of Numa, and the Satur- 

nian brass, 
And changes the vestal urns, and the Tuscan earthen- ware. 60 

suddenness and emotion of your sur- 
prize and joy, would be delighted. 

55. That takes place."] The notion or 
sentiment takes place in your mind, that, 
because you are so overjoyed at receiving 
a rich and sumptuous present of silver 
or gold, therefore the gods must be so 
too judging of them by yourself. 

Gold carried in triumph, Sfe.] Hence, 
with the gold taken as a spoil from an 
enemy, and adorning the triumph of the 
conqueror, by being carried with him in 
his ovation, you overlay the images of 
the gods thus complimenting the gods 
with what has been taken from your 
fellow mortals by rapine and plunder. 

56. T)te brazen broOusrs.] There stood 
in the porch of the Palatine Apollo fifty 
brazen statues of the fifty sons of 
-/Egyptus, the brother of Danaus, who, 
having fifty sons, married them to the 
fifty daughters of Danaus, and, by their 
father's order, they all slew their hus- 
bands in the night of their marriage, ex- 
cept Hvpermnestra, who saved Lynceus. 
See HOR. lib. iii. ode xi. L 30, &c. 

These were believed to have great 
power of giving answers to their in- 
quirers, in dreams of the night, relative 
to cures of disorders. 

57. Most purged, #<>.] Most clear and 
true, as most defecated and uninfluenced 
by the gross humours of the body. 

58. Be thf chief.'] Let these be had 

in honour above the rest q. d. Bestow 
most on those from whom you expect 

A golden beard.] This alludes to 
the image of ,/Esculapius, in the temple 
of Epidaurum, which was supposed to 
reveal remedies for disorders in dreams. 
This image had a golden beard, which 
Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse took 
away, saying jestingly, that, "as the 
"father of jEsculapius, Apollo, had no 
"beard, it was not right for the son 
" to have one." 

This communicating, through dreams, 
such remedies as were adapted to the cure 
of the several disorders of the inquirers, 
was at first accounted the province of 
Apollo and jEscukpius only ; but, on 
the breaking out of Egyptian superstition, 
Isis and Osiris were allowed to have the 
same power, as were also the fifty sons 
of .SSgyptus, here called the brazen bro- 
thers, from their statues of brass. 

59. Driven away, ifc.] Has quite ex- 
pelled from the temples the plain and 
simple vessels made use of in the days of 
Numa, the first founder of our religious 
rites. See Juv. sat xi. L 115, 16. 

Tlie Saturnian brass.'] The brazen 
vessels which were in use when Saturn 
reigned in Italy. 

60. Changes the rental urns.'] The 
pitchers, pots, and other vessels, which 
the vestal virgins used in celebrating 




O curvse in terras animae, et coelestium inanes ! 
Quid juvat hoc, templis nostros immittere mores, 
Et bona diis ex hac scelerata ducere pulpa I 
Hsec sibi corrupto Casiam dissolvit olivo : 
Et Calabrum coxit, vitiato murice, vellus. 
HHBC baccam conchse rasisse ; et stringere venas 
Ferventis massse, crudo de pulvere, jussit. 
Peccat et ha3C, peccat : vitio tamen utitur. At vos 
Dicite, pontifices, in sacris quid facit aurum ? 
Nempe hoc, quod Veneri donates a virgine pupse. 

Quin damus id superis, de magna quod dare lance 
Non possit magni Messala? lippa propago : 
Compositum jus, fasque animi ; sanctosque recessus 

the rites of Vesta, and which were 
anciently of earthen- ware, are now 
changed into gold. Comp. Juv. sat. vi. 
1. 342, 3. 

60. The Tuscan earthen-ware.'] Are- 
tium, a city of Tuscany, was famous for 
earthen- ware, from whence it was carried 
to Rome, and to other parts of Italy. 
This was now grown quite out of use. 
Comp. Juv. sat xi. 1. 109, 10 ; and Juv. 
sat. iii. 1. 168. 

The poet means to say, that people, 
now-a-days, had banished all the simple 
vessels of the ancient and primitive wor- 
ship, and now, imagining the gods were 
as fond of gold as they were, thought to 
succeed in their petitions, by lavish-' 
ing gold on their images. Comp. Isa. 
xlvi. 6. 

61. O souls bou-ed, <Sfc.] This apo- 
strophe, and what follows to the end, 
contain sentiments worthy the pen of a 

62. What doth this avaU.] What pro- 
fiteth it. 

To place our manners, fc.] Immit- 
tere to admit, or suffer to enter. Our 
manners i. e. our ways of thinking, our 
principles of action who, because we 
so highly value, and are so easily in- 
fluenced by rich gifts, think the gods 
will be so too. See AINSW. Immitto, 
No. 3, and 7. 

63. And to esteem, tye.] To prescribe, 
infer, or reckon what is good in their 
sight, and acceptable to them. 

Out of this wicked pulp.] From the 
dictates of this corrupted and depraved 
flesh of ours. Flesh here, as often in 
S. S. means the fleshly, carnal mind, in- 

fluenced by, and under the dominion 
of, the bodily appetites Tiav aapKiKuv 
firi6v/j.uav, I Pet. iL 1 1 ," That which is 
" born of the flesh is flesh." John iii. 6. 
Pulpa literally means the pulp, the 
fleshy part of any meat a piece of 
flesh without bone. AINSW. 

64. This.} This same flesh 
Dissolves for itself Cassia, #e.] Cas- 
sia, a sweet shrub, bearing spice like 
cinnamon, here put for the spice ; of this 
and other aromatics mingled with oil, 
which was hereby corrupted from its 
simplicity, they made perfumes, with 
which they anointed themselves. 

65. Hath boiled, fc.] To give the 
wool a purple dye, in order to make it 
into splendid and sumptuous garments. 
See Juv. sat. xiii. 38, 9. 

The best and finest wool came from 
Calabria. The murex was a shell-fish, 
of the blood of which the purple dye 
was made. The best were found about 
Tyre. See VIRG. JEn. iv. 262. HOR. 
epod. xii. 21. Vitiated i. e. corrupted 
to the purposes of luxury. 

66. To scrape, tyc.] This same pulp, or 
carnal mind, first taught men to ex- 
tract pearls from the shell of the pearl- 
oyster, in order to adorn themselves. 

And to drau; fyc.~\ Stringeret to 
bring into a body or lump (AtNsw.) the 
veins of gold and silver, by melting down 
the crude ore. Ferventis massas the 
mass of gold or silver ore heated to 
fusion in a furnace, and thus separating 
them from the dross and earthy particles. 

The poet is shewing, that the same 
depraved and corrupt principle, which 
leads men to imagine the gods to be like 

SAT. U. 



O souls bowed to the earth and void of heavenly things ! 
What doth this avail, to place our manners in the temples, 
And to esteem things good to the gods out of this wicked 


This dissolves for itself Cassia in corrupted oil, 
And hath boiled the Calabrian fleece in vitiated purple. 65 
This has commanded to scrape the pearl of a shell, and to 

draw the veins 

Of the fervent mass from the crude dust. 
This also sins, it sins : yet uses vice. But ye, 
O ye priests, say what gold does in sacred things 2 
Truly this, which dolls given by a virgin to Venus. 70 

But let us give that to the gods, which, to give from a 

great dish, 

The blear-eyed race of great Messala could not 
What is just and right disposed within the soul, and the 

sacred recesses 

themselves, and to be pleased with gold 
and silver because men are, is the inven- 
tor and contriver of all manner of luxury 
and sensual gratifications. 

68. This also sins, $c.~] This evil cor- 
rupted flesh is the parent of all sin, both 
in principle and practice. Comp. Rom. 
viL 1824. 

Yet uses vice.~\ Makes some use of 
vice, by way of getting some emolument 
from it, some profit or pleasure. 

69. O ye priests, &c.] But tell me, ye 
ministers of the gods, who may be pre- 
sumed to know better than others, what 
pleasure, profit, or emolument, is there 
to the gods, from all the gold with 
which the temples are furnished and 
decorated ? 

70. Truly this, #c.] The poet answers 
for them " Just as much as there is to 
" Venus, when girls offer dolls to her." 
Pupa, a puppet, a baby, or doll, such as 
girls played with while little, and, being 
grown big, and going to be married, of- 
fered to Venus, hoping, by this, to ob- 
tain her favour, and to be made mothers 
of real children. The boys offered their 
bulls to their household gods. Juv. sat 
xiii. 33, note. 

71. But let us yive, fyc.~\ The poet now 
is about to shew with what sacrifices the 
gods will be pleased, and consequently 
what should be offered. 

A ftrt'at iIMi.~] The lanx lit a 
deep dish signifies a large censer, ap- 

propriated to the rich ; but sometimes 
they made use of the acerra (v. 5.), 
a small censer appropriated to the 

72. The blear-eyed race, <Sfc.] Val. 
Corv. Messala took his name from Mcs- 
sana, a city of Sicily, which was besieged 
and taken by him ; he was the head of 
the illustrious family of the Messalae. 
The poet here aims at a descendant of 
his, who degenerated from the family, 
and so devoted himself to gluttony, 
drunkenness, and luxury of all kind's, 
that, in his old age, his eyelids turned 
inside out 

Let us offer to the gods, says Persius, 
that which such as the Messalae have not 
to offer, however large their censers may 
be, or however great the quantities of 
the incense put within them. 

73. Wliat is just and riyht.] Jus is 
properly that which is agreeable to the 
laws of man fas, that which ia agree- 
able to the divine laws. 

Disposed.] Settled, fashioned, set 
in order or composed, fitted, set together, 
within the soul. It is very difficult to 
give the full idea of compositum in 
this place by any single word in our 

73, 4. The sacred recesses of the mind.] 
The inward thoughts and affections 
what St. Paul calls ra Kpinrra -riav 
avQpairuv. Rom. ii. 16. Prov. xxiii. 



Mentis, et incoctum generoso pectus honesto. 
Hsec cedo, ut admoveam templis, et farre litabo. 


74. A breast imbrued, 8[cJ\ Incoctum 
metaph. taken from wool, which is 
boiled, and so thoroughly tinged with the 
dye. It signifies that which is infused ; 
not barely dipped, as it were, so as to be 

lightly tinged, but thoroughly soaked, so 
as to imbibe the colour. See VIRG. G. 
iii. 307. 

75. That I may bring to the temples.'] 
Let me be possessed of these, that I may 


Of the mind, and a breast imbrued with generous honesty 

These give me, that I may bring to the temples, and I 

will sacrifice with meal. 75 

with these approach the gods, and then but, by that sacrifice, to obtain what is 

a little cake of meal will be a sufficient sought for. 
offering. Comp. VIRG. j*En. v. 745 ; and Turn Jupiter facial ut semper 
HOR. lib. iil ode xxiii. 1. 17, &c. Sacrificem, nee unquam litem. 

Lito not only signifies to sacrifice, PLAUT. in Persa. 



Persius, in this Satire, in the person of a Stoic preceptor, up- 
braids the young men with sloth, and with neglect of the 
study of philosophy. He shews the sad consequences which 
will attend them throughout life, 
selves early to the knowledge of virtue. 

NEMPE hsec assidue ? Jam clarum mane fenestras 
Intrat, et angustas extendit lumine rimas. 
Stertimus, indomitum quod despumare Falernum 
Sufficiat, quinta dum linea tangitur umbra. 

Line 1. " Wltat tliese things con- 
" stantly ?"] The poet here introduces a 
philosopher, rousing the pupils under his 
care from their sloth, and chiding them 
for lying so late in bed. " What," 
says he "is this to be every day's 
" practice ?" 

" Already the clear morning" tyc.] 
q. d, ICou ought to be up and at your 
studies by break of day ; but here you 
are lounging in bed at full day-light, 
which is now shining in at the windows 
of your bed-room. 

2. ""Extends with light," fc.] Makes 
them appear wider, say some. But Ca- 
saubon treats this as a foolish interpreta- 
tion. He say s, that this is an " Hypallage. 
" Not that the chinks are extended, or 
" dilated, quod quidem ineptejscribunt, 
"but the light is extended," the sun 
" transmitting'its rays through the chinks 
" of the lattices." 

Dr. Sheridan says "this image (an- 
"gustas extendit lumine rimas) very 
" beautifully expresses the widening of 
" a chink by the admission of light." 

But I do not understand how the light 
can be said to widen a chink, if we take 
the word widen in its usual sense, of 
making any thing wider than it was. 
Perhaps we may understand the verb 
extendit, here, as extending to view i.e. 
making visible the interstices of the lat- 
tices, which, in the dark, are imper- 
ceptible to the sight, but when the morn- 
ing enters become apparent. It should 
seem, from this passage, that the fenes- 
trse of the Romans were lattice win- 

But the best way is to abide by ex- 
perience, which is in favour of the first 
explanation ; for when the bright sun 
shines through any chink or crack, there 
is a dazzling which makes the chink or 
crack appear wider than it really is. Of 
the first glass windows, see Jortin, Rem. 
vol. iv. p. 196. 

3. " We snore."'] Stertimus i. e. ster- 
titis. The poet represents the philo- 
sopher speaking in the first person, 
but it is to be understood in the second 
" We students," says he, as if he 



The title of this Satire, in some ancient manuscripts, was, 
" The Reproach of Idleness ," though in others it is in- 
scribed, '''Against the Luxury and Vices of the Rich ;" in 
both of which the poet pursues his intention, but principally 
in the former. 

" WHAT these things constantly? Already the clear 

" morning enters 

" The windows, and extends with light the narrow chinks. 
" We snore, what to digest untamed Falernan 
" Might suffice : the line is already touched with the fifth 

" shadow. 

included himself, but meaning, no doubt, 
those to whom he spake. Conip. sat. i. 
L 13. 

" To digest untamed," $c.] Instead 
of rising to study, we (t. c. ye young 
men) are sleeping, as long as would suf- 
fice to get rid of the fumes of wines, and 
make a man sober, though he went to 
bed ever so drunk. 

" To digest."] Despumare metaph. 
taken from new wine, or any other fer- 
menting liquor, which rises in froth or 
scum : the taking off this scum or froth 
was the way to make the liquor clear, 
and to quiet its working. Thus the Fa- 
lernan, which was apt, when too much 
was drunk of it, to ferment in the 
stomach, was quieted and digested by 
sleep. The epithet indomitum refers to 
this fermenting quality of the wine. 

Perhaps the master here alludes to 
the irregularities of these students, who, 

instead of going to bed at a reasonable 
hour and sober, sat up late drinking, and 
went to bed with their stomachs full of 
Falernan wine. 

4. " The line is already touched" <Je.] 
Hypallage ; for quinta linea jam tangi- 
tur umbra, '. e. the fifth line, the line 
or stroke which marks the fifth hour, is 
touched with the shadow of the gnomon 
on the sun-dial. 

The ancient Romans divided the na- 
tural day into twelve parts. Sun-rising 
was called the first hour ; the third after 
sun-rising answers to our nine o'clock ; 
the sixth hour was noon ; the ninth an- 
swers to our three o'clock p. M. and the 
twelfth was the setting of the sun, which 
we call six o'clock p. M. The fifth 
hour, then, among the Romans, answers 
to our eleven o'clock A. M. The stu- 
dents slept till eleven near half the 



En, quid agis ? siccas insana canicula messes 
Jamdudum coquit, et patula pecus omne sub ulmo est. 

Unus ait comitum, " Verumne ? Itane ? Ocius adsit 
" Hue aliquis. Nemon 1 2" Turgescit vitrea bilis : 
Finditur, Arcadise pecuaria rudere credas. 

Jam liber, et bicolor positis membrana capillis, 
Inque manus chartse, nodosaque venit arundo. 
Turn queritur, crassus calamo quod pendeat humor ; 
Nigra quod infusa vanescat sepia lympha: 
Dilutas, queritur, geminet quod fistula guttas. 

O miser, inque dies ultra miser ! huccine rerura 
Venimus 2 at cur non potius, teneroque columbo 
Et similis regum pueris, pappare minutum 
Poscis, et iratus mammse, lallare recusas2 


5. "Lot what do you?"] What are 
you at why don't you get up ? 

" The mad dog-star."] Canicula a 
constellation, which was supposed to 
arise in the midst of summer, when the 
sun entered Leo ; with us the dog- 
days. This is reckoned the hottest time 
in the year ; and the ancients had a 
notion, that the influence of the dog-star 
occasioned many disorders among the 
human species, but especially madness 
in dogs. 

Jam Procyon fiirit, 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 
Sole dies referente siccos. 

HOR. ode xxix. lib. iii. L 1820. 
Rabiosi tempora signi. 

HOR. sat vi. lib. L 1. 126. 
The dog-star rages. POPE. 

6. "Long since is ripening.' 1 '''] They 
supposed that the intense heat, at that 
time of the year, was occasioned by the 
dog-star, which rose with the sun, and 
forwarded the ripening of the corn. 
The poets followed this vulgar error, 
which sprang from the rising of the dog- 
star when the sun entered into Leo ; 
but this star is not the cause of greater 
heat, which is, in truth, only the effect 
of the particular situation of the sun at 
that season. 

"All the flock," ty.] 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido 

Rivumquc fessus qucerit, et horridi 

Dumeta Silvani 

HOR. ode xxix. lib. iii. 1. 21 3. 
Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et frigora 
captant. VIRG. eel. ii. 8. 

7. Fettow students.'] This seems to be 
the meaning of comites in this place. 

" Quick,'" fyc.] Let some of the ser- 
vants come immediately, and bring my 
clothes, that I may get up. 

8. "Is there nobody" fyc.] Does no- 
body hear me call ? 

Vitreous bile swells."] He falls into a 
violent passion at nobody's answering. 

Horace speaks of splendida bilis, clear 
bile i. e. furious in opposition to the 
atra bilis, black bile, which produces me- 
lancholy. This is probably the meaning 
of vitrea, glassy, in this place. 

.9. "lam split.'"] Says the youth, with 
calling so loud for somebody to come to 

" That you'd believe," #c.] You may 
well say you are ready to split, for you 
make such a noise, that one would think 
that all the asses in Arcadia were bray- 
ing together, answers the philosopher. 
Eclipsis. Arcadia, a midland country 
of Peloponnesus, very good for pasture, 
and famous for a large breed of asses. 
See Juv. sat. vii. 1. 160, note. 

10. Now a book.'] At last he gets out of 
bed, dresses himself, and takes up a book. 

Two-coloured parchment.] The stu- 
dents used to write their notes on parch- 
ment : the inside, on which they wrote, 
was white : the other side, being the 
outer side of the skin, on which the wool 
or hair grew, was of a yellow cast. See 
Juv. sat. vii. 1. 23, note. 

The hairs, fyc.] The hairs, or wool, 
which grew on the skin, were scraped 
off, and the parchment smoothed, by rub- 
bing it with a pumice-stone. 

1 1. Paper.] Charta signifies any ma- 
terial to write upon. The ancients made 
it of various things, as leaves, bark of 



" Lo ! what do you ? the mad dog-star the dry harvests 5 
" Long since is ripening, and all the flock is under the 

" spreading elm.' 1 '' 
Says one of the fellow-students " Is it true? Is it so? 

" Quick let somebody 

" Come hither Is there nobody f vitreous bile swells. 
" I am split ;" " that you'd believe the cattle of Arcadia 

to bray." 

Now a book, and two-coloured parchment, the hairs being 
laid aside, 10 

And there comes into his hand paper, and a knotty reed. 
Then he complains that a thick moisture hangs from the pen : 
That the black cuttle-fish vanishes with water infused : 
He complains that the pipe doubles the diluted drops. 14 
" O wretch ! and every day more a wretch ! to this pass 
" Are we come ? but why do you not rather, like the tender 


" And like the children of nobles, require to eat pap, 
" And angry at the nurse, refuse her to sing lullaby ?" 

trees, &c. and the Egyptians of the flag 
of the river Nile, which was called pa- 
pyrus hence the word paper. Charta 
Pergamena, i. e. apud Pergamum inventa 
(PLIN. Ep. xiii. 12.) signifies the parch- 
ment or vellum which they wrote upon, 
and which was sometimes indifferently 
called charta, or membrana. Comp. HOR. 
sat. x lib. L 1. 4 ; and sat. iii. lib. ii. 1. 2. 

But chartae here seems to mean paper 
of some sort, different from the mem- 
brana, 1. 10. 

The lazy student now takes pen, ink, 
and paper, in order to write. 

A knotty reed.] A pen made of a reed, 
which was hollow, like a pipe, and grew 
full of knots, at intervals, on the stalk. 

11. He complains^.] That his ink is so 
thick that it hangs to the nib of his pen. 

1 3. Cuttle-fish, Sfc.] This fish discharges 
a black liquor, which the ancients used 
as ink. 

Vanishes with water, ifc.~\ He first 
complained that his ink was too thick : 
on pouring water into it, to make it thin- 
ner ; he now complains that it is too thin, 
and the water has caused all the black- 
ness to vanish away. 

14. The pipe.'] . e. The pen made of 
the reed. 

Dottbks the diluted drops.] Now the 
ink is so diluted, that it comes too fast 

from the pen, and blots his paper. All 
these are so many excuses for his un- 
willingness to write. 

15. U O wretch!" fc.] The philoso- 
pher, hearing his lazy pupil contrive so 
many trivial excuses for idleness, ex- 
claims " wretch, wretched young 
" man, who art likely to be more 
" wretched every day you live !" 

16. "Are tee come" fyc.] Are all my 
hopes of you, as well as those of your 
parents, who put you under my care, 
come to this ! 

" WJiy do you not rather."] Than 
occasion all this expence and trouble 
about your education. 

" The tender dove."~\ These birds 
were remarkably tender when young- 
the old ones feed them with the half- 
digested food of their own stomachs. 

17. " Children of nobles."'] And of 
other great men, which are delicately 

" Require to eat pap."~\ Pappare is 
to eat pap as children. Minntus-a-um, 
signifies any thing lessened, or made 
smaller. Here it denotes meat put into 
a mother's or nurse's mouth, there 
chewed small, and then given to the 
child as the dove to her young. Comp. 
the la to note on 1. 16. 

18. "Angry at the nurse."] The word 



" An tali studeam calamo f Cui verba ? Quid istas 
Succinis ambages ? Tibi luditur : effluis ameiis. 20 

Contemnere. Sonat vitium percussa, maligue 
Respondet, viridi lion cocta fidelia limo. 
Udum et molle lutuin es ; nunc, mine properandus, et acri 
Fingendus sine fine rota. Sed rure paterno 
Est tibi far modicum ; purum, et sine labe, salinum. 25 
Quid metuas ? cultrixque foci secura patella est. 
Hoc satis ? An deceat pulmonem rumpere ventis, 
Stemmate quod Tusco ramum millesime ducis ? 

mammae here refers to the mother or 
nurse, which the children called mamma, 
as they called the father tata. 

This well describes the fractiousness 
of an humoured and spoiled child, which, 
because it has not immediately what it 
wants, flies into a passion with its nurse 
when she attempts to sing it to sleep, 
and will not suffer her to do it. See 
AINSW. Lallo. 

The philosopher sharply reproves his 
idle pupil. Rather, says he, than come 
to school, you should have stayed in the 
nursery, and have shewn your childish 
perverseness there rather than here. 

19. " Can I study icith such a pen ?"] 
The youth still persists in his frivolous 
excuses, totally unimpressed by all that 
his master has said " Blame the pen, 
" don't blame me can any mortal write 
" with such a pen ?" 

Whom dost thou deceive ?"] I should 
suppose, that cui verba is here elliptical, 
and that das, or existimas dare, is to be 
understood. Verba dare is to cheat or 
deceive ; and here the philosopher is 
representing his pupil, who is framing 
trivial excuses for his unwillingness to 
study, as a self-deceiver tibi luditur, 
saith he, in the next line. 

19, 20. Those shifts."-] Ambages- 
shifts, prevaricating, shuffling excuses. 

20. "Repeat."] Succinis. The verb 
sHccino signifies to sing after another, to 
follow one another in singing or say- 
ing here properly used, as expressing 
the repetition of his foolish excuses, 
which followed one another, or which 
he might be said to repeat one after the 

" "Tis you are beguiled.''''] Luditur 
here is used impersonally ; as concurri- 
tur, HOR. sat. i. lib. i. 1. 7. 

- -" ThougMess you. run out."] Amens 

foolish, silly, out of one's wits (from 
a priv. and raens) so, unthinking, with- 
out thought. You run out effluis 
metaph. from a bad vessel, out of which 
the liquor leaks. You, foolish and un- 
thinking as you are, are wasting your 

time and opportunity of improvement, 

e liquor 
a leaky vessel, they are insensibly pass- 

little thinking, that, like the 


ig away from you your very life is 
gliding away, and you heed it not. 

21. " You'll be despised."] By all sober, 
thinking people. 

" A pot," $)C.] Any vessel, made of 
clay that is not well tempered viridi 
limo, which is apt to chap and crack in 
the fire non cocta, not baked as it ought 
to be will answer badly, when sounded 
by the finger, and will proclaim, by its 
cracked and imperfect sound, its de- 

Thus will it be with you, none will 
ever converse with you, or put you to 
the proof, but you will soon make them 
sensible of your deficiency in wisdom 
and learning, and be the object of their 

22. " Wet and soft clay."] The poet 
still continues the metaphor. 

As wet and soft clay will take any im- 
pression, or be moulded into any shape, 
so may you ; you are young, your under- 
standing flexible, and impressible by in- 

idoneus arti 

Cuilibet: argilla quidvis imitaberis uda. 
HOR. epist. ii. lib. ii. L 7, 8. 

" Hastened."] Now, now you are 
young, you are to lose no time, but im- 
mediately to be begun with. 

24. " Formed incessantly," fyc.] The 
metaphor still continues. As the wheel 
of the potter turns, without stopping, 
till the piece of work is finished, so ought 



" Can I study with such a pen ?"" " Whom dost thou 

" deceive ? Why those 
" Shifts do you repeat? Tis you are beguiled : thoughtless 

"you run out. 20 

" You'll be despised. A pot, the clay being green, not 

"baked, answers 

" Badly, being struck, it sounds its fault. 
" You are wet and soft clay ; now, now you are to be hastened, 
" And to be formed incessantly with a brisk wheel. But in 

" your paternal estate 
" You have a moderate quantity of corn, and a salt-cellar 

" pure and without spot. 25 

" What can you fear ? and you have a dish a secure worship- 
per of the hearth." 11 
" Is this enough ? Or may it become you to break your lungs 

" with wind, 
" Because you, a thousandth, derive a branch from a Tuscan 


it to be with you ; you ought to be 
taught incessantly, till your mind is 
formed to what it is intended, and this 
with strict discipline, here meant by acri 

24. "Paternal estate," fyc.~\ But perhaps 
you will say, "Where is the occasion 
" for all this ? I am a man of fortune, 
" and have a sufficient income to live in 
" independency ; therefore why all this 
" trouble about learning ? 

25. "Moderate quantity,'"' fy\] Far 
signifies all manner of corn which the 
laud produces ; here, by metonym. the 
land itself far modicum, a moderate 
estate, a competency. 

"A salt-cellar without spot."] The 
ancients had a superstition about salt, 
and always placed the salt-cellar first on 
the table, which was thought to conse- 
crate it : if the salt was forgotten, it was 
looked on as a bad omen. The salt- 
cellar was of silver, and descended from 
father to son see HOR. ode xvi. lib. ii. 
1. 13, 14. But here the salinum, per 
synec. seems to stand for all the plate 
which this young man is supposed to 
have inherited from his father, which he 
calls purum and sine labe, either from 
the pureness of the silver, or from the 
care and neatness with which it was 
kept, or from the honest and fair means 
by which the father had obtained that 
and all the rest of his possessions. 

26. " What can you fear?"] Say you 
who are possessed of so much property? 

" You have a dish," $fc.] Patella 
a sort of deep dish, with broad brims, 
used to put portions of meat in, that were 
given as sacrifice. 

Before eating, they cut off some part 
of the meat, which was first put into a 
pan, then into the fire, as an offering to 
the Lares, which stood on the hearth, and 
were supposed the guardians of both house 
and land, and to secure both from harm : 
hence the poet says cultrix secura. 

q. d. You have not only a competent 
estate in lands and goods, but daily 
worship the guardian gods, who will there- 
fore protect both what need you fear ? 

27. "Is this enough ?"] To make you 

" May it become you."'] Having rea- 
son, as you may think, to boast of your 
pedigree, can you think it meet 

" To break your lungs," fyc.~\ To 
swell up with pride, till you are ready to 
burst, like a man that draws too much 
air at once into his lungs. 

28. "A thousandth, derive," 3fc.] Mil- 
lesime, for tu millesimus, antiptosis ; like 
trabeate, for tu trabeatus, in the next 
line because you can prove yourself a 
branch of some Tuscan family, a thou- 
sand off from the common stock. The 
Tuscans were accounted of most ancient 
nobility. Horace observes this, in most 




Censoremve tuum vel quod trabeate salutas ? 

Ad populum phaleras: ego te intus, et in cute, novi. so 

Non pudet ad morem discincti vivere Nattae \ 

Sed stupet hie vitio ; et fibris increvit opimum 

Pingue : caret culpa : nescit quid perdat : et alto 

Demersus, summa rursus non bullit in unda. 

Magne pater divum, ssevos punire tyrannos 35 

Haud alia ratione velis, cum dira libido 
Moverit ingenium, ferventi tincta veneno : 
" Virtutem videant, intabescantque relicta." 
Anne magis Siculi gemuerunt sera juvenci ; 
Aut magis, auratis pendens laquearibus, ensis 40 

Purpureas subter cervices terrnit, " imus, 

of his compliments to Maecenas, who 
was derived from the old kings of 
Tuscany. See ode i. lib. L L 1, et aL 

29. " Censor, " fc.] The Roman 
knights, attired in the robe called trabea, 
were summoned to appear before the cen- 
sor (see AINSW. Censor), and to salute 
him in passing by, as their names were 
called over. They led their horses in 
their hand. 

Are you to boast, says the philosopher 
to his pupil, because the censor is your 
relation (tuum), and that when you pass 
in procession before him, with your 
knight's robe on, you may claim kindred 
with him ? 

30. " Trappings to the people "] q. d. 
These are for the ignorant vulgar to ad- 
mire. The ornaments of your dress you 
may exhibit to the mob ; they will be 
pleased with such gewgaws, and respect 
you accordingly. 

The word phalerse-arum, signifies trap- 
pings, or ornaments, for horses ; also a 
sort of ornament worn by the knights : 
but these no more ennobled the man, 
than those did the horse. 

" / know you intimately,' 1 '' ifc.] In- 
side and out, as we say ; therefore you 
can't deceive me. 

31. "Does it not shame you,'" <Sfc.] Do 
you feel no shame at your way of life, 
you that are boasting of your birth, for- 
tune, and quality, and yet leading the 
life of a low profligate mechanic ? 

Natta signifies one of a sorry, mean 
occupation, a dirty mechanic. But here 
the poet means somebody of this name, 
or at least who deserves it by his profli- 

gate and worthless character. See HOR. 
sat. vi. lib. L L 124; and Juv. sat. viii. 
1. 95. 

32. " He is stupified with vice"] He 
has not all his faculties clear, and capable 
of discernment, as you have, therefore 
is more excusable than you are. By 
long contracted habits of vice he has 
stupified himself. 

" Fat hath increased,' 1 ' 1 3fc.] Pingue, 
for pinguedo. These words are, I con- 
ceive, to be taken in a moral sense ; and 
by fibris, the inwards or entrails, is to be 
understood the mind and understanding, 
the judgment and conscience, the in- 
ward man, which, like a body over- 
whelmed with fat, are rendered torpid, 
dull, and stupid, so as to have no sense 
and feeling of the nature of evil re- 
maining. See Psal. cxix. 70, former 

33. K He is not to blame."] i. e. Com- 
paratively. See Juv. sat. ii. 1. 1519. 

" He knows not,"* fyc.] He is insen- 
sible of the sad consequences of vice, 
such as the loss of reputation, and of 
the comforts of a virtuous life. He has 
neither judgment to guide him, nor con- 
science to reprove him. 

34. " Overwhelmed:"] Sunk into the 
very depths of vice, like one sunk to the 
bottom of the sea. 

" Bubble again," $fc.~\ i. e. He does 
not emerge, rise up again. Metaph. 
from divers, who plunge to the bottom 
of the water, and, when they rise again, 
make a bubbling of the surface as they 
approach the top. 

Therefore, young man, beware of 
imitating, by thine idleness and mis- 



" Or because robed you salute the censor (as) yours? 
" Trappings to the people I know you intimately and tho- 

" roughly. 30 

" Does it not shame you to live after the manner of dissolute 

" Natta ? 

" But he is stupified with vice, rich fat hath increased in his 
" Inwards : he is not to blame : he knows not what he may 

" lose, and with the deep 
" Overwhelmed, he does not bubble again at the top of the 

" water." 

Great father of gods ! will not to punish cruel 35 

Tyrants by any other way, when fell desire 
Shall stir their disposition, imbued with fervent poison ; 
Let them see virtue, and let them pine away, it being left. 
Did the brass of the Sicilian bullock groan more, . 
Or the sword hanging from the golden ceiling, did it 40 
More affright the purple neck underneath ; " I go, 

spending of time, this wretched man, 
lest them should'st bring thyself into the 
same deplorable state. 

3<>. U;i tinji oilx-r /.] Than by giving 
them a sight of the charms of that virtue, 
which they have forsaken, and to which 
they cannot attain. Haud velis i. e. 

Wlien dire lust,^] When they 
find their evil passions exciting them on 
acts of tyranny. See AINSW. Libido, 
No. 1, 3. 

:<". Imbued with fervent poison.'] Tincta 
imbued, full of, abounding (met.) 
with the inflaming venom of cruelty, 
which may be called the poison of the 
mind, baleful and fatal as poison in its 
destructive influence. 

38. Let them see. virtue.} Si virtus hu- 
manis oculis conspiceretur, miros amores 
excitaret sui. SENEC. This would be 
the case with the good and virtuous ; 
but it would have a contrary effect 
towards such as are here mentioned ; 
it would fill them with horror and dis- 
may, and inflict such remorse and stings 
of conscience, as to prove the greatest 
torment which they could endure. 

Lei them pine away.} For the loss 
of that which they have forsaken and 
despised, as well as from the despair 
of ever retrieving it. 

It being left.] 1. 1. Virtute relicta. 
Abl. absol. 

39. The Sicilian bullock, $c.] Alluding 
to the story of- Phalaris's brazen bull. 
Perillus, an Athenian artificer, made 
a figure of a bull in brass, and gave it 
to Phalaris, tyrant of Syracuse, as an 
engine of torment : the bull was hollow ; 
a man put into it, and set over a large 
fire, would, as the brass heated and tor- 
mented him, make a noise which might 
be supposed to imitate the roaring of a 
bull. The tyrant accepted the present, 
and ordered the experiment to be first 
tried on the inventor himself. Comp. 
Juv. sat. xv. 122, note. 

40. The sword hanging, tyc.] Damo- 
cles, the flatterer of Dionysius, the Sici- 
lian tyrant, having greatly extolled the 
happiness of monarch s, was ordered, 
that he might be convinced of his mis- 
take, to be attired, as a king, in royal 
apparel ; to be seated at a table spread 
with the choicest viands, but withal, to 
have a naked sword hung over his head, 
suspended by a single hair, with the 
point downwards ; which so terrified 
Damocjes, that he could neither taste 
of the dainties, nor take any pleasure 
in his magnificent attendance. 

41. Purple neck, $c.~] i. e. Damocles, 
who was placed under the point of the 
suspended sword, and magnificently ar- 
rayed in royal purple garments. Me- 
lon. Purpureas cervices, for purpuream 
cervicem sy nee. 



" Imus prsecipites," quam si sibi dicat ; et intus 
Palleat infelix, quod proxima nesciat uxor? 

Saepe oculos, mernini, tangebam parvus olivo, 
Gfrandia si noil em morituri verba Catonis 
Dicere, noa sano multum laudanda magistro ; 
Quse pater adductis sudans audiret amicis : 
Jure ; etenim id summum, quid dexter senio ferret, 
Scire erat in voto ; damnosa canicula quantum 
Raderet ; angustse collo non fallier orcse ; 
Neu quis callidior buxum torquere flagello. 

Haud tibi inexpertum, curvos deprendere mores ; 
Quseque docet sapiens, braccatis illita Medis, 

41, 2. " / go, I go," 4fc.] A person 
within the bull of Phalaris would not 
utter more dreadful groans ; nor would 
one seated like Damocles, under the 
sharp point of a sword, suspended over 
his head by a single horsehair, feel more 
uneasy, than the man who is desperate 
with guilt, so as to give himself over 
for lost, and to have nothing else to 
say, than, " I am going, I ani plunging 
" headlong into destruction, nothing can 
" save me." 

42, 3. Within unhappy.'] Having an 
hell, as it were, in his conscience. 

43. Turn pale.} Palleo literally signi- 
fies to be pale as this often arises from 
fear and dread, palleo is used to denote 
fearing, to stand in fear of, per meton. 
So Hoa. lib. iii. ode xxvii. 1. 27, 8. 

Mediasque fravdes audax. 

In the above passage of Horace, pal- 
leo, though a verb neuter, is used active- 
ly, as here by Persius : likewise before, 
sat L 1. 124, where palles is used me- 
tonymically for hard studying, which 
occasions paleness of countenance. 

Nearest icife, fc.] His conscience 
tormented with the guilt of crimes, 
which he dares not reveal to the near- 
est friend that he has, not even to the 
wife of his bosom, who is nearest of 

44. Besmeared my eyes, $c.~\ The phi- 
losopher here relates some of his boyish 
pranks. I used, says he, when I was a 
little boy, and had not a mind to learn 
my lesson, to put oil into my eyes, to 
make them lox>k bleary, that my master 
might suppose they really were so, and 
excuse me mv task. 

45, 6. Great words of dying Cato.] 
Cato of Utica is here meant, who killed 
himself, that he might not fall into the 
hands of Julius Caesar, after the defeat 
of Pompey. His supposed last delibe- 
ration with himself before his death, 
whether he should stab himself, or fall 
into the hands of Caesar, was given as 
a theme for the boys to write on ; then 
they were to get the declamation, which 
they composed, by heart, and repeat it 
by way of exercising them in elo- 

45. Much to be praised,] It was the 
custom for the parents and their friends 
to attend on these exercises of their 
children, which the master was sure to 
commend very highly, by way of flatter- 
ing the parents with a notion of the 
progress and abilities of their children, 
not without some view, that the parents 
should compliment the master on the 
pains which he had taken with his 

Insane.'] This does not mean that 
the master was mad, but that, in com- 
mending and praising such puerile per- 
formances, and the vehemence with 
which he did it, he did not act like one 
that was quite in his right senses. 

47. Sweating ] i. e. With the eager- 
ness and agitation of his mind, that I 
might acquit myself well before him and 
the friends which he might bring to hear 
me declaim. See above, note on 1. 46, 
No. 1. 

48. With reason, fyc.~\ Jure not with- 
out cause. 9. d. My father might well 
sweat with anxiety ; for instead of study- 
ing how to acquit myself with credit on 
these occasions, it was the height of my 



u I go headlong," (than if any one should say to himself,) 

and, within 
Unhappy, should turn pale at what his nearest wife must be 

ignorant of? 
I remember, that I, a little boy, often besmeared my eyes 

with oil, 

If I was unwilling to learn the great words of dying 45 

Cato, much to be praised by my insane master ; 
Which my father would hear sweating, with the friends he 

brought : 

With reason; for it was the height of my wish to know what 
The lucky sice would bring, how much the mischievous ace 
Would scrape off not to be deceived by the neck of the 

narrow jar 50 

Nor that any one should whirl more skilfully the top with a 

It is not a thing unexperienced to you, to discover crooked 

And the things which the wise portico, daub'd over with the 

trowser'd Medes, 

ambition to know the chances of the 
dice, play at chuck, and whip a top, 
better than any other boy. 

49. Lucky sice, #c.] Dexter, lucky, 
fortunate from dexter, the right hand, 
which was supposed the lucky side, as 
sinister, the left, was accounted un- 

The sice the six the highest num- 
ber on the dice, which won. 

Mischierxius ace, 3fc.] The ace was 
the unluckiest throw on the dice, and 
lost all. See Aixsw. Canicula, No. 5. 

It was the summit of his wish to be 
able to calculate the chances of the 
dice ; as, what he should win by throw- 
ing a six, and what he should lose if he 
threw an ace. How much a sice, ferret, 
might bring, t. e. add, contribute to his 
winnings how much the ace, raderet, 
might scrape off, *". e. diminish, or take 
away from them. Metaph. from di- 
minishing a thing, or lessening its bulk 
by scraping it. 

50. Neck of the narrow jar.] Orca sig- 
nifies a jar, or like earthen vessel, which 
had a long narrow neck : the boys used 
to fix the bottom in the ground, and try 
to chuck, from a little distance, nuts, or 
almonds, into the mouth ; those which 
they chucked in were their own, and 


those which missed the mouth, and fell 
on the ground, they lost. 

I made it my study, says he, to un- 
derstand the game of the orca, and to 
chuck so dexterously as not to miss the 
mouth, however narrow the neck might 

51. The top.'] Buxus lit. the box- tree, 
box-wood. As the children's tops were 
made of this, therefore, per meton. it is 
used to denote a top, as well as any 
thing else made of box-wood. Consis- 
tently with his plan, he was determined 
to excel, even in whipping a top. 

52. Unexperienced, $c.\ The philoso- 
pher makes use of what he has been 
saying, by way of remonstrance with his 
pupil. You, says he, are not a child as 
I was then, therefore it does not become 
you to invent excuses to avoid your 
studies, in order to follow childish 
amusements you know better, you have 
been taught the precepts of wisdom and 
moral philosophy, and know by expe- 
rience the difference between right and 

Crooked morals.] Morals which de- 
viate from the straight ride of right. Me- 
taph. from things that are bent, bowed, 
crooked, and out of n straight line. 

.">.",. Wise portico.] Melon, the plnce 



Porticus : insomnis quibus et detonsa juventus 
Invigilat, siliquis et grand! pasta polenta. 
Et tibi, qua? Samios deduxit litera ramos, 
Surgentem dextro moustravit limite callem. 
Stertis adhuc ? laxumque caput, coinpage soluta, 
Oscitat hesternnm, dissutis undique mails ? 
Est aliquid quo tendis, et in quod dirigis arcum? 
An passim sequeris corvos testaque lutoque, 
Securus quo pes ferat, atque ex tempore vivis ? 

Helleborum frustra, cum jam cutis segra tumebit, 
Poscentes videas. Venienti occurrite morbo ; 
Et quid opus Cratero magnos promittere montes ? 
Discite, o miseri ! et causas cognoscite rerum : 
Quid sumus : et quidnain victuri gignimur : ordo 


where wisdom is taught, put for the 
teachers. The Stoics were so called, 
from ffroa, a portico, in Athens, spacious, 
and finely embellished, where they used 
to meet and dispute. 

53. DaiiVd over, $c.] On the walls of 
the portico were painted the battles of 
the Medes and Persians with the Athe- 
nians, who, with their kings Xerxes and 
Darius, were defeated by Miltiades, Le- 
onidas, and Themistocles, Athenian ge- 
nerals, at Marathon, Thermopylae, and 
on the coast of Salamis. 

Trowser^d Medes.'] The bracca was 
a peculiar dress of the Medes, which, like 
trowsers, reached from the loins to the 
ancles. See Juv. sat. ii. 1. 169, note. 

54. mich.] i. c. The things taught 
by the Stoics. 

Sleepless youth.~\ The young men 
who follow the strict discipline of the 
Stoics, and allow themselves but little 
sleep, watching over their studies night 
and day. 

Shorn.] After the manner of the 
Stoics, who did not suffer their hair to 
grow long. See Juv. sat. ii. 1. 14, 15. 

55. Bean-pods.] Siliqua is the husk, 
pod, or shell of a bean, pea, or the like ; 
also the pulse therein : put here to de- 
note the most simple and frugal diet. 
Juv. sat xi. 1. 58. 

A great pudding.] Polenta barley- 
flour, dried at the fire and fried, after 
soaking in water all night. AINSW. 
This made a sort of fried pudding, or 
cake, and was a kind of coarse food. 

56. And to thee, the letter, <$fe.] The 
two horns, or branches, as Persius calls 

them, of the letter Y, were chosen, by 
Pythagoras, to demonstrate the two dif- 
ferent paths of virtue and vice, the right 
branch leading to the former, the left to 
the latter: it was therefore called his 
letter: and Persius calls the two branches, 
into which the Y divides itself, Samios, 
from Samos, an island in the Ionian 
sea, where Pythagoras was born, who 
hence was called the Samian philosopher, 
and the Y the Samian letter. 

57. Sheu-n the path rising, <$fc.] *. e. He 
had been well instructed in the doctrine 
of Pythagoras, concerning the way to 

Litera Pythagoree discrimine secta bi- 

Humanee vita speciem prteferre vi- 

dctur. MART. 

58. Do you still snore ?] Thou, who 
hast been taught better things, from the 
principles and practices of the Stoics and 
Pythagoreans, art thou sleeping till al- 
most noon ? See 1. 4. 

Your lax head, <|c.] In sleep, the 
muscles which raise the head, and keep 
it upright, are all relaxed, so that the 
head will nod, and drop, as if it had no- 
thing to confine it in its place : this is 
often seen in people who sleep as they 

59. Yawn, .Sfc.] From the sleepiness 
and fatigue occasioned by yesterday's 
debauch are you yawning as if your jaws 
were ripped asunder? Dissutis metaph. 
from the parting, or gaping, of things 
sewed together, when unstitched, or 
ripped asunder. Mala signifies either 
the cheek, or the jaw-bone. 


Teaches, which the sleepless and shorn youth 
Watch over, fed with bean-pods and a great pudding : 55 
And tothee, the letter, which hath served theSamian branches, 
Hath shewn the path rising with the right-hand limit. 
Do you still snore 2 and does your lax head, with loosened 

Yawn from what happened yesterday, with cheeks unsew'd 

in all parts ! 
Is there any thing whither you tend ? and to what do you 

direct your bow ? 60 

Or do you follow crows up and down with a potsherd and mud, 
Careless whither your foot may carry you ; and do you live 

from the time? 

In vain hellebore, when now the sickly skin shall swell, 
You may see people asking for. Prevent the coming disease ; 
And what need is there to promise great mountains to Cra- 

terus \ 65 

Learn, O miserable creatures, and know the causes of things, 
What we are, and what we are engendered to live : what order 

Osciat hesternum. Graecism. q. d. 
Yawn forth yesterday's debauch. 

Oscitando evaporat, et edormit hester- 
nam crapulam. MART. 

60. 7s there any thing, tyc.] Have you 
any pursuit, end, or point in view ? 

Direct your bow.} What do you aim 
at? Metaph. taken from an archer's 
aiming at a mark. 

61. Follow crows, #c.] Or do you 
ramble about, you know not why, nor 
whither, like idle boys, that follow crows 
to pelt them with potsherds and mud, 
in order to take them ? (as we should 
say, to lay salt upon their tails.) A pro- 
verbial expression to denote vain, un- 
profitable, and foolish pursuits. 

62. Live from the time.} Ex tempore 
without any fixed or premeditated plan, 
and looking no farther than just the 
present moment 

63. In vain hellebore, $c.] The herb 
hellebore was accounted a great cleanser 
of noxious humours, therefore adminis- 
tered in dropsies. 

When the skin is swoln with a dropsy, 
it is too late to begin with remedies, in 
very many cases. 

64. Prevent, frc.] The wisest way is 
to prevent the disorder by avoiding the 
causes of it, or by checking its first ap- 
proaches. Occurrite meet it in its way 
to attack you. 

Principiis obsta : sero medicirut para- 

Cum mala per longas invaluere moms. 

65. What need is there, fy.] What need 
have you to let the distemper get such 
an head, as that you may be offering 
mountains of gold for a cure. Craterus 
was the physician of Augustus put here 
for any famous and skilful practitioner. 

The poet, here, is speaking figuratively, 
and means, that what he says of the dis- 
tempers of the body should be applied to 
those of the mind ; of which all he says 
is equally true. 

The first approaches of vice are to be 
watched against, and their progress pre- 
vented ; otherwise, if disregarded till ad- 
vanced into habits, they may be too ob- 
stinate for cure. Comp. 1. 32 4. 

66. Learn, %c.] Here the philosopher 
applies what he has been saying, by way 
of reproof and remonstrance, in a way 
of inference Learn then, says he, ye 
miserable youths, who are giving way 
to sloth, idleness, and neglect of your 
studies learn, before it be too late, the 
causes, the final causes of things, which 
are the great objects of moral philosophy, 
which teacheth us the causes and purposes 
for which all things were made. 

67. What we are.] Both as to body 
and soul ; how frail and transitory as to 

s 2 



Quis datus : et metae qua mollis flexus, et undse. 
Quis modus argento : quid fas optare : quid asper 
Utile nummus habet. Patrise, carisque propinquis, 
Quantum elargiri deceat : quern te Deus esse 
Jussit ; et humana qua parte locatus es in re 
Disce : nee invideas, quod multa fidelia putet 
In locuplete penu, defensis pinguibus Umbris ; 
Et piper, et pernse, Marsi monumenta clientis : 
Manaque quod prima nondum defecerit orca. 
Hie aliquis de gente hircosa centurionum 


the one, how noble and exalted as to the 

67. What we are engendered, $c.~\ To 
what end and purpose we are begotten, 
in order to live in this world, and what 
life we are to lead. 

67. 8. What order is given.'] In what 
rank or degree of life we are placed. 

68. By it-hat way the turning, 3fc.] Me- 
taph. to denote the wise, well-ordered, 
and well-directed management, and right 
conduct of our affairs ; as charioteers in 
the circus used all their care and ma- 
nagement in turning the meta, or goal, 
so as to avoid touching it too nearly. 
To touch it with the inward wheel of the 
chariot, yet so as but to touch it, was the 
choice art of the charioteer: this they 
called stringere metarn. ; as to escape the 
danger in the performance of it they 
called evitare metam. 

Evitata rotis. Hon. ode i. 

If they performed not this very dex- 
terously, they were in danger of having 
the chariot and themselves dashed to 

And of the water.] Another meta- 
phor to the same purpose, alluding to 
the naumachia, or ship-races, wherein 
there were likewise placed metae ; and 
the chief art was, when they came to 
the meta, to tack their ship so dex- 
terously, as to sail as near as possible 
round it, yet so as to avoid running 
against it. See JEn. v. 1'29 31. 

It was one part of moral philosophy, 
to teach the attainment of the best end, 
by the safest, easiest, and best means, 
avoiding all difficulties and dangers as 
much as possible. 

69. What measure to money.'] What 
limits or bounds to put to our desires 
after it, so as to avoid covetousness. 

What it is right to wish.] Or pray 
for. See sat. ii. per tot. 

69. 70. Rough money, Sfc.~\ The true 
use of money, for this alone can make it 
useful. Asper nummus is coined gold 
or silver ; so called from the roughness 
which is raised on the surface by the 
figures or letters stamped on it 

Not only money, but all wrought or 
chased silver or gold, is signified by the 
epithet asper. 

Vasa aspera. Juv. sat. xiv. 1. 62. 

Cymbiaque argento perfeeta > 
pera signis. /En. v. 1. '267. 

70. Our country, fe.] What we owe, 
and, consequently, what it becomes us to 
pay, to our country, our relations, and 
friends, &c. 

71. Whom tJte deity commanded, S)C.] 
Quern what manner of person it is the 
will of heaven you should be in your 

72. In what part placed, %c.~\ Locatus. 
Metaph. from the placing people ac- 
cording to their rank on the benches at 
the theatres ; or from soldiers, who are 
placed in particular stations as sentinels, 
&c. which they must not forsake, but 
by leave, or order, of the commander. 
Thus the Stoics taught that every man 
was placed, or stationed, in some des- 
tined part of the human system (hu- 
mana re), which he must not quit at his 
own will and pleasure, but solely by the 
permission or command of the Deity. 

73. Learn.] Get a thorough, practical 
knowledge of the above-mentioned im- 
portant particulars, and then you need 
not envy any body. 

A jar stinks, fyc.~\ Nor envy any 
great lawyer the presents which are 
made him, of such quantities of provi- 
sions, that they grow stale and putrid 
before he can consume them. Penus-i, 



Is given, and by what way the turning of the goal, and of 

the water, may be easy : 

What measure to money what it is right to wish what rough 
Money has that is useful. To our country, and to dear 

relations, 70 

How much it may become to give; whom the Deity commanded 
Thee to be, and in what part thou art placed in the human 


Learn : nor be envious, that many a jar stinks 
In a rich store, the fat Umbrians being defended, 
And pepper, and gammons of bacon, the monuments of a 

Marsian client, 75 

And because the pilchard has not yet failed from the first jar. 
Here some one, of the stinking race of centurions, 

or -us, signifies a store of provisions. 

74. Fat Umbrians.'] The Umbrian and 
the Marsian were the most plentiful of 
all the provinces in Italy. 

Being defended] Ably and strenu- 
ously, in some great cause, in which 
theyweredefendants they sent presents 
of provisions to their counsel, and this 
in such quantities, that they could not 
use them while they were good. 

75. And pepper, $e.] And that there 
is pepper, &c. in the lawyer's store. 
The poet means to ridicule such vile 
presents, as after him Juvenal did. See 
Juv. sat. vii. 11921. 

Monuments, #c.] Monumentum, or 
monimentum (from moneo) a memorial 
of any person or thing. The poet calls 
these presents of the Marsians, monu- 
ments, or memorials of them, because 
they were the produce of their country, 
and bespake from whence they came as 
presents, to refresh their counsel's me- 
mory concerning his Marsian clients, 
who were, perhaps, plaintiffs in the cause 
against the Umbri. 

76. Because the pilchard, $c.] Because 
a second jar of pickled herrings, or pil- 
chards, was sent, before the first that had 
been sent was all used. 

What fish the maena was is not cer- 
tain, but something, we may suppose, of 
the herring, pilchard, or anchovy kind, 
which was pickled, and put up in jars. 

The Stoics were no friends to the 
lawyers ; not that they condemned the 
profession itself, but because it induced 
men to sell their voices, in order to gra- 

tify their covetous desire of gain, which, 
by the way, could not be very consider- 
able, if it consisted only in such fees as 
are above mentioned. Comp. Juv. sat. 
vii. 106 21. 

However, Persius makes his philo- 
sopher, in his discourse to his pupils, 
take an opportunity of ridiculing the 
lawyers, with no little contempt and 
seve'rity, by telling the young men, that, 
if possessed of all the valuable principles 
of moral philosophy, they need not envy 
the fees of the lawyers, which, by the 
way, he represents in the most ridiculous 
and contemptible light. 

77. Here some one, $<.] The poet here 
represents the philosopher as anticipat- 
ing some objections which might be 
made to his doctrines, on the subject of 
studying philosophy, which he does, by 
way of answering them ; and thus he 
satirizes the neglect and contempt of 
philosophy by the Roman people, and 
shews the fallacy and absurdity of their 
arguments against it. 

Stinking centurions.] Hircosus, from 
hircus, a goat, signifies stinking, ram- 
mish, smelling like a goat 

The centurions, and the lower part of 
tho Roman soldiery, were very slovenly, 
seldom pulled off their clothes, and wore 
their beards, which they neglected ; so 
that, by the nastiness of their persons, 
they smelt rank like goats. 

Persius makes one of these the spokes- 
man, by which he means, doubtless, to 
reflect on the opponents, as if none 
could be of their party but sueh a low, 
dirty, ignorant follow as this. 



Dicat ; " Quod sapio, satis est mihi : non ego euro 

" Esse quod Arcesilas, serumnosique Solones, 

" Obstipo capite, et figentes lumine terrain ; 

" Murmura cum secum, et rabiosa silentia rodunt, 

" Atque exporrecto trutinantur verba labello, 

" jEgroti veteris meditantes somnia : gigni 

" De niMlo nihilum, in nihilwn nil posse reverti. 

" Hoc est, quod palles ! cur quis non prandeat, hoc est !' 

His populus ridet ; multumque torosa juventus 

Ingeminat trenmlos, naso crispante, cachinnos. 

Inspice ; nescio quid trepidat mihi pectus, et segris 
Faucibus exsuperat gravis halitus ; inspice sodes, 

78. " What I know," Sfc.] The founda- 
tion of all contempt of knowledge is self- 

I know enough to answer my pur- 
pose, says the centurion ; I don't want 
to be wiser. 

79. " Arcesilas."'] An ^olian by birth, 
and scholar to Polemon ; afterwards he 
came to Athens, and joined himself to 
Crantor, and became the founder of an 
academy. He opposed Zeno's opinions, 
and held, that nothing could be certainly 

Persius, probably, who was a Stoic, 
means here to give him a rub, by sup- 
posing this ignorant centurion to men- 
tion him as a great man. 

" Wretched Solons."] Solon was one 
of the wise men of Greece, and the great 
lawgiver at Athens. 

I would not give a farthing, says the 
centurion, to be such a philosopher as 
Arcesilas, or as wise as Solon, who was 
always making himself miserable with 
labour and study, or indeed as any such 
people as Solon was (Solones.) 

80. " Head awry."] An action which 
the philosophers much used, as having 
the appearance of modesty and subjec- 
tion. See HOR. sat. v. lib. ii. 1. 92.; 

" Fixing the eyes on the ground"] 
As in deep thought. 

Figentes lumine terram. Hypallage 
for figentes lamina in terram. 

81." Murmurs with themselves."] Per- 
sons in deep meditation are apt some- 
times to be muttering to themselves. 

" Mad silence" dijc.] They observed 
a silence, which, being attended with re- 
clining the head, fixing their eyes on 
the ground, and only now and then in- 
terrupted by a muttering between the 

teeth, as if they were gnawing or eating 
their words, made those who saw them 
take them for madmen, for they appeared 
like melancholy mad. Perhaps rabiosa 
silentia may allude to the notion of 
mad-dogs, who are supposed never to 

82. " Words are ^veighed," <3fc.] Tru- 
tinantur metaph. from weighing in 
scales : so these philosophers appear to 
be balancing, *. e. deeply considering, 
their words, with the lip pointed out ; 
an action frequently seen in deep 

83. " Meditating the dreams" fyc.~\ 
Sick men's dreams are proverbial for 
thoughts which are rambling and inco- 
herent ; as such the centurion represents 
the thoughts and researches of these 
philosophers : of this he gives an in- 

83, 4. " Nothing can be produced," 
$c.] q. d. Ex nihilo nil fit. This was 
looked on as an axiom among many of 
the ancient philosophers, and so taken 
for granted, that the centurion is here 
supposed to deride those, who took the 
pains to get at it by study, as much as 
we should do a man who should labour 
hard to find out that two and two make 

But we are taught, that God made 
the world out of matter, which had no 
existence till he created it, contrary to 
the blind and atheistical notion of the 
eternity of the world, or of the world's 
being God, as the Stoics and others 

85. " 7s this what you study ? "] Palles 
lit. art pale. See note on sat i. 1. 

"Should not dine."'] Is it for this 



May say ; " What I know is enough for me. I don't care 
" To be what Arcesilas was, and the wretched Solons, 
" With the head awry, and fixing the eyes on the ground, so 
" When murmurs with themselves, and mad silence they 

" are gnawing, 

" And words are weighed with a stretclVd-out lip, 
" Meditating the dreams of an old sick man that nothing 

" Be produced from nothing, nothing can be returned into 

" nothing. 
" Is this what you study ? Is it this why one should not 

" dine ?" 85 

The people laugh at this, and much the brawny youth 
Redoubles the tremulous loud laughs with wrinkling nose. 
" Inspect : I know not why my breast trembles, and from 

" my sick 
" Jaws heavy breath abounds : inspect, I pray you " 

that you philosophers half starve your- 
selves with fasting, that your heads may 
be clear. 

Mente uti recte non possumus multo 
cibo et potione completi. Cic. Tusc. 
Quaest 5. Quis for aliquis lit. some 

8G. The people laugh at this.] At these 
words the people, who are the supposed 
hearers of this centurion, burst into a 

The braivny youth, #<.] The stout, 
brawny young fellows, the soldiers who 
stood around, were highly delighted 
with the centurion's jokes upon the phi- 
losophers, and with repeated loud laugh- 
ter proclaimed their highest approba- 

87. Tremulous loud laughs.] Cachin- 
nus signifies a loud laugh, particularly 
in <lfri>ion or scorn tremulos denotes 
the trembling or shaking of the voice in 
laughter, as ha I ha ! ha ! 

Wringing nose.] In laughter the 
nose is drawn up in wrinkles. See sat. 
i. 1. 41, note. 

88. " Inspect," #c.] The philosopher 
having ended the supposed speech of 
the centurion against the study of phi- 
losophy, now relates a story, by way of 
answer ; in order to shew, that a man 
who rejects and ridicules the principles 
of philosophy, which are to heal the 
disorders of the mind, acts as fatal a part, 

as he who, with a fatal distemper in his 
body, should reject and ridicule the ad- 
vice of a physician, even act against it, 
and thus at last destroy himself. The 
qui, 1. 90. is a relative without an ante- 
cedent, but may be supplied thus- 
Let us suppose a man, who finding 
himself ill, says to a physician, " Pray, 
" doctor, feel my pulse, observe my case, 
" examine what is the matter with me." 

"/ know not why" $c.] I don't 
know how or what it is, but I find an 
unusual fluttering of my heart. 

89. " Heavy breath abounds."] I feel 
an heaviness and oppression of breath, 
a difficulty of breathing : which seems 
here meant, as quickness of pulse and 
difficulty of breathing are usual symp- 
toms of feverish complaints, especially of 
the inflammatory kind ; also a fetid 
smell of the breath, which gravis also 

" Inspect, I pray you."] Feeling 
himself ill, and not knowing how it may 
end, he is very earnest for the physi- 
cian's advice, and again urges his re- 

So would it be with regard to philo- 
sophy ; if men felt, as they ought, the 
disorders of the mind, and dreaded the 
consequences, they would not despise, 
philosophy, which is the great healer of 
the distempered mind, but apply to it 



Qui dicit medico ; jussus requiescere, postquam 90 

Tertia compositas vidit nox currere venas, 

De majore domo, modice sitiente lagena, 

Lenia loturo sibi Surrentina rogavit. 

" Heus, bone, tu palles." " Nihil eat." " Videas tameii istud, 

" Quicquid id est : surgit tacite tibi lutea pellis." 95 

At tu deterius palles ; ne sis mihi tutor ; 

Jampridem hunc sepeli : tu restas ? " Perge, tacebo." 

Turgidus hie epulis, atque albo ventre lavatur ; 
Gutture sulphureas lente exhalante mephites. 
Sed tremor inter vina subit, calidumque triental 100 

Excutit e manibus : dente crepuere retecti ; 
Uncta cadunt laxis tune pulmentaria labris : 
Hinc tuba, candeta : tandemque beatulus alto 

as earnestly as this sick man to the 

90. Ordered to rest.'] Being ordered 
by the physician to go to bed, and keep 
himself quiet. 

90, 1. After a third night.'] The pa- 
tient, after about three days observance 
of the doctor's prescription, finds his 
fever gone, the symptoms vanished, and 
his pulse quite composed and calm. 
As soon as he finds this, he forgets his 
physician, and his danger, and falls to 
eating and drinking again as usual. 

92. Greater house.] He sends to some 
rich friend, or neighbour, for some Sur- 
rentine wine ; which was a small wine, 
not apt to affect the head, as Pliny 
observes : 

Surrentina vina caput non tenent. 

PLIN. xxiii. c. 1. 

therefore, drunk in a small quantity, 
might not have been hurtful ; especially 
as this kind of wine was very old, and 
therefore very soft and mild, before it 
was drunk. 

A flagon modr.ralcli/ thirsting.] Per- 
sons who thirst but little, drink but 
little : this idea seems to be used here, 
metaphorically, to denote a flagon that 
did not require much to fill it i. e. a 
moderate size flagon, but yet holding 
enough to hurt a man recovering from 
sickness, if drunk all at one meal, and 
particularly before bathing, as seems to 
be the case here. 

93. About to bathe."] Intending to 
bathe, which, after much eating and 
drinking, was reckoned very unwhole- 

some. Comp. Juv. sat. i. 1. 142 4. 

94. "Ho! good man," dire.] Away, 
after an hearty meal, with his belly full 
of wine and victuals (1. 98.) he goes to 
the baths, where his physician, happen- 
ing to meet him, accosts him with a 
friendly concern, and mentions to him 
some symptoms, which appeared as if he 
had a dropsy. 

" You are pale."] Says the physi- 
cian ; you look ill. 

"It is nothing."] O, says the 
spark, I am very well nothing ails 

"Have an eye" fyc] Says the phy- 
sician be it what it may that may oc- 
casion such a paleness, I'd have you 
take care of it in time. 

95. " Yellow skin" <5fc.] Lutea pellis 
the skin of a yellow cast, like the 
yellow-jaundice, which often precedes a 

"Silently rises."] Tacite insensibly, 
by little and little, though you may not 
perceive it quasi sensim, rises, swells. 

96. " You are pale," c] Says the 
spark, in a huff, to the physician ; you 
are paler than I am pray look to your- 

" Don't be a tutor."] " Don't give 
" yourself airs, as if you were my guar- 
" dian, and had authority over me." 

27. " / have long since" fc.] " It 
"is a great while since I buried my 
" tutor." 

" Do you remain ?"] " Do you pre- 
" sume to take his place ?" 

"Go on /'// be silent."] " O pray," 



Who says to a physician ; being ordered to rest after 90 
A third night hath seen his veins to run composed, 
From a greater house, in a flagon moderately thirsting, 
He has asked for himself, about to bathe, mild Surrentine. 
" Ho ! good man, you are pale." " It is nothing." " But 

" have an eye to it, 

u Whatever it is : your yellow skin silently rises." 95 
" But you are pale worse than I don't be a tutor to me, 
" I have long since buried him, do you remain f " Go on 

" Fll be silent." 

He, turgid with dainties, and with a white belly is bathed, 
His throat slowly exhaling sulphureous stenches : 
But a trembling comes on whilst at his wine, and the warm 

triental 100 

He shakes out of his hands ; his uncovered teeth crashed, 
Then the greasy soups fall from his loose lips : 
Hence the trumpet, the candles : and, at last, this happy 

fellow, on an high 

physician, " go on your own 
' way I shall say no more." 

98. Turgid u~ith dainties.'] Having his 
stomach and bowels full of meat and 

A u-kite belly.'] When the liver, or 
spleen, is distempered, as in the dropsy, 
and the chyle is not turned into blood, 
it circulates in the veins and small ves- 
sels of the skin, and gives the whole 
body a white or pallid appearance. 
Thus HOR. lib. ii. otic. ii. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 

Nee sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 

Fugerit vents, et aquosus aJbo 

Corpore languor. 

7s bathed.] L e. He persists in go- 
ing into the bath in this manner, not- 
withstanding the warning which had 
been given him. 

99. His throat slowly exhaling, Sfc.] 
The fumes of the meat and drink ascend 
out of the stomach into the throat, from 
whence they leisurely discharge them- 
selves in filthy steams. Mephitis sig- 
nifies a stink, particularly a damp, or 
strong sulphureous smell arising from 
corrupted water. See JEn. vii. 1. 84. 
Mephitis was a name of Juno, because 
she w;is supposed to preside over stink- 
ing exhalations. 

100. A trembling canes on, #e.] The 
riotous and gluttonous used to bathe 

after supper, and in the going in, and 
in the bath itself, they drank large 
draughts of hot wine, to produce sweat. 
Hence Juv. sat. viii. L 168. thermarum 
calices. As also after bathing they 
sometimes drank very hard. See my 
note on Juv. ubi supr. 

Triental.] A little vessel, which 
was a third part of a larger, and held 
about a gill ; this he has in his hand 
full of warm wine, but it is shook out of 
his hand by the trembling with which he 
is seized. 

101. Hi* uncovered teeth, v.] His 
face being convulsed, the lips are drawn 
asunder, and discover his teeth, which 
grind or gnash this is frequent in con- 

102. Greasy soups, #e.] Pulmenta- 
rium, chopped meat, with pottage or 
broth AINSW. which undigested meat, 
vomited up, resembles. He was seized 
with a violent vomiting, and brought 
up all the dainties which he had filled 
his stomach with before he went into 
the bath. 

From his loose lips.} Hippocrat 
in Prognostic, says, that, when the 
lips appear loose and hanging down, it 
is a deadly sign. 

103. Hence the trumpet.} Of this in- 
temperance he dies. The funerals of 
the rich were attended with trumpets 



Compositus lecto, crassisque lutatus amomis, 
In portam rigidos calces extendit : at ilium 
Hesterni capite induto subiere Quirites. 

Tange, miser, venas ; et pone in pectore dextram : 
Nil calet hie : summosque pedes attinge, manusque : 

Non frigent. Visa est si forte pecunia, sive 

Candida vicini subrisit molle puella, 
Cor tibi rite salit ? positum est algente catino 
Durum olus ; et populi cribro decussa farina : 
Tenternus fauces. Tenero latet ulcus in ore 
Putre, quod baud deceat plebeia radere beta. 

Alges, cum excussit membris timor albus aristas : 
Nunc, face supposita, fervescit sanguis, et ira 



and lights the poor had only tibiae, 
small pipes which played on the occa- 

103. This happy fellow.'] Beatulus 
dim. from beatus, happy. Iron, 

103. 4. On an high bed, $c.} Laid 
on an high bier. Compositus here seems 
to express what we mean by laying out a 

104. Daubed over, #c.] After wash- 
ing the corpse with water, they anointed 
it with perfumed ointment, of which 
the amomum, an aromatic shrub, which 
grew in Armenia, furnished the chief 
ingredient. The amomum was used in 
embalming. Hence momy or mummy. 

1 05. His rigid heels, fy.} The Romans 
always carried the dead heels foremost, 
noting thereby their last and final de- 
parture from their house. Rigid f. e. 
stiff with death. 

106. Hestemal Romans.} See Juv. 
sat iii. 60, note. When a person of 
consequence died, all the slaves which 
he had made free in his life-time at- 
tended the funeral ; some bore the 
corpse, (subeire put themselves under 
the bier,) others walked in procession. 
These, being freedmen, were reckoned 
among the Roman citizens ; but they 
were looked on in a mean light, and 
were contemptuously called hesterni, 
Romans of yesterday i. e. citizens 
whose dignity was of very short stand- 
ing. Thus the first gentleman or no- 
bleman of his family was called novus 
homo. So we, in contradistinction to 
families which are old, and have been 
long dignified, say, of some family lately 

ennobled, that it is a family of yester- 

Covered head.} Wearing the pi- 

leus, or cap, which was the signal of 
liberty. Scrvum ad pileum vocare, sig- 
nified to give a slave his liberty, which 
they did, among the Romans, by first 
shaving his head, and then putting a 
cap upon it. AINSW. 

107. " Touch, wretch, my veins.' 1 '''} It 
is very evident, from the four last lines, 
that the case, which the philosopher has 
put, is to be taken in an allegorical 
sense ; and that, by the conduct of the 
wretched libertine, who rejected his 
physician's advice, and proceeded in his 
absurd courses, till he fixed a disorder 
upon him which brought him to the 
grave, he meant to represent the conduct 
of those who despised the philosophers, 
those physicians of the mind, and set at 
nought the precepts which they taught, 
till, by a continuance in their vices, 
their case became desperate, and ended 
in their destruction. 

However, the opponent is supposed 
to understand what the philosopher 
said, in his story of the libertine, in a 
mere literal and gross sense, and is 
therefore represented as saying, "What's 
" all this to the purpose?" What is this 
" to me ? I am not sick I don't want 
" a physician try, feel my pulse." 

" On my breast.'"] To feel the regu- 
lar pulsation of my heart. 

108. "Nothing is hot here.'"} There's 
no sign of any feverish heat. 

" Touch the extremes," <Jfc.] You'll 
find there the natural heat ; no coldness 
as in the feet and hands of a dying man. 



Bed laid, and daubed over with thick ointments, 

Extends his rigid heels towards the door : but him 105 

The hesternal Romans, with covered head, sustained. 

" Touch, wretch, my veins, and put your right hand on 

" my breast : 
" Nothing is hot here : and touch the extremes of my feet 

" and hands : 

" They are not cold." " If haply money be seen, or 
" The fair girl of your neighbour smile gently, no 

" Does your heart leap aright ? there is placed in a cold dish 
" An hard cabbage, and flour shaken thro 1 the sieve of the 

" people : 
" Let us try your jaws : a putrid ulcer lies hid in your 

" tender mouth, 
" Which it would be hardly becoming to scratch with a 

" plebeian beet. 

" You are cold, when white fear has roused the bristles 

"on your limbs: 115 

" Now, with a torch put under, your blood grows hot, and 

" with anger 

to injure, by scratching or rubbing against 
it with vulgar food. 

114. Beet.] Beta some sort of hard, 
coarse, and unsavoury herb. AINSW. 
Put here, by meton. for any kind of 
ordinary harsh food. 

If you found this to be the case, you 
may be certain that you have a luxurious 

1 15. When tchitefear, $c.] You said 
that you had no cold in the extremes of 
your feet and hands but how is it with 
you when you shudder with fear ? The 
Stoics were great advocates for apathy, 
or freedom from all passions, fear among 
the rest White fear, so called from the 
palenesss of countenance that attends 

Rous'd the bristles.'] Arista sig- 
nifies an ear of corn, or the beard of 
corn. Sometimes, by catachresis, an 
hair or bristle, which is often said to 
stand on end when people are in a 

116. Note tctih a torch, 4'c.] He now 
charges him with the disease of violent 
anger, the blood set on fire, as if a burn- 
ing torch were applied, and eyes spark- 
ling and flashing fire as it were. In this 
situation, says he, you say and do things, 
that even Orestes himself, mad as he 
was, would swear were the words and 

1 09. " I/haply money be see."] Here 
the philosopher explains himself, and 
seems to say, " I grant that your bodily 
health is good, but how is your mind ? 
does not this labour under the diseases 
of covetousness, fleshly lust, intempe- 
rance, fear, and anger ? As a proof of 
this, let me ask you, if a large sum of 
money comes in view, or your neigh- 
bour's handsome daughter should smile 
upon you, does your heart move calmly 
as it ought, do you feel no desire of 
possessing either ?" 

111. "There is placed, fy-.] What 
think you of a vile dish of hard, half- 
boiled cabbage, or coleworts, and coarse 
bread, such as the common people eat. 
Farina is lit. meal or flour ; here, by 
meton. the bread itself which is made 
of it. Shaken through the sieve of the 
people f. . of the poorer sort, who 
used coarse sieves, which let more of 
the bran and husks through, and there- 
fore their bread was coarser than that 
of the gentry. 

113. Try your janes.'] Whether they 
can devour such coarse fare, or whether 
you would not find yourself as unable 
to chew, or swallow it, as if you had a 
sore and putrid ulcer lurking in your 
mouth, too tender for such coarse food, 
and which it would not be at all fitting 



Scintillant oculi : dicisque, facisque, quod ipse 
Non sani esse hominis, non sanus juret Orestes. 

actions of a person out of his senses. 
So that, though you may think you are 
well, because you find no feverish heat 
in your body, yet you are troubled with 
a fever of the mind every time you are 
angry. Therefore in this, as well as 
with regard to the diseases of covetous- 
ness, lust, luxury, and fear, which are 
all within you, you as much stand in 
need of a physician for your mind, as 
the poor wretch, whom I have been 
speaking of, stood in need of a physician 
for his body ; nor did he act more op- 
positely to the dictates of sound reason 
by despising his physician, and rejecting 
his remedies for his bodily complaints. 

than you do, by despising the philoso- 
phers, and rejecting their precepts, which 
are the only remedies for the disorders of 
the mind. 

Thus the philosopher is supposed to 
conclude his discourse with his oppo- 
nent, leaving an useful lesson on the 
minds of his idle and lazy pupils, who 
neglected their studies to indulge in sloth 
and luxury, not considering the fatal dis- 
tempers of their minds, which, if ne- 
glected, must end in their destruction. 

117. Orestes.'] Was the son of Aga- 
memnon and Clytemnestra. He slew 
his own mother, and JEgisthus, her 
adulterer, who had murdered his father. 


" Your eyes sparkle, and you do and say, what Orestes himself, 
u Not in his sound mind, would swear was not the part of a 
" man in his right senses." 

He killed Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, 
in the temple of Apollo, for marrying 
Hermione, who had been promised to 
him by her father Menelaus. Apollo 
sent furies to haunt him for the profa- 
nation of his temple, and forced him to 
expiate his crimes at the altar of Diana 
Taurica. See Juv. sat. xv. L 116 19. 
See HOR. sat. iii. lib. ii. 1. 133, et 
seq. in which satire Horace, with a de- 
gree of humour and raillery peculiar to 
himself, exposes the doctrine of the 
Stoic philosophers, which was, that all 
mankind were madmen and fools, except 
those of their own sect ; this he, with 

infinite humour and address, turns 
upon themselves, and naturally con- 
cludes, upon their own premises, that 
they were greater fools than the rest of 
the world. 

The Stoics were a proud, harsh, se- 
vere, and sour sect, in many particulars 
not very different from the Cynics. The 
reader may find an instructive account 
of their principles, doctrines, and prac- 
tices, as well as an edifying use made of 
them, in that masterly performance of 
Dr. Leland, entitled, " The Advantage 
" and Necessity of the Christian Reve- 
lation," vol. ii. 140223. 



The sting of this Satire is particularly aimed at Nero ; but 
the Poet has been cautious., and therefore has written it 
under the notion of Socrates admonishing his pupil, young 
Alcibiades: under this fiction he attacks Nero^s unfitness to 
manage the reins of government, his lust, his cruelty, his 
drunkenness, his luxury and effeminacy. He also repre- 
hends the flattery of Nero^s courtiers, who endeavoured to 

REM populi tractas ? (barbatum hsec crede magistrum 

Dicere, sorbitio tollit quern dira cicutse.) 

Quo fretus ? die hoc, magni pupille Pericli. 

Scilicet ingenium, et rerum prudentia velox, 

Ante pilos venit ; dicenda, tacendaque, calles. 5 

Ergo, ubi commota fervet plebecula bile, 

Fert animus calidse fecisse silentia turbse, 

Line 1. Do you manage, fyc.] Do you undertaking? ora> inaTfuuv, says So- 

take upon yourself the management of crates to Alcibiades. 

public affairs the government of the O pupil, $fc.] The father of young 

state ? Alcibiades left him under the care and 

Think,~\ i. e. Let us suppose, ima- guardianship of Pericles, who was a wise 

gine. and great statesman, and who adminis- 

The bearded master.'] Socrates, who, tered the affairs of Athens for forty 

like other philosophers, wore a beard, as years. Alcibiades was prone to luxury 

a mark of wisdom and gravity ; let us and other vices, but giving himself to be 

suppose him thus to discourse to his pu- instructed by Socrates, he was somewhat 

pil Alcibiades. reclaimed. See AINSW. Alcibiades. 

2. Dire potion, Sfc.~] Socrates was put 4. To be sure.] Scilicet is here ironical, 
to death at Athens, on the accusation of and is put to introduce the following 
Anitus and Melitus. He was condemned lines, which are all, to 1. 1 3, ironical, 
to drink the juice of hemlock. See and lash Nero under the person of 
Juv. sat. xiii. 1. 185, 6, note. young Alcibiades. 

3. Upon what relying 1] What are Genius.'] Ingenium capacity, judg- 
your qualifications for this, that you ment. 

rely upon as sufficient for so arduous an Quick foresight, $<:.] Prudentia a 



make his vices pass for virtues. It may be supposed, 
that our poet might mean to represent Seneca, Neros tutor, 
under the character of Socrates, the tutor of young Al- 
cibiades ; and Nero, Seneca's pupil, under the character of 
Alcibiades. Persius has, in this Satire, almost transcribed 
Plato's first Alcibiades. See Spectator, No. 207. 

Do you manage the business of the people? (think the bearded 


To say these things, whom the dire potion of hemlock took off.) 
Upon what relying ? tell this, O pupil of great Pericles. 
To be sure, genius, and quick foresight of things, 
Come before hairs : you know well what is to be spoken, and 

what kept in silence. 5 

Therefore when the lower sort of people grow warm with 

stirr'd bile, 
Your mind carries you to have made silence to the warm crowd, 

natural quickness and foresight of things, who, in all states, are, at times, apt 

and an habitual acting accordingly. to be troublesome if displeased. 

5. Before hairs.'] i. e. The hairs of the With stirred bile.'] Wax warm with 
beard. According to Suet. Nero began anger, their choler stirred, put into corn- 
to reign before his seventeenth year. motion 

You know tcell, $c.~] This is a most 7. Your mind carries you.] Your mind 

important qualification in the chief go- is so persuaded of your dignity and au- 

vernor of a state, to know when to thority, that it carries you into a notion, 

speak, and when to be silent what to that you have but to wave your hand, 

impart to the people, and what conceal and the people, though in ever so great 

from them what to take public notice of, a ferment, would be instantly appeased, 

and what to pass over hi silence : there- To hate made silence, dfc.] The 

fore when thought has but to come into your mind, 

6. The lower sort of people.] Plebecula and the thing seems to have bopn al- 
(dim. from plebs), the mob, as we say; ready done. See JEn. i. 152 7. 



Majestate manus. Quid deinde loquere ? " Quirites., 
" Hoc, puto, non justum est ; illud male : rectius istud." 
Scis etenim justum gemina suspendere lance 
Ancipitis librae : rectum discernis, ubi inter 
Curva subit ; vel cum fall it pede regula varo : 
Et potis es nigrum vitio prsefigere theta. 

Quin tu, igitur, summa nequicquam pelle decorus, 
Ante diem blando caudam jactare popello 

8. What then, $fc.] q. d. Now let us 
suppose you to have succeeded, and to 
have made silence, fecisse silentia 
what would be your speech to them, in 
order to their dispersion ? 

"Romans."] Quirites. The poet 
supposes him to address the mob by the 
ancient and honourable title of Quirites, 
in order to gain their attention, and by 
this, too, he marks out who is meant by 
Alcibiades ; for the Romans, not the 
Athenians, were called Quirites, from Qui- 
rinus, i. e. Romulus, their first founder. 

9. " / think."] Pluto i. e. in my 
opinion. He speaks with the diffidence 
and fear of a young and inexperienced 
man, instead of the boldness and autho- 
rity of an old experienced governor. 

"/s not just" fyc.] He represents Al- 
cibiades (i. e. young Nero) as a mise- 
rable and puerile orator, and making a 
speech consisting of very few words, (and 
those ill calculated to allay the turbu- 
lence of an enraged mob,) and therefore 
not fit for the government of such a place 
as Rome, where seditions and risings of 
the people were very frequent, and 
which required all the gravity and force 
of popular eloquence to appease them. 

"That is badly, fyc.] He represents 
Alcibiades, as if he were saying over his 
lesson about the TO Succuov, TO Ka\ov, TO 
SiKa.ioTfpov, to his master Socrates ; in 
order to ridicule the supposed speech of 
Nero to the people, which is more like a 
school-boy's repeating his lesson in mo- 
ral philosophy, than like a manly autho- 
ritative oration, calculated for the ar- 
duous occasion of appeasing an incensed 
and seditious mob. 

10. You knoic /tow to suspend, <?fc.] i.e. 
To weigh and balance between right and 
wrong ; and to resolve all difficult and 
doubtful questions concerning them. 
Metaph. taken from weighing in scales, 
to ascertain the truth of the weight of 
any thing. 

1 1. The doubtful balance.] Not know- 
ing which way it will incline, till the 
experiment be made. So there may be 
questions which may be very doubtful 
concerning right, and not to be decided, 
till very nicely weighed in the mind. 

WlMt is straiyltt,$c.'} Metaph. from 
measuring things by a straight rule, by 
which is discovered every deviation and 
inclination from it. This was applied to 
morals; what was right was called rec- 
tum what was not right, curvum. So 
sat iii. 52. 

Haud tibi inexpertum curvos deprendere 

11, 12. When between crooked things, 
fyc.] Virtue may sometimes be found, so 
situated between two vices, as to make 
the decision of what is right very diffi- 
cult ; its extremes may seem to border 
on vice, either on one side or the other. 

For instance, when Junius Brutus put 
his two sons to death, for siding with 
Tarquin after his expulsion from Rome, 
this action of Brutus, however virtuous 
it might be, certainly bordered on cru- 
elty and want of natural affection on 
one hand, and want of justice and pub- 
lic spirit on the other. See Juv. sat. 
viii. 1.261, note. 

12. When a rule deceives, #c.] Me- 
taph. from legs which bend inward ; 
bandy legs, which are misshapen and 
uneven. You also know, when on ac- 
count of some necessary exceptions, the 
rule itself would be uneven and wrong, 
and would deceive, if observed according 
to the letter of it. 

For instance, it is a rule of justice to 
return a deposit, when demanded by 
the owner. A man, in his right mind, 
leaves his sword in his friend's hands 
afterwards he runs mad, and, with an 
apparent intent of doing mischief, comes 
and demands his sword : the law, in the 
letter of it, says, "return it ;" but this, in 
such a case," would be a distortion of 



With the majesty of your hand : what then will you speak ? 

" Romans. 

" This, I think, is not just ; that is badly that more right." 
For you know how to suspend what is just, in the double scale 
Of the doubtful balance ; you discern what is straight when 

between 1 1 

Crooked things it comes, or when a rule deceives with a wry 

And you are able to fix the black theta to vice. 

But do you therefore (in vain beautiful in your outward skin) 
Before the day, to boast your tail to the fawning rabble 15 

right, which, if obeyed, would deceive 
him that complied with it into a wrong 

13. To fir the black theta.'] You are 
perfectly skilled in the proper distribu- 
tion of punishments. The letter was 
put to the names of those who were ca- 
pitally condemned among the Greeks, it 
being the first letter of the word 6ava- 
TOJ, death. 

q. d. You perfectly understand crimi- 
nal as well as civil justice. 

In all these four last lines Persius is 
to be understood directly contrary to 
what he says, and to speak ironically of 
Nero's abilities for the distribution of 
civil and criminal justice. In short, he 
means that Nero had not any sort of 
knowledge or experience which could fit 
him for the government on which he had 

14. Bui, 5)C.] The poet having, in the 
four preceding lines, represented So- 
crates as insinuating, by a severe irony, 
that his pupil was destitute of all the 
requisites which form a chief magistrate, 
(which we are to understand as applied 
by Persius to young Nero,) now repre- 
sents him as throwing off the disguise of 
irony, and, in plain terms, arraigning his 
affecting the government, young and in- 
experienced as he was, and, to that end, 
his exhibiting his handsome person, clad 
in a triumphal robe, in order to captivate 
the minds of the silly rabble See TACIT. 
Ann. lib. xiii. and AXT. Univ. Hist. vol. 
xiv. p. 356. when he, instead of go- 
verning others, stood in need of that wis- 
dom which could enable him to govern 

Therefore.} As you are destitute 
of the preceding qualifications of a chief 
magistrate. (See 1. 10 14.) 

In rain beautiful, &-.] Alcibiades 

was a beautiful youth so, 
Nero was but, alas! how vain and 
empty was this outward embellishment 
of a fine person, if his mind were replete 
with ignorance and vice, so that he was 
utterly unfit for the high station to which 
he aspired ! 

15. Before the day.] Before the time 
comes, when a maturer age, and an ac- 
quired knowledge in the affairs of go- 
vernment, shall have qualified you 
properly. Nero, though not fourteen 
years old, after his adoption by the em- 
peror Claudius in preference to his own 
son Britannicus, was presented with the 
manly robe, which qualified him for 
honours and employments. At the same 
time, the senate decreed, that, in his 
twentieth year, he should discharge the 
consulship, and, in the mean time, as 
consul designed, be invested with pro- 
consular authority out of Rome, and be 
styled prince of the Roman youth. 

Boast your tail.] Metaph. alluding 
to the peacock's tail, which, when ex- 
panded, is very beautiful, and highly ad- 
mired, by children particularly ; (comp. 
Juv. sat vii. 32, note.) So young 
Nero, in order to draw the eyes and 
affections of the common people upon 
him, appeared at the Circensian games 
in a triumphal robe, the mark and or- 
nament of the imperial state. ANT. 
Hist, ubi supra. 

Caudam jactare, in this line, is by 
some interpreted by wagging the tail 
metaph. alluding to dogs wagging the tail, 
when they seem to fawn and flatter, in 
order to ingratiate themselves with those 
whom they approach. Comp. sat. i. 87, 
and note. This undoubtedly gives a 
very good sense to the passage, as de- 
scriptive of Nero's flatteries and blandish- 
ments, towards the populace at Rome, 



Desiiiis, Anticyras melior sorbere meracas? 
Quse tibi sumina boni est \ " uncta vixisse patella 
" Semper, et assicluo curata cuticula sole." 
Expecta ; baud aliud respondeat hsec anus. I nunc, 
Dinomaehes ego sum, suffla, sum candidus. Esto, 
Dum ne deterius sapiat pannucia Baucis, 
Cum bene discincto cantaverit ocima vernse. 
Ut nemo in sese tentat descendere ! Nemo : 

in order to gain their favour. But I 
rather think that the interpretation 
which I have preferred (for both are to 
be found in commentators) is most 
agreeable to the preceding line : 

Quin tu, iffitur, summa nequicquam 

pelle decorus 

which seems to allude to the appearance 
which Nero made, when, to draw the 
eyes and affections of the people upon 
him, he exhibited himself in a triumphal 
robe at the Circensian games. See 1. 
14, n. 1. 

Casaubon concludes his note on 1. 15, 
as giving a preference to the allusion 
which I have adopted "Hoc autem 
" venuste dictum a Persio jactare se 
" populo Ut apud Juvenalem, 

u lpse lacernatce cum sejactaret arnica." 

Juv. sat. i. 1. 62. 
" Translatum a pavonibue, quando 

" picta pandunt spectacula cauda." 
HOR. sat. ii. lib. ii. 1. 26. 
" Tune enim creduntur jactare se foemi- 
" nis," &c. 

15. The faivning rabble.'} Bland o -flat- 
tering, fawning, easily captivated with 
outward shew, and as easily prevailed 
on to make court to it. Popellus, dim. 
of populus small, silly, or poor people 
the rabble or mob. Aixsw. 

1 6. Leave off'J\ Desinis. q. d. Do you 
desist from engaging the admiration and 
flatteries of the people by your fine out- 
ward appearance, as though you aspired 
at governing them 

More fit.~] Melior i. e. aptior 
t. <?. when you are fitter to be drinking 
hellebore to purge out your madness of 
vice and folly ? 

The pure Anticyrte.] Anticyrae meracae 
whole isles of pure hellebore. AINS\V. 
Anticyrae were two islands in the TEgean 
sea, famous for producing large quan- 
tities of hellebore, much in repute for 
purging the head, not only in madness, 
but to clear it, and quicken the appre- 

hension. Anticyrae stands here for the 
hellebore which grew there. Melon. 
See sat. i. 1. 51, note ; and HOR. lib. ii. 
sat. iii. 1. 83. 

All this is, in substance, what Plato 
represents Socrates saying to Alcibiades ; 
but Persius is to be understood as apply- 
ing it to Nero, who, having taken the 
reins of government, without being quali- 
fied for the management of them, flat- 
tered, and paid court to the senate and 
people, in order to gain their favour ; 
when all he did, that appeared right, 
did not proceed from inward virtue and 
real knowledge, but from counterfeiting 
and dissembling both. Leave Oil' thi:;, 
says Persius, till being properly in- 
structed and informed in the principles 
of real wisdom and virtue, you may be 
that really which now you only pretend 
in the mean time, as you are at pre- 
sent, you are more fit to be put under 
a regimen of hellebore than for any 
thing else. As a proof of this, let me 
ask you 

17. " Your sum of good."] Your sum- 
mum bonum, or chief good. If you an- 
swer truly, you must own it to be 

" To have aluxiys lived," #<.] To 
fare sumptuously, and to live in all the 
delicacies of gluttony. This is what 
Persius supposes to be Nero's answer. 

18. "Skin taken care of," $c.~\ They 
used to anoint their bodies, and then 
bask in the sun, to make their skin im- 
bibe the oil, that it might be smooth and 
delicate. See MART. Ep. lib. x. ep. xii. 

Here Persius attacks the luxury and 
effeminacy of Nero, who had not yet 
thrown off the mask ; but whatever vices 
and debaucheries he might practise pri- 
vately, to the public he still continued 
to personate a character of some remain- 
ing virtues. 

" Continual sw."] Hypallage for 
continually in the sun. See Juv. sat. 
xi. 1. 203. 



Leave off, more fit to drink up the pure Anticyrse ? 

" What is your sum of good f " To have always lived with 

" a delicious 

" Dish, and the skin taken care of in the continual sun." 
" Stay : this old woman would hardly answer otherwise. 

" Go now 
" I am of Dinomache :" " puff up :" " I am handsome :" 

"be it so : . 20 

" Since ragged Baucis is not less wise than you, 
" When she has well cried herbs to a slovenly slave." 
How nobody tries to descend into himself! nobody : 

1 9. " Stay."] Stop a little there's an 
old woman crying her herbs ask her 
what she thinks the chief good, and 
you'll hear from her as wise an answer 
as you have given me, says the poet, 
as in the person of Socrates to Alci- 

" Go now," ifc.'] i. e. Go now 
where you please, if 'such be your ideas 
of the chief good, and boast that you 
are nobly born, the son of the noble 
Dinomache, that great and illustrious 
woman but how will this fit you for 
government, while your ideas are so ig- 
noble and base? Alcibiades was the 
son of a noble woman of that name 
Nero of Agrippina. 

20. "Puff up."} Suffla "be proud of 
" this puff yourself up with this con- 
" ceit but, alas ! of what avail is this, 
" when the first wrinkled old woman you 
" meet is as well informed, touching the 
u chief and highest good of man, as you 
" are." 

21. "Baucis."} The name of an old 
woman. See Ov. Met. lib. viii. fab. viii. 
Lx. here put for any of that character. 
Pannuceus signifies ragged, or clothed 
in rags ; also wrinkled. 

22. " Cried herbs" $c.~] Ocimum is an 
herb called basil, but put here in the 
plural number for all sorts of herbs, 
which, as well as this, were cried and 
sold by old women about the streets of 

Discinctus signifies, lit. ungirt, the 
clothes hanging loose hence slovenly 
and perhaps it may therefore be a pro- 
per epithet for one of the common slaves, 
who might be usually slovenly in their 
appearance ; one of these hearing the 
woman cry herbs, goes out into the 
street and buys some. 

Some are for making cantaverit ocima 
a figurative expression for the old wo- 
man's quarrelling, and abusing the slave ; 
but I see no reason for departing from 
the above literal explication, which, to 
me, seems to contain a very natural 
description of an old herb- woman, cry- 
ing her herbs in a sort of singing or 
chant, such as is heard every day in 
London, and one of the lower servants 
in the family hearing her, and going into 
the street to her to buy some. 

The poet's meaning here is to mortify 
Nero's vanity, with regard to his person 
and appearance. "You boast of your 
"youth, birth, and fortune of your 
" beauty and elegance of appearance" 
all which may be understood by can- 

Candidas, et talos a vertice pulcher ad 
imos. HOR. epist. ii. lib. ii. L 4. 

q. d. " I grant all that you can say on 
" these subjects ; but how little are all 
" these, in comparison of the beauty and 
" ornaments of the mind, in which you 
" don't exceed a poor old, ragged, and 
" wrinkled hag, that cries herbs about 
" the street ! She is not worse off (de- 
" terius) than you, in point of wisdom 
" and knowledge ; nay, she may be said 
" to exceed you, since she is endowed 
" with wisdom enough to fulfil, and will 
" to perform, what her station of life re- 
" quires : she cries her herbs well, and 
" knows how to recommend them to the 
" best advantage to the buyers ; but you 
" are destitute of all those qualities 
" which are requisite to perform the 
" duties of that station, in which you 
" are placed as the chief governor of a 
" great people." 

23. Nobody tries, #e.] However pro- 
fitable self-knowledge may be, yet how 



Sed precedent! spectatur inantica tergo. 
Qujesieris, " nostin 1 "Vectidi pradia F " Cu jus T 
" Dives arat Curibus quantum non milvus oberrct.* 1 
Hunc ais ; hunc, dis iratis genioque sinistro, 
Qui quandoque jugum pertusa ad covnpita fig-it, 
Seriolae veterem metuens deradere limum, 
Ingemit, hoc bene sit ; tunicatum cum sale mordens 
Csepe, et farratam pueris plaudentibus ollam, 
Pannosam fsecem morientis sorbet aceti. 

At si unctus cesses, et figas in cute solem, 
Est prope te ignotus, cubito qui tangat, et acre 


backward are men to endeavour to 
search and know themselves ! in short, 
nobody does this. 

Ik.' The wallet, #c.] Alluding to that 
fable of JEsop, which we find in Phsedrus 
as follows : 

Peras imposnit Jupiter nobis duos : 
Alienis ante pectus suspendit gravem. 
Hoc re videre nostra mala non possu- 


Alii simid delintjuunt, censores sumus. 
Hence, though we do not see our own 
faults, which are thrown (as it were) be- 
hind our backs, yet those who follow us 
can see them, and will look at them 
sharply enough ; thus we also look at 
the faults of those whom we follow. 
Direrit iiisanum qui me, totidem <twfii'f, 


Resjyircre i<j>/oto direct pendant la ter<;o. 
Hok. lib. ii. sat. iii. 1. '2.08, j). 

25. You may be asked, #c.] f. e. Sup- 
pose you are inquired of by somebody, 
and are asked, " Whether you know 
" the farms on the estate of Vecti- 
" dins ?" 

" Whose ?"] i. e. Whose say you ? 
as if not knowing whom he means to 
inquire about. 

26. " Ridi he plouglis," Sfe.] I mean, 
says he, that rich fellow, that has more 
arable land than a kite can skim over in 
a day. Oberro signifies to wander about 
in an irregular manner, and well de- 
scribes the flight of a kite, which does 
not proceed straight-forward, but keeps 
wheeling about, in an irregular manner, 
in search of prey. This seems to be 
proverbial for a large and extensive 
landed estate. See Juv. sat. ix. 1. .55. 

tot milvos intra tua pascua lassos. 
Cures was a city of the Sabines, or rather 
the country about it. 

27. " Him do you say ?"] Do you mean 
that Vectidius, who has so much land at 
Cures ? say you 

-" Him."'] Hunc novi understood. 
q. d. yes, I know him of whom you 

"Angry gods."] It was a notion 
among the ancient heathen, that the 
gods were displeased and angry with 
those with whom they themselves were 
displeased, even at the time they were 
born, and that, therefore, through life, 
they were under an adverse fate. See 
Juv. sat. i. 1. 49, 50; and Ji'V. sat. x. 

Disilleadversis genitus,fatoqmsinixtrf>. 

" An unlucky genius."'} See sat. ii. 
1. 3, note. 

" Of heaven and earth tlie scorn, 

" With anyry gods, and adverse genius 
" born." BREWSTKK. 

Sinister, as has been already observed, 
(See Juv. xiv. ], note,) means unfor- 
tunate, unlucky, untoward ; also un- 

28. " Fixes a yoke," #e.] This alludes 
to a festival time, when, after ploughing 
and sowing were over, the husbandmen 
hung up the yokes of their oxen on 
stakes, or posts, in some public highway, 
most frequented ; therefore they chose 
the compita, or places where four ways 
met, where the country-people came to- 
gether to keep their wakes, and to per- 
form their sacrifices to the Lares, or 
rural gods ; hence called Compitalitii. 
This was a season of great festivity, 
(something like harvest-home among us,) 



JBut the wallet on the preceding back is looked at. 

You may be asked " Do you know the farms of Vectidiusf 

" Whose r 25 

" Rich he ploughs at Cures as much as a kite cannot flyover." 
"Him do you say? him, with angry gods, and an unlucky 

" genius, 

" Who, whensoever he fixes a yoke at the beaten cross-ways, 
" Fearing to scrape off the old clay of a vessel, 
" Groans" " May this be well !" " champing, with salt, a 

" coated 30 

" Onion, and the servants applauding a mess of pottage, 
" Sups up the mothery dregs of dying vinegar." 

" But if anointed you can loiter, and fix the sun in your 

" There is nigh you one unknown, who may touch with the 

" elbow, and sharply 

when the farmers ate and drank with 
great jollity. 

29. " Fearing to scrape? #c.] The an- 
cients, when they put wine into vessels, 
stopped up the mouth with clay or pitch 
daubed over it. When it was brought 
out for use, the mouth was unstopped, 
by scraping off the covering, that the 
wine might be poured out HOR. lib. i. 
ode xx. 1. 2, 3. 

This poor niggardly wretch, even at 
a time of festivity, grudged to open a 
vessel ; and, if he did it, seemed as if it 
threatened his ruin. Q, says he, with a 
groan, may this end well ! hoc bene sit 
a sort of solemn deprecation, frequently 
used by the Romans on their under- 
taking something very weighty and im- 

30. 1. "A coated onion."] Tunica- 
turn because an onion consists of se- 
veral coats. 

31. " Mess of pottage.' 1 ''] Farratam sig- 
nifies made of corn ; ollam, a pot in 
which the pottage (which was made of 
corn, meal, or flour, with water and 
herbs) was boiled ; here, by metonymy, 
put for its contents f. <>. the pottage. 
Comp. Ji - v. sat. xiv. 171, note. 

" Serwnts applauding."] Even this 
mean fare, being more than they usually 
had on other days, therefore they re- 
joiced at the sight of it, and applauded 
their master's liberality. Comp. Juv. 
sat xiv. 1. 12 34. 

32. u Sups HJ> the mnfhcr 
Acetuin - wine turned sour. 


Potet acetum. 

HOR. sat. iii. lib. ii. 1.116, 17. 
When wine ferments and turns sour, 
there is a scum ormouldiness on the top, 
which bears the appearance of white 
rags hence mothery wine was called 
pannosus. Every word in this line has 
an emphasis, to describe the covetous 
miserable wretch who is the subject of it. 
Sorbet, he sups or drinks up, leaves 
none wine turned sour, mothery, the 
dregs of it, dying, losing even the little 
spirit it had. So we speak of vapid, flat 
liquors, that have lost all their spirit we 
say they are dead, as dead small-beer, 
&c. All this he is supposed to do, even 
at a time of feasting, rather than afford 
himself good liquor. 

33. " You can loiter? $c.] Comp. 1. 
18. If you indulge in laziness, luxury 
and effeminacy. The poet here cautions 
the relator of the faults of Vectidius, and 
lets him know that some other may make 
as free with his. 

34. " One iinkiio>i-."\ Don't think 
that your faults will be concealed any 
more than you conceal the faults of other 
people. Somebody or other, whom per- 
haps you little think of, and whom you 
knew not 

"'May touch? $c.] May remind 
you of your vices by a gentle jog of 
the elbow, and say, " Pray look at 
" home." 

34.. i. " SlKirf-hi apit ,i,,u-n?$,\] Acre, 
MI ; for acriter, slwp!y, with 



Despuat in mores ; penemque arcanaque lumbi 
Runcantem, populo marcentes pandere vulvas. 
Tu cum maxillis balanatum gausape pectas, 
Inguinibus quare detonsus gurgulio extat 2 
Quihque palsestritse licet hsec plantaria vellant, 
Elixasque nates labefactent forcipe adunca, 
Non tamen ista filix ullo mansuescit aratro. 

Caedimus, inque vicem preebemus crura sagittis : 
Vivitur hoc pacto : sic novimus. Ilia subter 
Caecum vulnus habes ; sed lato balteus auro 
Prsetegit : ut mavis, da verba, et decipe nervos, 
Si potes. " Egregium cum me viciuia dicat, 
" Non credam f viso si palles, improbe, nummo ; 
Si facis, in penem quicquid tibi venit amarum ; 
Si puteal multa cautus vibice flagellas ; 
Nequicquam populo bibulas donaveris aures. 
Kespue quod non es : tollat sua munera cerdo : 



acrimony. Despuo, literally, is to spit 
down or upon : hence to spit out in ab- 
horrence, to express contempt, abhor- 
rence, destruction : " therefore don't 
" flatter yourself that you will escape the 
" censure of others, any more than Vec- 
" tidius, or others, escape yours your 
" manners are such, as to call for the 
"utmost abhorrence, and the sharpest 
"censure." Metaph. from those who 
spit, on smelling or tasting any thing 
that is filthy. 

From this place to 1. 42, the thoughts 
and expressions are by no means proper 
for literal translation I have therefore 
paraphrased them, and shall only ob- 
serve, that their tendency is indirectly 
to charge the young emperor Nero with 
certain lewd and unnatural actions, 
which, however hitherto he might keep 
from the public eye, were yet practised 
by him in secret. 

42. We lash.] Or we strike others, 
in censuring and publishing their 

We expose our legs to arrows.] Me- 
taph. from the gladiators, who, while 
they strike at the adversary, expose 
their own persons to be wounded where 
most easily vulnerable. So while we lash 
or strike others with our tongues, we ex- 
pose ourselves to be lashed by them in 
our turn, and to receive the arrows of 
detraction and defamation into whatever 

part of our character is most vulnerable. 
The gladiators eould guard the body, 
but the legs and lower parts were much 
exposed to the stroke of the adver- 

43. Thus we live.] Vivitur, impers. 
-?. d. This is the manner of common 
life, censuring and being censiJred. See 
sat. iii. 1. 20, luditur, note. 

Thus we knmv.~\ Thus we become 
acquainted with men's characters, by 
hearing their faults published by their 

44. A blind iround.~\ i. e. You practise 
wickedness, which is concealed from the 
eyes of the world, but yet wounds your 
conscience ; guilt lurks within, and 
wounds you inwardly. 

44, 5. A belt covers it ] Metaph. 
from the practice of the gladiators, who, 
when they received a wound, covered it 
with the broad belt which they wore, in 
order to keep it from the eyes of the spec- 
tators. Thus Nero, by the greatness of 
his power, and by the splendour of his ap- 
pearance and situation, (here meant by 
the figure of a broad belt of gold,) 
covered his iniquities from the animad- 
version of the laws, and from the obser- 
vation of the people. 

45. CJieat and deceive, 3fe.] Impose 
upon others, and deceive your own feel- 
ings, as much as you please, that is, if 
you find it possible so to do. 




4 Spit down on your manners : who by vile arts 
k Are making your body smooth and delicate. 
k When you can comb a long anointed beard 
1 On your cheeks, why are you shorn elsewhere ? 
' When, after all the pains that can be taken, 
' Tho' assisted, in the depilation of your person, bv 
1 Five strong wrestlers, you can never succeed. 

" We lash, and in our turn we expose our legs to arrows. 
1 Thus we live thus we know under your bowels 
1 You have a blind wound : but a belt with broad gold 
1 Covers it: as you please, cheat and deceive your nerves, 45 
; If you can." " When the neighbourhood says I am ex- 

" cellent, 
Shall I not believe it T " If money being seen, O wicked 

" man, you are pale 

If you do whatever your lust prompts you to 
If, cautious, you scourge the puteal with many a wale, 
In vain shall you give your soaking ears to the rabble. 50 
Reject what you are not Let the cobbler takeaway hisgifts: 

45. Cheat.'] Da verba. See before, 
note, sat iii. I. 19. 

"Nerves"] Nervos. The nerves 
are the organs of sensation. 

46. " If you can."] *. e. But this you 
cannot do. 

* When the neighbourhood says," $c.] 
These are the words of Alcibiades (f. e. 
Nero) in answer to what has been said. 

" All the world," says he, " speak of 
" my excellence as a man, and as a 
"prince, and would you not have me 
" believe what they say "f" 

47. " If money," 4"-] Socrates (i. e. 
Persius) answers " Instead of taking 
" the idea of your own character from 
" the flatteries of the populace, examine 
" yourself ; and if you find that you 
" grow pale, as it were, at the very 
" sight of money, from an envious and 
" covetous desire after it if you give 
" the reins to your abominable lusts if 
"you are committing robberies, mur- 
" ders, and other acts of cruelty in the 
" streets, cautious to secure yourself by 
"taking guards with you in vain," 

&c. Puteal (from puteus, a well.) 

When lightning fell in any place, the 
old Romans covered the place over, 
like a public well ; and such a place 
they properly called puteal. There was 
r>nr in '.lie Roman forum, and near it 

was the tribunal of the praetor. This 
was the scene of many of Nero's nightly 
frolicks, who was a kind of Mohock in 
his diversions, and committed numberless 
enormities, even murders and robberies, 
disguised in the habit of a slave : but, 
at last, having been soundly beaten, he 
grew cautious, and went attended by 
gladiators. It is to this Persius here 
alludes. And Nero might well be called 
the scourge of every place where he 
transacted such enormities, and be said 
to leave many marks and wales behind 
him in those places which were the 
scenes of his flagitious practices. 

50. "/ raw," #c.J It will be of 
very little use to you to let your ears 
imbibe the applause and flattery of the 
mob (see before, 1. 15,) which ears of 
yours are as prone to this as a sponge 
to soak in water. 

If your own conscience accuses you 
of what I have above spoken of, the 
applauses, which you know yourself to 
be utterly undeserving of, can give you 
but little comfort, nor can they make 
you better than you are. 

51. "Reject what yuu are no/."] Per- 
sius concludes this Satire with two lines 
of salutary advice to Nero 

Reject, put away from you, what 
does not belong to you lay aside the 


Tecum habita, et noris quam sit tibi curta supellex. 

feigned character under which you " let them carry them away, and keep 

appear. " them to themselves, or bestow them 

51. "Let the cobbler," fyc.] Cerdo put "elsewhere; have nothing to do with 

here for the lower people in general. " them." 

See Juv. sat iv. 1. 153. 9. d. ."Give 52. "Dwell with yourself."] i. e. Re- 

*' them back the presents which they tire into thyself ; let thine own Breast 

" make you of adulation and applause ; be the abode of thy constant thoughts. 



" Dwell with yourself, and you will know how short your 
" household stuff is." 

52. " Your household stuff," Sfc.] You Metaph. from the furniture of an 

will then find out how poorly furnished house here applied to those qualities of 

you are within, how short your abilities, the mind which are necessary to furnish 

and how little fitted for the arduous task and adorn it, for the purposes of civil 

of government, or indeed for the pur- and social life, 
poses of civil society. 



This Satire is justly esteemed the lest of the six. It consists 
of three parts: in the first of which the Poet highly praises 
Annceus Cornutus, who had been his preceptor, and recom- 
mends other young men to his care. In the second part, lie 
blames the idleness and sloth of young men, and exhorts 
them to follow after the liberty and enfranchisement of 

Persius. VATIBUS hie mos est, centum sibi poscere voces, 
Centum ora, et linguas optare in carinina centum : 
Fabula seu moesto ponatur hianda tragoedo, 
Vulnera seu Parthi ducentis ab inguine ferrum. 

Cornutus. Quorsum hasc? aut quantas robusti carminis 
offas 5 

Ingeris, nt par sit centeno gutture niti ? 
Grande locuturi, nebulas Helicone legunto : 
Si quibus aut Prognes, aut si quibus olla Thyestas 

Line 1. A custom, #c.] Of epic poets, Aditus centum, ostia centum, 

and sometimes of orators, to adopt this Unde ruunt totidem voces responsa Si- 
idea. bylla. 

HOM. II. ii. for instance : 2. For verses.] t. e. That, when they 

ovS ft /j.ot SfKa /j.fv y\(affffa,i, Sexa compose their verses, their style and 

8e ffrofivra. ftev. language might be amplified and ex- 

So ViRG. Geor. iL L 43 ; and JEn. tended, adequately to the greatness and 

vi. 1. 625. variety of their subjects. 

Non mihi si centum lingua sint, oraque 3. Whether a fable.] The subject or 

centum. story on which they write is called the 

And, Quint ad fin. DecL vi. Univer- fable. 

sorum vatum, scriptorumque ora consen- Bau-led out, &c.~\ i. e. Whether 

tiant, vincet tamen res ista mille lin- they write tragedy, to be acted on the 

guas, &c. stage. Comp. Juv. sat. vi. 1. 635. 

An hundred voices.] Alluding per- Grande Sophocleo carmen baechamur 
haps to the responses of the Sibyl Jiiatu. 

VIRG. JEn. vi. 1. 43, 4. 4. Or the u-ovnds of a Parthian, &.] 



the mind. Thirdly, he shews wherein true liberty consists, 
and asserts that doctrine of the Stoics, that " a wise man 
"only is free" and that a slavery to vice is the most 
miserable of all. 

The Satire begins in the form of a dialogue between Persius 
and Cornutus. 

Persius. THIS is a custom with poets, to ask for themselves 

an hundred voices, 
And to wish for an hundred mouths, and an hundred 

tongues for their verses : 
Whether a fable be proposed to be bawled out by the sad 

tragedian ; 
Or the wounds of a Parthian drawing the sword from his 


Cornutus. Wherefore these things ? or how great pieces 

of robust verse 5 

Dost thou thrust in, that it should be meet to strive with 

an hundred throats ? 
Let those who are about to speak something great, gather 

clouds in Helicon, 
If to any either the pot of Progne, or if to any that of Thyestes 

Or write an epic poem on the wars of enough to require a number of throats 

the Romans with the Parthians, in to swallow them. 

which the latter were overcome. q. d. What great and huge heroics art 

Aut lultentis etfuo descriltere vulnera thou setting about, which thou canst 

Parthi. HOR. sat. i. lib. ii. 1. 15. think equal to such a wish, in order to 

5. Cornutus. Wherefore these things ?] enable thee to do them justice ? 
Quorsum to what end, purpose, or 7. Gather clouds in Helicon.} Let them 
intent, do you mention these things, go to mount Helicon, (see ante, the Pro- 
as if you were wishing them for your- logue, 1. 1, note,) and there gather up 
self? the mists which hang over the sacred 

-//OH- in-fiit ptipMt $v.] Metaph. top, and which teem, no doubt, with 

from a person \vlio puts large lumps or poetical rapture, 
pieces of meat into his mouth, big 8. The pr>t of Prague, <Jjr.] i.e. If any 



Fervebit, ssepe insulso coenanda Glyconi. 

Tu neque anhelanti, coquitur dum massa camino, 10 

Folle premis ventos : nee, clause murmure raucus, 

Nescio quid tecum grave cornicaris inepte : 

Nee scloppo tumidas intendis rumpere buccas. 

Verba togas sequeris, junctura callidus acri, 

Ore teres modico, pallentes radere mores 15 

Doctus, et ingenuo culpam defigere ludo. 

Hinc trahe quae dicas : mensasque relinque Mycenis 

Cum capite et pedibus ; plebeiaque prandia noris. 

Pers. Non equidem hoc studeo, bullatis ut mihi nugis 
Pagina turgescat, dare pondus idonea fumo. 20 

shall have his imagination warmed with 
the feasts of Progne and Thyestes, so as 
to write upon them. 

Progne was the wife of Tereus, king 
of Thrace : Tereus fell in love with Phi- 
lomela, sister to Progne, ravished her, 
and cut out her tongue. In revenge 
Progne killed Itys, her own son by Te- 
reus, and served him up at a feast to 
be eaten by his father. 

8. Thyestes.'] Atreus, king of Mycenae, 
banished his brother Thyestes, for de- 
filing his wife ./Erope : afterwards, re- 
calling him, invited him to a banquet, 
ordered the children he had by her to be 
dressed and set before him on a table. 

9. Often to be supped on by foolish Gly- 
eon.~\ He was some wretched tragedian 
of those times, who acted the parts of 
Tereus and Thyestes, and, accordingly, 
represented both of them as eating their 

10. Thou neither, while the mass, cf-c.] 
Metaph. from smiths heating iron in 
furnaces, where the fire is kept up to a 
great heat by the blowing with bellows, 
in order to render the iron ductile, and 
easily formed into what shape they 

q. d. You, says Cornutus, are not 
forging in your brain hard and difficult 
subjects, and blowing up your imagina- 
tion, to form them into sublime poems. 
See HOR. lib. i. sat. iv. 1. 1921. 

11. Nor hoarse, fyc.~\ Nor do you fool- 
ishly prate, like the hoarse croaking of 
a crow, with an inward kind of murmur 
to yourself, as if you were muttering 
something you think very grand and 
noble. See sat. iii. L 81, and note. 

1 3. Tumid cheeks, fyc.~\ Scloppus is a 
sound made with puffing the cheeks, and 

then forcing the air out suddenly by 
striking them together with the hands. 

q. d. Nor do you, when you repeat 
your verses, appear as if you were mak- 
ing a noise like that of cheeks puffed up 
almost to bursting, and then suddenly 
stricken together, like the swelling and 
bombast method of elocution used by the 
fustian poets of our day. 

Cornutus praises Persius in a three- 
fold view. 1st, As not heating his ima- 
gination with high and difficult subjects. 
2dly, As not affecting to be meditating 
and murmuring within himself, as if he 
would be thought to be producing some 
great performance. 3dly, As in the re- 
petition of his verses avoiding all bom- 
bastic utterance. 

14. Words qftheffown."] Toga is often 
used to signify peace Cedant anna to- 
gse. Cic. for, in time of peace, the Ro- 
mans wore only the toga, or gown ; in 
time of war, the toga was thrown aside 
for the sagum, or soldier's cloak. 

Cornutus here means to say, that Per- 
sius did not write of wars and bloodshed, 
but confined himself to subjects of com- 
mon life, such as passed daily among the 
people, and made use of plain words 
suited to his matter. 

Cunning in sharp composition.] 

Acute and ingenious in a neat composi- 
tion of verse. Metaph. from those who 
work in marble, who so exactly join 
their pieces together, and polish them so 
neatly, that the joints can't be perceived. 
See sat. i. 1. 64, note. 

15. Smooth u'ith moderate language.] 
Teres signifies smooth, even ; also accu- 
rate, exact. Modico ore with a mo- 
derate, modest language, or style of 
writing, neither rising above, nor sinking 



Shall be hot, often to be supped on by foolish Glycon. 

Thou neither, while the mass is heated in the furnace, 10 

Pressest the wind with breathing bellows ; nor hoarse, with 
close murmur, [thyself: 

Foolishly croakest I know not what weighty matter with 

Nor intendest to break thy tumid cheeks with a puff. 

You follow the words of the gown, cunning in sharp com- 

Smooth with moderate language, to lash vicious manners is 

Skilled, and to mark a crime with ingenuous sport. 

Hence draw what you may say : and leave the tables at 

With the head and feet, and know plebeian dinners. 

Pers. I do not indeed desire this, that with empty trifles my 

Page should swell, fit to give weight to smoke. 20 

below the subject, nor flying out into f different merits of Horace and Persius : 
that extravagance of expression, so much 
then in vogue. See sat. i. 1. 98 102. 

15. To lash.] Radere, lit. signifies to 
scratch, or scrape up, or rub against ; 
here, by meton. to lash or chastise. 
When a satirist does this effectually, the 
guilty turn pale at his reproof: for pale- 
ness is the effect of fear ; and fear, of t. e. from the vices of mankind, select 
conscious guilt. Hence HOR. epist. i. the subjects of your writings. 

Leave the tallies, ifc.j Leave the 
tragical banquet of Thyestes at Mycenae 

Persius in pelayo Flacci decurrit, et 

Mendicasse stylum Satirte, serraqite 

Rodit, et ignorat polientem pectora li- 

17. Hence drau; fyc.] From hence, 

lib. i. 1. 60, 1. 

Hie murus aheneus esto, 

Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. for others to write on trouble not your- 
Vicious manners.] Pallentes mores self about such subjects. 

18. With the head and feet.] Atreus 
reserved the heads, feet, and hands of 

lit. manners turning pale the effect for 
the cause. Meton. See the last note. 

16. Mark a crime with ingenttons sport.] the children; which after supper he 
;er, shewed to his brother Thyestes that he 
or might know whose flesh he had been 

Defigere metaph. from fixing a 

or critical mark, against any wo 

sentence, either to be corrected as faulty, feasting upon. 

or struck out as superfluous. This the 

Know plebeian dinners.] Acqu;iint 

fireeks called KtvTeiv, anfav, compun- yourself only with the enormities that 

gere, confodere, or the like. pass in common life noris quasi, fac 

So Persius is said to stigmatize, or noscas let these be your food for satire, 

mark down, a crime with ingenuous 19. 1 do not indeed desire this.] Persius 

sport i.c. with well-bred raillery, in here answers his preceptor Cornutus, and 

order to its correction; to fix a mark tells him, that he does not want an hun- 

against it. 

dred tongues and voices, in order to be 

Qu. If this be not going rather too writing vain and high-flown poems ; 

far with regard to Persius, who seems but that he might duly express Cornu- 

not much inclined to politeness, with tus's worth, and his sense of it. 
respect to those whom he satirizes, but Studeo signifies, literally, to study, 

rather treats them with severity and but also to apply the mind to, to care 

roughness ? 

Horace indeed deserved such an ac- 

for a thing, to mind, to desire it. 

Empty trifles.] Bullatis (from bulla, 

count to be given of him. Coiup. sat. i. a bubble of water) nugis~by met. swell- 

1.116 18. ing lines, lofty words, without sense, 

John Hanvil, a monk of St. Alban's, empty expressions. Aixsw. 
about the year 11. '10, thus writos on the 'JO. /'('/ to (fh-f n-ei<i1it to smt>lv.] i.?. 



Secreti loquimur : tibi mine, hortante camoena, 

Excutienda damus prsecordia : quantaque nostrze 

Pars tua sit, Cornute, animse, tibi, dulcis amice, 

Ostendisse juvat. Pulsa, dignoscere cautus 

Quid solidum crepet, et pictse tectoria linguae. 25 

His ego centenas ausim deposcere voces, 

Ut, quantum mihi te sinuoso in pectore fixi, 

Voce traham pura : totumque hoc verba resignent, 

Quod latet arcana non enarrabile fibra. 

Cum primum pavido custos mihi purpura cessit, 30 

Bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit ; 
Cum blandi comites ; totaque impune Suburra 
Permisit sparsisse oculos jam candidus umbo ; 
Cumque iter ambiguum est, et, vitse nescius, error 
Diducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes ; 35 

Fit for nothing else but to give an air of 
consequence and importance to trifles, 
which, in reality, have no more substance 
in them than smoke. Nugis addere 
pondus. HOR. Epist. lib. i. epist. xix. 
1. 42. 

21. Secret we speak.] You and I, Cor- 
nutus, are not now speaking to the mul- 
titude, but to each other in private, and 
therefore I will disclose the sentiments of 
my heart. 

The Muse exhorting.] My Muse 

prompting and leading me to an ample 
disclosure of my thoughts, and to reveal 
how great a share you have in my affec- 
tions to do this is a pleasure to my- 

25. What may sound solid.] Try and 
examine n\e, knock at my breast ; if you 
wish to know whether I am sincere or 
not, hear how that sound's. Metaphor, 
from striking earthen vessels with the 
knuckle, in order to try, by the sound, 
whether they were solid or cracked. See 
sat. iii. 1. 21, 2, and note. 

The coverings, fyc.] Tectorium 

the plaster, parget, or rough-cast of a 
wall, which conceals it : hence dissimu- 
lation, flattery, which cover the real 
sentiments of the heart. See Matt. 
xxiii. 27. 

Painted tongue.] Pictse linguae 
i. e. a tongue adorned and garnished 
with dissimulation varnished over with 

26. For these things.'] i.e. Properly 
to disclose my friendship and gratitude 
to you, by drawing forth and uttering 

what I feel for you, whom I have fixed 
within the most intimate recesses of my 
breast. See AINSW. Sinuosus, No. 4. 
This sense of the word seems meta- 
phorical, and to be taken from what 
hath many turnings and windings, and 
so difficult to find or trace out. 

28. With pure voice.'] With the utmost 
sincerity, pure from all guile. 

Words may unseal.] Resigno is to 
open what is sealed, to unseal, hence 
met. to discover and declare. 

29. Not to be told.] Not fully to be 

In my secret inwards] In the secret 
recesses of my heart and mind. Comp. 
sat. i. 1. 47. 

30. The guardian purple.] The habit 
worn by younger noblemen was edged 
about with a border of purple ; an orna- 
ment which had the repute of being 
sacred, and was therefore assigned to 
children as a sort of preservative. Hence 
Persius calls it custos purpura. 

Fearful] Which protected me 
when a child, and when I was under the 
fear and awe of a severe master. Pavi- 
dum tyronem. Juv. xvi. L 3. 

Yielded.] Resigned its charge, and 
gave place to the toga virilis, or manly 
gown. About the age of sixteen or 
seventeen they laid aside the praetexta, 
and put on the toga virilis, and were 
ranked with men. 

31. And the bulla] This was another 
ornament worn by children ; it was worn 
hanging from the neck, or about the 
breast, and was made in the shape of an 



Secret we speak : to you now, the Muse exhorting, 
I give my heart to be searched, and how great a part 
Of my soul, Cornutus, is yours, to you, my gentle friend, 
It pleases me to have shewn : knock, careful to discern 24 
What may sound solid, and the coverings of a painted tongue. 
For these things I would dare to require an hundred voices, 
That, how much I have fixed you, in my inmost breast, 
I may draw forth with pure voice ; and all this, words may 

Which lies hid, not to be told, in my secret inwards. 

When first to fearful me the guardian purple yielded, so 
And the bulla presented to the girt Lares hung up ; 
When kind companions, and, with impunity, in the whole 

Now the white shield permitted me to have thrown about 

my eyes, 

And when the journey is doubtful, and error, ignorant of life, 
Parts asunder trembling minds into the branching cross- ways, 

heart, and hollow within. This they 
left off with the praetexta, and conse- 
crated to the household gods, and hung 
up in honour to them. See ANT. Univ. 
Hist. vol. xi. p. 289, note s. 

31. T/ie girt Lares.] The' images of the 
Lares, or household gods, were described 
in a sort of military habit, which hung 
on the left shoulder, with a lappet fetched 
under the other arm, brought over the 
breast, and tied in a knot. The idea of 
this dress was first taken from the Ga- 
bini, and called Cinctus Gabinus. See 
AINSW. Gabinus ; and VIRG. /En. vii. 
C12, and Servius's note there. 

32. Kind companions.] A set of young 
fellows, who were my companions, and 
ready to join in any scheme of debauchery 
with me. I cannot think that comites 
here is to be understood of u his school- 
Masters, or pedagogues, who now no 
" longer treated him with severity." He 
was no w a man, and had done with these. 
Of such a one Horace says, 

Iiiilii'i-liisjuvenis, tandem custode remote, 
%c. De Art Poet 1. 1615. 

And see KEXNET, Antiq. p. 311, edit 
5. 1713. 

In the u-hole Sulturra.] This was a 
famous and populous street in Rome, 
where were numbers of brothels, the har- 
lots from which walked out by night, to 
the great mischief of young men. Here, 
says PersiiiB, I could ramble as I pleased, 

and fix my eyes where I pleased, and 
had nobody to call me to account, or 
punish me for it. Juv. sat. iii. 1. 5. 

33. The white shield, $.] Wh en the 
young men put on the toga virilis, they 
were presented with a white shield ; that 
is to say, a shield with no engraving, 
device, or writing upon it, but quite 
blank. This shield was a token that they 
were now grown up, and fit for war. 
Its being blank, signified their not having 
yet achieved any warlike action worthy 
to be described, or recorded, upon it by 
a device. 

So VIRG. JEu. ix. 1. 548. 

Ense levis nudo^ parmaque ingloritts 


When this shield was a passport to 
me, says Persius, to go where I pleased, 
without being molested by my old 

34. When the journey is doubtful.} 
When the mind of a young man is 
doubting what road of life to take, like 
a traveller who comes to where two 
ways meet, and can hardly determine 
which to pursue. 

An error.} So apt to beset young 
minds, and so easily to mislead them. 

Ignorant of life.] Of the best pur- 
poses and ends of life, and wholly un- 
knowing and ignorant of the world. 

3.5. Parts asunder treml>lin;i n,hids.\ 
Divides the young and inexperienced 



Me tibi supposui : teneros tu suscipis annos, 
Socratico, Cornute, sinu. Tune fallere solers, 
Apposita intortos extendit regula mores ; 
Et premitur ratione animus, vincique laborat, 
Artificemque tuo ducit sub pollice vultum. 
Tecum etenim longos memini consumere soles ; 
Et tecum primas epulis decerpere noctes. 
Unum opus, et requiem pariter disponimus ambo ; 
Atque verecunda laxamus seria mensa. 

Non equidem hoc dubites, amborum foedere certo 
Consentire dies, et ab uno sidere duci. 
Nostra vel sequali suspendit tempora Libra 
Parca tenax veri ; seu nata fidelibus hora 
Dividit in Geminos concordia fata duorum ; 


minds of young men, fearing and trem- 
bling between the choice of good and 
evil, now on this side, now on that. 

35. Branching cross-ways.] Compitum 
is a place where two or more ways meet 
The poet here alludes to the Pythagorean 
letter Y. See sat. iii. 1. 56, note. 

36. I put myself under you.] Under 
your care and instruction. 

You undertake, fyc.] You admitted 
me under your discipline, in order to 
season my mind with the moral philo- 
sophy of the Stoics : you not only re- 
ceived me as a pupil, but took me to 
your bosom with the affection of a 

Antisthenes, the master of Diogenes, 
was a disciple of Socrates ; Diogenes 
taught Crates the^.-fheban, who taught 
Zeno the founder of the Stoic school ; 
so that the Stoic dogmas might .be said 
to be derived, originally, from Socrates, 
as from the fountain-head. 

37. Dexterous to deceive, $c.] The ap- 
plication of your doctrine to my morals, 
which were depraved, and warped from 
the strict rule of right, first discovered 
this to me, and then corrected it ; but 
this you did with so much skill and ad- 
dress, that I grew almost insensibly re- 
formed : so gradually were the severities 
of your discipline discovered to me, that 
I was happily cheated, as it were, into 
reformation ; whereas, had you at first 
acquainted me with the whole at once, 
I probably had rejected it, not only as 
displeasing, but as unattainable by one 
who thought as I then did. 

38. Applied rule.] Metaph. from me- 
chanics, who, by a rule applied to the side 
of any thing, discover its being warped 
from a straight line, and set it right. 

Rectifies.] Lit. extends. Metaph. 
from straightening a twisted or entangled 
cord, by extending or stretching it out. 
Intortos, lit. twisted, entangled. 

39. My mind is pressed by reason, 3fc.] 
My mind and all its faculties were so 
overpowered by the conviction of rea- 
son, that it strove to coincide with what 
I heard from you, and to be conquered 
by your wisdom. 

Labours, $e.] The word laborat 
denotes the difficulties which lie in the 
way of young minds to yield to instruc- 
tion, and to subdue and correct their 
vicious habits and inclinations. 

40. And dran-s, ^fc.^Metaph. from an 
artist who draws -forth, or forms, figures 
with his fingers, out of wax or clay. 
Ducere is a word peculiar to the making 
of statues in marble also. 

Vivos ducent de marmore vultus. 

JEn. vi. 848. 

An artificial countenance.] Artificem, 
hypallage, for artifici pollice. The sense 
is, My mind, by thee gently and wisely 
wrought upon, put on that form and ap- 
pearance which you wished it should. 
The like thought occurs, Juv. sat. vii. 1. 

Exigite ut mores ttmeros ceu pollice ducat, 
Ut si (juis cera vidtumfadt . 

41. Consume long suns.] To have 
passed many long days soles, for dies. 



I put myself under you : you undertake my tender years, 
Cornutus, with Socratic bosom. Then, dexterous to deceive, 
The applied rule rectifies my depraved morals, 
And my mind is pressed by reason, and labours to be over- 

And draws, under your thumb, an artificial countenance. 40 
For I remember to consume with you long suns, 
And with you to pluck the first nights from feasts. 
One work and rest we both dispose together, 
And relax serious things with a modest table. 

Do not indeed doubt this, that, in a certain agreement, 45 
The days of both consent, and are derived from one star. 
Fate, tenacious of truth, either suspended our times 
With equal Libra ; or the hour, framed for the faithful, 
Divides to the twins the concordant fates of both ; 

Sape ego longos 

Cuntando puerum memini me condere 
soles. VIRG. eel. is. 1. 51, 2. 

42. To pluck the first nights, fa] 
Decerpere metaph. from plucking fruit. 
The first nights the first part or begin- 
ning of nights ; we plucked, t. e. we 
took away from the hours of feasting. 
q.d. Instead of supping at an early 
hour, and being long at table, we spent 
the first part of the evening in philoso- 
phical converse, thus abridging the time 
of feasting for the sake of improve- 

Of the night 

Have borrowed the first hours, /easting 

u-ith thee 

On the choice dainties of philosophy. 

43. One icork and rest, fa] We, both 
of us, disposed and divided our hours of 
study, and our hours of rest and refresh- 
ment, in a like manner together. 

44. And relax serious things.] Relaxed 
our minds from study. 

A modest table.] With innocent 
mirth, as we sat at table, and with frugal 

45. Do not doubt this, fa] Beyond a 
doubt, this strict union of our minds 
must be derived from an agreement in 
the time of our nativity, being born both 
under the same star. 

So HOR. lib. ii. ode xvii. 1. 21, 2. 
Utrumque nostrttm incrediliili modo 
Consentit astnim. 


The ancients thought that the minds 
of men were greatly influenced by the 
planet which presided at their birth ; 
and that those who were born under the 
same planet, had the same dispositions 
and inclinations. 

47. Fate, tenacious of truth.] Unerring 
fate, as we say. 

Suspended our times.] Metaph. from 
hanging things on the beam of a balance, 
in order to weigh them. 

Fate weighed, with equal balance, 
our times, when Libra had the ascend- 

48. With equal Libra.] A constella- 
tion into which the sun enters about the 
twentieth of September, described by a 
pair of scales, the emblem of equity and 

Felix aequatae genitits sttb pondere Librae. 

MANIL. lib. v. 

Seu Libra, seu me Scorpius aspicit 
Formidolosus, pars violentior 
Natalis horae, fa 

HOR, lib. ii. ode xvii. 1. 1722. 
Framed for the faithful.] The parti- 
cular hour which presides over the faith- 
fulness of friendship. 

49. Divides to the tirins, fa] The Ge- 
mini, another constellation represented 
by two twin-children, under which who- 
soever were born, were supposed by the 
astrologers to consent, very exactly, in 
their affections and pursuits. 

Magnus erit Cfeminis amor et concordia 
duplex. MX ML. lib. ii. 



Saturnumque gravem nostro Jove frangimus una. 50 

Nescio quod certe est, quod me tibi teraperat, astrum. 

Mille hoininum species, et reruin discolor usus : 
Velle suum, cuiq'ue est ; nee voto vivitur uno. 
Mercibus hie Italis mutat, sub sole recenti, 
Rugosum piper, et pallentis grana cuniini : 55 

Hie, satur, irriguo mavult turgescere somno ; 
Hie campo indulget : hunc alea decoquit : ille 
In Venerem putret. Sed curn lapidosa chiragra 
Fregerit articulos, veteris ramalia fagi ; 
Tune crassos transisse dies, lucemque palustrem, GO 

Et sibi jam seri vitam ingemuere relictam. 

At te nocturnis jurat impallescere chartis, 
Cultor enim juvenum, purgatas inseris aures 

50. Break, $fc.] Frangere and tempe- 
rare were used by the astrologers, when 
the malignant aspect of one star was cor- 
rected, and its influence prevented, by 
the power of sonic other propitious and 

Hence that astrological axiom Quic- 
quid ligat Saturnus, solvit Jupiter. 

The planet Saturn was reckoned to 
have a malign aspect ; the planet Jupi- 
ter a mild and favourable one, and to 
counteract the former. 

Te Jot-is impio 

Twtela Saturno, refulgent 
HOR. ode xvii. lib. ii. 1. 224. 

51. / know not, fe.] I won't take 
upon me to be certain what star it was ; 
but that it proceeds from the influence 
of some friendly star or other, which 
presided at our natal hour, that we are 
one in heart and sentiment, I am very 
clear, i 

Tempero literally signifies to temper, 
mix or mingle together. 

52. TJtere are a thousand species, fc.] 
f. e. Different kinds of men, as to their 
dispositions and pursuits. 

Different use, fye.~\ Dicolor lite- 
rally, of a different colour. Their use of 
what they possess differs as much as one 
colour from another : some, (as it fol- 
ows in the next lines,) from avarice, 
trade to increase their store ; others, 
through luxury and extravagance, squan- 
der it away. 

53. Has his u-itt.'] Velle, i. e. volun- 
tas. Vivitur, impers. See sat iii. 20, 

54. The recent sun.~] In the cast, 
where the sun first appears. 

55. Oianges, $c.] Sails to the East 
Indies, where he barters the produce of 
Italy for the produce of the East. 

Wrinkled pepper .] When the pepper 
is gathered, and dried in the sun, the 
coat or outside shrivels up into wrinkles. 

Pale cumin.] The seed of an herb, 
which being infused in wine, or other 
liquor, causes a paleness in those who 
drink it : it comes from Ethiopia. Pro- 
bably it stands here for any Oriental 

Hor. epist xix. lib. i. 1. 17, 18, speaks 
of his imitators : 

Quod si 

Patterem casu, liberent exsangue cumi- 

56. Sated.'] Satur that has his belly 
full glutted with eating and drinking. 

Swell up.] With fat. 

Moist sleep."} Irriguus signifies wet, 
moist, watered ; also, that watereth. 
Here, metaph. from watering plants, by 
which they increase and grow. So 
sleep is to those who eat much, and sleep 
much ; it makes them grow, and increase 
in bulk. 

57. Indulges in the field.] In the sports 
and exercises of the Campus Majtius. 
Or perhaps field-sports may be under- 
stood. Comp. HOR. ode i. 1. 3 6, and 
L 258. 

The die consumes.} Is ruined by 

gaming. Decoquit. metaph. from boil- 
ing away liquors over a fire. So the 
gamester, by continual play, consumes 
his substance. 



And we together break grievous Saturn with our Jupiter. 50 

I knownot what star it is certainly which tempers me with you. 

There are a thousand species of men, and a different use 

of things : 

Every one has his will, nor do they live with one wish. 
This man, for Italian merchandizes under the recent sun, 
Changes the wrinkled pepper, and grains of pale cumin : 55 
Another, sated, had rather swell up with moist sleep : 
Another indulges in the field ; another the die consumes ; 


Is rotten for Venus : but when the stony gout 
Has broken his joints, the branches of the old beech, 
Then, that their gross days have passed away, and the 

gloomy light, 60 

And they have late bewailed the life now left to them. 
But it delights you to grow pale with nightly papers, 
For a cultivator of youths, you sow their purged ears 

58. For Venus.'] i. e. Ruins his health 
is in ' a manner rotten by continual 
acts of lewdness and debauchery. Pu- 
tris moans also wanton, lascivious. 

Omnes in Damalim putres deponent 

HOK. lib. i. ode xxxvi. L 17, 18. 
The stony gout.'] So called from its 
breeding chalk-stones in the joints, when 
long afflicted with it 

59. Broken his joints.'] Destroyed the 
use of them as much as if they had been 
broken, and are so to all appearance. 

Tfie brandies^ ifc.] Ramalia seared 
or dead boughs cut from a tree, which 
may be looked upon, from their withered 
and useless appearance, as very strong 
emblems of a gouty man's limbs, the 
joints of which are useless, and the flesh 
withered away (See sat. L 97.) so 
that they appear like the dead branches 
of an old decayed l>cech-tree. 

(ill. dross days.] Crassos the days 
which theyhavespent in gross sensuality, 
as well as in thick mental darkness and 

Gloomy %///.] Palustrem metaph. 
from the fogs which arise in marshes and 
fenny places, which obscure the light, 
and involve those who live in it, or near 
them, in unwholesome mists. Such is 
the situation of those whose way of life 
is not only attended with ignorance and 
error, but with injury to their health, 
and with ruin of their comfort. 

6 1 . Late leu-ailed.'] Too late for remedy. 

The life now left, ^c.] They not 
only bemoan themselves, at the recollec- 
tion of their past misspent life, but the 
portion of life which now remains, being 
embittered by remorse, pain, and disease, 
becomes a grief and burthen. 

<>_>. (.'row pale, $e.] Your delight, 
Cornutus, is to pass the time, when 
others sleep, in hard study, which brings 
a paleness on your countenance. See 
sat i. 1. 124 ; and sat iiL L 85. 

63. A cultirator of youths.] Cultor 
metaph. from colo, to till or cultivate the 

q. d. As the husbandman tills or culti- 
vates the ground, and prepares it to re- 
ceive seed, and to bring forth fruit so do 
you, Cornutus, prepare youthful minds 
to receive and bring forth wisdom. 

You sotr their purged earn.] The 
metaphor is still carried on ; as the hus- 
bandman casts the ^seed into the ground 
which he has prepared and cleaned, by 
tillage, from weeds so do you sow the 
doctrines of moral philosophy, which 
were taught by Cleanthes, the disciple 
and successor of Zeno, in the ears of 
your pupils, after having purged away 
those errors, falsehoods, and prejudices, 
with which they were at first possessed, 
by your wise and well-applied instruc- 
tion. You first teach them to avoid 
vice and error, and then to embrace and 
follow truth and virtue. 



Fruge Cleanthea. Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque, 
Finera animo certum, miserisque viatica canis. 65 

" Cras hoc fiet." "Idem eras Set." "Quid! quasi magnum 
" Nempe diem donas ? " Sed cum lux altera venit, 
Jam eras hesternum consumpsimus : ecce aliud eras 
Egerit hos annos, et semper paulum erit ultra: 
Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno, 70 

Vertentem sese frustra sectabere canthum, 
Cum rota posterior curras, et in axe secundo. 

Libertate opus est : non hac, qua, ut quisque Velina 
Publius emeruit, scabiosum tesserula far 

Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia 

Stultitia caruisse, 

HOR. lib. i. epist. i. 1. 41, 2. 

64. Hence seek, %c.] Persius here 
invites both young and old to seek for 
wisdom from the Stoic philosophy, as 
taught by his friend and preceptor Cor- 
nutus ; that, thereby, they might find 
some certain and fixed end, to which 
their views might be directed, and no 
longer fluctuate in the uncertainty of 

Certum voto pete finem. 

HOR. Epist. "lib. i. ep. ii. 1. 56. 

65. Stores, $c.] Viatica, literally, are 
stores, provisions, things necessary for a 
journey ; as money, victuals, &c. 

The poet here advises their learning 
philosophy, that their minds might be 
furnished with what would suffice to 
support them through the journey of life, 
and more particularly through the latter 
part of it, when under the miseries and 
infirmities of old age. 

66. " To-morrow," $c.] Persius here 
introduces some idle young man, as if 
saying, "To be sure you advise very 
" rightly, but give me a little time to- 
" morrow (q. d. some time hence) I will 
" apply myself to the studies which you 
" recommend." 

" The same witt be done to-morrow."] 
When to-morrow comes, answers Per- 
sius, the same thing will be done ; that 
is, you will want to defer it for a day 

" What," Sic.] What ! replies the 
procrastinator, won't you allow me an- 
other day before I begin ? what! do you 
make such a mighty matter of giving 
me a day, as if that were of so great 
consequence ? 

68. " Yesterday's to-morrow."] But, re- 
joins Persius, when another day comes, 
remember that yesterday, which was the 
morrow of the day before it, and which 
you wished to be allowed you, is passed 
and gone. 

"Behold another to-morrow."] This 
day, which is the morrow of yester- 
day, is now arrived, and is, with all the 
past morrows, exhausting and consuming 
these years of ours ; and thus the time 
you ask for will always be put oif, and 
stand a little beyond the morrow you 
fix upon. 

70. "AUho* near you," ffc] The poet, 
in allusion to the hind- wheel of a car- 
riage, which is near to, and follows the 
fore-wheel, but never can overtake it, 
gives the young man to understand, that, 
though to-day is nearly connected with 
to-morrow, in point of time, yet it can't 
overtake it, the morrow will always keep 
on from day to day, , and it can never 
be overtaken thus shewing, that pro- 
crastinated time will always fly on, and 
keep out of his reach ; however near he 
may be to it, all his resolutions to over- 
take it will be in rain. 

" Under one beam."] Temo signifies 
the beam of the wain, or the draught- 
tree, whereon the yoke hangeth. Some- 
times, by synec. the whole carriage. 
q. d. Our days may be considered as 
the wheels by which our lives roll on ; 
each day, as well as another, is joined 
to the space allotted us, like wheels to 
the same chariot. 

71. ( *The felly."] Canthus properly 
signifies the iron wherewith the wheel i's 
bound, or shod, on the outward circle, 
called the felly here, by synec. the 
wheel itself. 

72. " The second axle."] Axis the 



With Cleanthean corn. Hence seek, ye young and old, 
A certain end to the mind, and stores for miserable grey 

hairs. 65 

" To-morrow this shall be done" " the same will be done 

" to morrow" " what ! 
" As a great thing truly do you give a day T " but when 

" another day comes, 
" We have already spent yesterday's to-morrow. Behold 

" another to-morrow, 

" Has spent these years, and will always be a little beyond: 
" For altho 1 near you, altho' under one beam, 70 

" You will in vain follow the felly turning itself, 
" When you, the hinder wheel, do run, and on the second 

" axle." 
There is need of liberty : not this, by which every Pub- 

lius in the Velinan tribe, 
As soon as he has been discharged, mouldy corn with his tally 

axle-tree on which the wheel is fixed, 
and about which it turns the second, 
t. e. the hinder. -y. d. You will, like 
the hinder-wheel of a carriage, which 
can never overtake the fore-wheel, be 
still following the time before you, but 
will never overtake it ; therefore defer 
not till to-morrow, what you should do 
to-day. The whole of the metaphor, 
L 702, is very fine, and well ex- 
pressed. See Him. lib. ii. ode xviii. 
1. 15, 16. 

I must confess that I cannot dismiss 
this part of my task, without mention- 
ing that beautiful description of the slip- 
ping away of time, unperceived and un- 
improved, which we find in Shake- 
speare : 

" To-morrote, and to-morrou; and to- 
" morrow, 

" Creeps in this petty pace from day to 

"To the last syllable of recorded time ; 

" A nd all our yesterdays have lighted 

" The icay to dusty death.' 1 '' - 
Macb. act v. sc. v. edit. Stockdale. 

73. There is need of liberty.'] The poet 
now advances to a discussion of that pa- 
radox of the Stoics that "only the wise 
"are free ;" and that those, who would 
follow after, and attain to true liberty, 
must be released from the mental shackles 
of vice and error. His treatment of the 
subject is exquisitely fine, and worthy 
our serious attention. 

Not this.] Not merely outward li- 
berty, or liberty of the body, such as is 
conferred on slaves at their manumission. 

By which.'} See 1. 74, note 2. 

Every PMius.] The slaves had no 
praenomen ; but when they had their 
freedom given them, they assumed one 
so, for instance, a slave that was called 
Licinius, would add the name of his 
master to his own, and call himself, if 
his master's name were Publius, Publius 
Licinius they also added the name of 
the tribe into which they were received 
and enrolled ; suppose the Velinan, then 
the frecd-man would style himself Pub 
lius Licinius Velina thus he was dis- 
tinguished from slaves. 

74. Been discharged."] i. e. From 
slavery made free. Emeruit metaph. 
from soldiers, who for some meritorious 
service were sent home, and discharged 
from going to war. Also from gladia- 
tors, who for their valour and dexterity 
at the theatre obtained their dismission 
from their perilous occupation, and were 
donati rude, presented with a rod, or 
wand, in token of their discharge and 
release. HOR. epist L lib. i. 1. 2. 
Juv. sat vi. 113. These were styled 

So slaves were often made free, on 
account of their past sen-ices, as having 
deserved this favour this is signified by 
emeruit here. 

Moiddy com, <$ r -] Those who are 
thus admitted to freedom, and enrolled 



Possidet. Heu steriles veri, quibus una Quiritem 
Vertigo facit ! Hie Dama est, non tressis agaso ; 
Vappa, et lippus, et in tenui farragine inendax': 
Verterit hunc dominus, raomento turbinis exit 

Marcus Dama. Papse ! Marco spondente, recusas 

Credere tu nummos ? Marco sub judice palles ? 

Marcus dixit : ita est. Assigna, Marce, tabellas. 

Hsec mera libertas ! Hoc nobis pilea donant ! 

" An quisquam est alius liber, nisi ducere vitam 
" Cui licet, ut voluit ? licet, ut volo, vivere : non sum 
" Liberior Bruto !" Mendose colligis, inquit 
Stoicus hie, aurem mordaci lotus aceto : 
Hoc reliquum accipio ; licet illud, et, ut volo, tolle. 


in one of the tribes, were entitled to all 
public doles and donations, on producing 
a little ticket or tally, which was given 
them on their manumission. The corn 
laid up in the public magazines was not 
of the best sort, and was frequently da- 
maged with keeping. 

The name of the person and of the 
tribe, which he belonged to, was in- 
scribed on the ticket, by which he was 
known to be a citizen. See Juv. sat vii. 
1.1 74, note. 

75. A las! ye barren, fyc.] The poet 
speaks with commiseration of their ig- 
norance, and total barrenness, with re- 
spect to truth and real wisdom, who 
could imagine that a man should be 
called free, because he was emancipated 
from bodily slavery. 

'--One turn,] Vertigo (from vertere, 
to turn). This was one of the ceremonies 
of making a slave free : he was carried 
before the praetor, who turned him round 
upon his heel, and said- Hunc esse li- 
beram volo. 

So Plautus, Menaechm. Liber esto, ito 
quo voles. Thus he became Quiris, a 
Roman citizen. See Juv. sat. iii. L 60, 

76. Here is Dama.~\ For instance, says 
the poet, here is the slave Dama. 

A groom not tvorth, fyc.] Agaso, an 
horse-keeper, a groom that looks after 
his master's horses. Non tressis (qu. 
tres asses) a poor, paltry fellow, worth 
hardly three farthings if one were to 
purchase him. They bought their 

77. A scoundrel.] Vappa signifies 
wine that is palled, that has lost its 
strength, therefore called vapid. Hence 

a stupid, senseless fellow ; or a scoundrel, 
a good-for-nothing fellow. 

Blear-eyed.] Perhaps from de- 
bauchery and drunkenness. See sat. ii. 
L 72, note. 

A liar in a little corn.] That will 
cheat his master, and defraud his horses 
of their slender allowance, and then lie 
to conceal his petty knavery. Far- 
rago is a mixture of several gains 

78. If his master, $c.] Let his master 
but turn him upon his heel. See note 
above, 1. 75. 

Movement of a top.] In one turn of 
a top, which is very swift when it is 
spinning i. e. as we say, in the twin- 
kling of an eye. This allusion to the 
turning of a top, very humorously 
agrees with the verterit. 

He comes forth, c.] He that went 
before the prajtor plain Dama, now 
comes out from him with a noble pras- 
nomen, and calls himself Marcus Dama. 

79. Wonderful!] What a surprising 
change ! or papas may introduce the 
following irony, where a person is sup- 
posed to hesitate about lending money, 
for which Marcas offers to become 
surety. Papas How strange ! that you 
should scruple it, when so respectable a 
person as Marcus offers his bond, and 
engages for the payment ! 

80. Are you pale?] Do you fear lest 
you should not have justice done you, 
where so worthy a person is advanced to 
the magistracy ? 

81. Marcus said it, >c.] Marcus gives 
his testimony, and who can contradict 
so just and upright a witness what he 
says must be true. 



Possesses. Alas! ye barren of truth among whom one turn 
Makes a Roman ! here is Dama, a groom not worth three 

farthings ; 76 

A scoundrel, and blear-eyed, and a liar in a little corn : 
If his master turn him in the movement of a top, he comes 


Marcus Dama. Wonderful! Marcus beingsecurity, refuse you 
To lend money? Are you pale under judge Marcus? 80 
Marcus said it it is so. Sign, Marcus, the tablets. 
This is mere liberty this caps give us. 

" Is there any other free, unless he who may live 
" As he likes ? I may live as I like : am not I 
" More free than Brutus T "You conclude falsely," says 85 
A Stoic here, having washed his ear with sharp vinegar : 
" I accept this which is left, take away that " I may," 

and " as I will." 

81. Siffn, Marcus, the tablets.] The poet 
here repeats the word Marcus, and drops 
the word Dama, as if he would ludi- 
crously insinuate, that however great a 
rogue Dama was, yet to be sure Marcus 
was a very different kind of person. 
He supposes him called upon to sign his 
name, as witness to somebody's will, 
which he could not do when a slave, for 
their testimony was not received. 

The tablets.] Thin planks of wood, 
smeared over with wax, on which they 
wrote wills, deeds, &c. See J uv. sat. ii. 
L 58, note. Here the will or deed 

The poet, in the preceding irony, car- 
ries on his grand point, which was to 
deride the common notion of liberty, or 
of a change being wrought, with regard 
to the respectability of those who were 
still, however emancipated from bodily 
slavery, slaves under ignorance, vice, and 

8'2. Mere liberty.'] Mera bare, naked 
liberty (says the Stoic) t. <-. in the 
bare, outward, b'teral sense of the word ; 
but it is to be understood no farther. 

This caps give us.] The slaves went 
bare-headed, with their hair growing 
long, and hanging-down : but when they 
were manumitted, their heads were 
shaved, and a cap, the ensign of liberty, 
put on their heads in the temple of 
Feronia, the goddess of liberty. See sat. 
iii. 1. 106. 

83. "Any other free," $c.] Here the 

poet introduces Dama as replying 
" Aye, you may deride my notions of 
" liberty ; but pray who is free if I am 
" not ? Is there any other freedom but 
" to be able to live as one pleases ? But 
" I may live as I please therefore am 
" I not free ?" by this syllogism think- 
ing to prove his point. 

85. "More free than Bruius."] M. Ju- 
nius Brutus, the great assertor and re- 
storer of liberty, by the expulsion of the 
Tarqnins, &c. who sacrificed his own 
sons in the cause of freedom, and changed 
the form of the government into a com- 

" You conclude falsely."] Your ar- 
gument is bad ; the assumption which 
you make, that " you live as you 
" please," is not true, therefore the con- 
clusion which you gather or collect from 
it is false, namely, " that you are free." 
See AINSW. Colligo, No. 6. 

85, 6. Says a Stoic.] i. e. Methinks I 
hear some Stoic say. 

!!<!. Wa*ed his ear, $r.] At 1. 63, we 
find purgatas aures, where see the note ; 
here, lotus aurem, meaning also the same 
as before, only under a different image, 
differently expressed. By vinegar, here, 
we are to understand the sharp and se- 
vere doctrines of the Stoic philosophy, 
which has cleansed his mind from all 
such false ideas of liberty, and made his 
ear quick in the discernment of truth and 

87. " 1 nfrf^t,"' <.] Your definition 



" Vindicta postquam meus a praetore recessi, 
" Cur mihi non liceat, jussit quodcunque voluntas ; 
" Excepto, si quid Masuri rubrica notavit f 

Disce ; sed ira cadat naso, rugosaque sanna, 
Dum veteres avias tibi de pulmone revello. 

Non praatoris erat, stultis dare tenuia rerum 
Officia ; atque usum rapidse permittere vitae 
Sambucam citius caloni aptaveris alto. 
Stat contra ratio, et secretam garrit in aurem, 
Ne liceat facere id, quod quis vitiabit agendo. 
Publica lex hominurn, naturaque continet hoc fas, 
Ut teneat vetitos inscitia debilis actus. 


of liberty in your first proposition is 
true ; I grant that " all who may live as 
u they please are free ;" but I deny 
your 'minor, or second proposition, viz. 
" that you live as you please ;" therefore 
your conclusion, viz. " that you are free," 
is also wrong. 

87. " That" " / may," and " as / 
will.'"'} i. e. Take away your minor pro- 
position, and I admit what remains hoc 
reliquum accipio viz. all that is con- 
tained in the first proposition that " all 
" who may live as they please are free ;" 
this is certainly a good definition of 
liberty : but this is not your case. 

88. " From the prtetor."} Before whom 
I was carried, in order to receive my 

" My own."] Meus i. e. my own 
master ; being made free, and emanci- 
pated from the commands of another, 
replies Dama, not at all understanding 
what the Stoic meant by liberty. 

" By the wand."} Vindicta. The 
praetor laid a wand upon the slave's 
head, and said, " I will that this man 
" become free," and then delivered the 
wand out of his own hand into the lie- 
tor's ; (see post, 1. 175.) This wand 
was called vindicta, as vindicating, or 
maintaining, liberty. See Hon. lib. ii. 
sat vii. 1. 76. 

90. " Rubric."} The text of the Ro- 
man laws was written in red letters, 
which was called the Rubric. DRYDEN. 
According to others, the titles and be- 
ginnings of the different statutes were 
only written in red, and therefore to be 
understood by rubrica. See AINSW. 
See Juv. sat xiv. 1. 192, 3, note. 

" Masurius."} An eminent and 
learned lawyer, in the reign of Tiberius, 
who made a digest of the Roman laws. 

q. d. When I received my freedom 
from the praetor, surely I was at liberty 
to do as I would, except, indeed , break- 
ing the law ; I don't say that I might 
do this. 

91. "Learn."} The Stoic here begins 
his argument, in order to refute what 
Dama was supposed to say in support of 
his notion of liberty. 

Now listen to me, says the Stoic, that 
you may learn what true liberty is, and 
in what it consists. 

" Let anger fall" Sfc.] Cease from 
your anger at me, for ridiculing your 
notion of liberty. 

It is to be remarked, that the an- 
cients represented the nose as denoting 
laughter, sat L 118. Contempt sat i. 
40, 1. Anger, as here. So we find the 
nose, or nostrils ; denoting anger fre- 
quently in the Hebrew Bible. 

" Wrinkling sneer."} Comp. sat. L 
40, 1, and note. 

92. " From your breast" fy.} Pulmo, 
literally, signifies the lungs ; but here 
denotes the whole contents of the breast 
in a moral sense. " Put away anger and 

sneering at what I say, while I pluck up 
those foolish notions of liberty, which 
are implanted <mu rooted within your 
mind, and with which you are as pleased 
and satisfied, as a child is with an old 
woman's tale." Avia is literally a 
grandame, or grandmother: hence old 
women's tales. AINSW. FabelJae aniles. 
HOR. lib. ii. sat. vi. 1. 77, 8. 
1 Tim. iv. 7. 



"After I withdrew from the praetor, my own by the wand, 
" Why might I not do whatever my will commanded, 
" Except if the rubric of Masurius forbad any thing f 90 
" Learn : but let anger fall from your nose, and the wrin- 

" kling sneer, 

" While I pluck from your breast your old wives 1 tales. 
" It was not of the praetor to give the delicate management 

" of things 

" To fools, and to permit the use of rapid life 
" You would sooner fit a dulcimer to a tall footman. 95 
" Reason stands against it, and whispers into the secret ear," 
" Let it not be lawful to do that, which one will spoil in do- 

" ing :" 

" The public law of men, and nature, contains this right, 
" That weak ignorance should forbear forbidden acts. 

93. "'It was not of," 6$c.] It was not 
in the power of the praetor. 

"77/e delicate management of things," 
Sec.] Though the praetor might confer 
civil liberty upon you at your manumis- 
sion, and though you may know how to 
direct yourself, so as to avoid offending 
against the letter of the law yet you 
could receive from the praetor none of 
that wisdom and discernment, by which 
alone you can distinguish aright, as 
touching those more minute and delicate 
actions which concern you in the more 
nice duties of life, and which are to be 
attained by philosophy alone. I take 
this to be meant by tenuia officia rerum 
lit small offices, or duties of things or 

94. " To fools."] The Stoics held, that 
" all fools were slaves," and that " no- 
body was free except the wise." A 
man must therefore be wise before he is 
free ; but the praetor could not make you 
wise, therefore he could not make you 

" To permit the ase."] It was not in 
the praetor's power to commit to such 
that prudence and wisdom, by which 
they can alone be enabled to make a 
right use of this fleeting life, and of all 
things belonging to it. 

95. " Sooner fit" #c.] Sambuca was 
some musical instrument, as an harp, 
dulcimer, or the like ; but what it exact- 
ly \v;is we rannot tell. 

._^ ///_/ wi,/,/."] Alto caloni. 
Calo, a soldier's boy, or any meaner sort 

of servant AINSW. Horace seems to 
use it in the Litter sense, lib. i. sat vi. 
1. 103 ; and perhaps it is so to be under- 
stood here. 

You might sooner think of putting a 
harp, or some delicate musical instru- 
ment, into the hands of a great over- 
grown booby of a servant, and expect 
him to play on it, than to commit the 
nice and refined duties of life to fools, 
and expect them either to understand or 
practise them. Asinus ad Lyram. 

96. " Reason stands against it."] Rea- 
son itself opposes such an ideii. 

" Whimpers into the secret far."] Se- 
cretly whispers into the ear. Hypallage 
Comp. supr. L 40, and note. 

97. "Let it not be lawful."] Ne, before 
the potential, has the sense of the impe- 
rative mood. See HOR. ode xxxiii. lib. L 
L 1. Ne doleas; and ode xi. 1. Ne 
quaesieris. Here, ne liceat is likewise 
imperative, and signifies that the voice 
of reason secretly whispers in the ear 
this admonition " Let it not be per- 
" mitted, that any should undertake 
" what they are not fit for, but would 
" spoil in doing it." Or ne liceat may 
be understood here, as non licet 

98. " The public law of men."] The 
common rule among mankind, as well as 
nature, may be said to contain thus 
much of what is right and just 

.'.'0. -Tlnd MHe^pionm,*'4w.] That 
an ignorance of what we undertake, 
which must render us inadequate to the 



Diluis helleborum, certo compescere puncto 
Nescius examen ? vetat hoc natura medendi. 
Navem si poscat sibi peronatus arator, 
Luciferi rudis ; exclamet Melicerta, perisse 
Frontem de rebus. Tibi recto vivere talo 
Ars dedit 2 et veri speciem dignoscere calles, 
Ne qua subserato mendosum tinniat auro ? 
Quseque sequenda forent, quseque evitanda vicissim ; 
Ilia prius creta, mox hsec carbone notasti ? 
Es modicus voti ? presso lare ? dulcis amicis I 
Jam nunc astringas, jam nunc granaria laxes ? 
Inque luto fixum, possis transcendere nummum, 
Nee glutto sorbere salivam mercurialem ? 

Hsec inea sunt, teneo, cum vere dixeris ; esto 
Liberque ac sapiens, prsetoribus ac Jove dextro. 



right performance of it, should restrain 
us from attempting acts, which, by the 
voice of human, as well as of natural 
law, are so closely forbidden to us. 
Comp. 1. 96, 7. 

100. "Do you dilute Jusllebore."] He 
here illustrates his argument by exam- 

Suppose, says he, you were to attempt 
to mix a dose of hellebore, not knowing 
how to apportion exactly the quantity. 

100. 1. " To a certain point."'] Me- 
taph. Examen signifies the tongue, or 
beam of a balance, by the inclination of 
which we judge of proportional weights. 

101. " The nature of healing forbids 
"this."] All medical skill, in the very 
nature of it, must place this among the 
vctitos actus, which weak ignorance is 
not to attempt. See 1. 99. 

102. " Hiffh-skoed ploughman."] Pero- 
natus. The pero was an high shoe 
worn by rustics, as a defence against 
snow and cold. See Juv. sat. xiv. 
1. 186. 

103. "Ignorant of Lucifer."] Know- 
ing nothing of the stars. Lucifer, or 
the day-star, is here put (by synec.) for 
all the stars, from which mariners take 
their observations to steer by. 

" Melicerta exclaims," $c.] Also 
called Portunus, or Portumnus, because 
supposed to preside over ports. See his 
story, Ov. Met lib. iv. fab. xiii. Meli- 
certa, the sea-god, would exclaim, that 
all modesty was banished from among 
those who undertook the management 

and direction of human afiairs, when he 
saw so impudent an attempt. 

"Shame."] Frontem, lit. the fore- 
head, or countenance, the seat of shame 
here, by met. shame or modesty it- 

104. " Upright ancle."] Metaph. from 
persons having their legs and ancles 
straight, and walking uprightly ; which is 
often used, to denote going on through 
life with an honest and virtuous con- 
duct. This occurs frequently in S. S. 
as Ps. xv. 2. Ixxxiv. 11. Prov. x. 9. 

105. "Has art," %c.] That is philoso- 
phy, which is the art of living well has 
this enabled you to do this ? 

106. "Lest any," fyc.] Ne qua i. e. 
ne aliqua species veri. Have you learnt 
to distinguish between the appearance 
and reality of truth and virtue, lest you 
should be deceived, as people are who 
take bad money for good, when, instead 
of answering to the appearance of the 
outside, which is fair, they find, upon 
sounding it, that it is brass underneath, 
instead of being all gold. 

108. " Mark'd those ivith chalk," cV.] 
The ancients used to note things good 
and prosperous with a white mark, and 
things bad and unlucky with a black 
one. In allusion to this, the Stoic is 
supposed to ask the question in the pre- 
ceding line, which is, not only whether 
his opponent has been taught to dis- 
tinguish the appearances of good and 
evil, but whether he has particularly 


u Do you dilute hellebore, not knowing how to confine, 

"to a loo 

" Certain point, the balance? the nature of healing forbids this. 
" If the high-shoed ploughman should require a ship for 
" Himself, ignorant of Lucifer, Melicerta exclaims, that shame 
" Has perished from things. To live with an upright ancle 
" Has art given you ? Are you skilful to distinguish the ap- 

" pearance of truth, 105 

" Lest any should tinkle false with gold having brass under it ? 
" And what things are to be followed, and, in like manner, 

" what avoided ? 
" Have you first markM those with chalk, then these with a 

" coal 2 
" Are you moderate of wish with a confined household 

" kind to your friends ? 
" Can you sometimes fasten, and sometimes open your grana- 

" ries? 110 

" And can you pass by money fixed in mud, 
" Nor swallow with your gullet mercurial spittle ? 

" When you can truly say, these are mine, I possess them 

" be thou 
u Free and wise, the praetors and Jupiter propitious. 

noted down what a wise man ought to stick it in the mud, with a string tied to 

follow, and what he ought to avoid. See it ; and if any miserly fellow coming by, 

Hon. lib. ii. silt. iii. 1. '246'. Mendosum and imagining it to be real, stooped to 

tinniat, for mendose : Gnmsm. pick it up, they snatched it away^and 

1 09. " Moderate o/w-M."] The desires laughed at him. 

confined within the bounds of modera- In triviis fiaum qui se dcmiitit ob assem. 
tion. HOR. lib. i. ejnst. xvi. 1. (i4. 

"A confined kuuAoU,*] Your 112. "-Mercurial spittle."} Mercury 

household-establishment frugal, and not was the god of gain : hence a desire of 

expensive contracted within a little gain is called saliva mercurialis. Me- 

compass ; or perhaps by presso lare, taph. from gluttons, who, at beholding 

may be signified a small house. some dainty dish, have their spittle in- 

" Kind to your friends"] Dulcis creased in such a manner, as that, if they 

obliging, sweet, agreeable. See HOR. did not swallow it, it would run out of 

lib. I sat. iv. 1. 135. the mouth. This we call, the mouth 

110. " Sometimes fasten," $c.] Judging watering. Can you see money without 
rightly when it is a time to withhold, your mouth watering at it ? i. e. without 
and when tn give. Here perhaps is an being greatly delighted, and coveting 
allusion to the public granaries, or maga- it 

zines of corn at Rome, which, at a time 113. " These"] All these good qua- 

of dearth and want, was dealt out in lities. 

doles to the citizens, on producing their 114. " Praitors and Jupiter )<,/,{- 

tickets, but, at other seasons, locked up. " ticus."] I then allow you to be free in 

Jam nunc lit. just now i. e. just at the sight of God and man i. . not 

a proper time. only with respect to the liberty of the 

111. "( 'an you pass by money" &;<.] body, which you received from the 
Alluding to a practice among the boys jinitur, but with respect to freedom of 
at Rome, who used to fasten a ]>ii-oe tin mind, of which Jupiter alone is the 
of counterfeit money to the ground, or author. 



Sin tu, cum fiieris nostrae paulo ante farinae, 115 

Pelliculam veterem retines ; et, fronte politus, 
Astutam vapido servas sub pectore vulpem : 
Quse dederam supra repeto, funemque reduce. 
Nil tibi concessit ratio : digitum exere, peccas : 
Et quid tarn parvum est? sed nullo thure litabis, 120 

Hsereat in stultis brevis ut semuncia recti. 
Haec miscere nefas : nee, cum sis csetera fossor, 
Tres tantum ad numeros satyri moveare Bathylli. 
" Liber ego." Unde datum hoc sumis, tot subdite rebus ? 
An dominum ignoras, nisi quern vindicta relaxat? 125 

I, puer, et strigiles Crispini ad balnea defer, 
Si increpuit, cessas, nugator ? Servitium acre 

115. "'But if you. 1 "] Now he comes 
to the other side of the question 

" Since you."] Since you, but a little 
before your manumission, were just like 
what we were till taught by philosophy 

i. e. naturally full of ignorance and 

" Of our meal."] Metaph. taken 
from loaves of bread, which are all 
alike, and taste alike, if made of the 
same flour so mankind, having the same 
nature, are all corrupt. 

116." Retain your old skin."] Metaph. 
taken from snakes, which cast off their 
old skin, and have a new one every 
year. q. d. If you retain your old de- 
praved manners and conduct (see L 76, 
7.), and have not changed and cast them 

" Polished in front."} Appearing 
with a countenance seemingly open and 
ingenuous. Necquicquam pelle decorus. 
Sat. iv. 1. 14. 

117. " Keep a cunning /or," <f-e.] En- 
tertain wily, cunning, and deceitful prin- 
ciples within 

" Your vapid breast."] Within your 
rotten heart. See 1. 77, note. 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe 
latentes. HOR. Ars. Poet. 437. 

118. " What I had above given."] i. e. 
What I just now granted ; viz. that you 
are free and wise 

" / demand again."] I recall. 

"'And bring back the rope"] Metaph. 
from leading beasts with a rope, which 
sometimes they lengthened, and gave 
the animal a good deal of liberty (see 
Juv. sat xii. 1. 5.); but, if restive and 
mischievous, they shortened it to con- 

fine him. Thus the Stoic, who lengthened 
his allowance so far as to pronounce the 
man wise and free, supposing him to 
answer the description which he gives 
of those who are so, now, on finding the 
contrary, draws back what he had said, 
and reduces the man to his old narrow 
bounds of bodily freedom only. 

119. "'Reason has granted you no- 
" thing."] Whatever the praetor may 
have done, wisdom has done nothing 
for you. 

" Put forth your finger, you sin."] 
The Stoics held, that there was no me- 
dium between wisdom and folly, that a 
man was either perfectly wise, or per- 
fectly foolish ; therefore, that the most 
trivial and indifferent thing, if done 
by the latter, could not be done aright, 
not even the putting forth of a fin- 

120. "-What is so small?"] "What 
" can be so trivial as this ?" yet, trivial 
as it is, it can only be done by the wise 
and free, as it ought, any more than 
every other action, of what nature or 
kind soever. 

" Will obtain."] Rito signifies not 
only to sacrifice, but to obtain that for 
which the sacrifice is offered. See sat 
ii. 1. 75, and note. 

121 " Half ounce of right," $e.] In 
short, the Stoics held, that not a grain 
of what was right could reside within 
any but the wise and free, in their sense 
of the words ; or, in truth, in any but 
their own sect all the rest of the world 
they accounted fools and mad, and that 
though they were to offer incense, in 
ever so great a quantity, to the gods, 



" But if you, since you were a little before of our meal, 115 
Retain your old skin, and, polished in front, 
Keep a cunning fox under your vapid breast : 
What I had above given I demand again, and bring back 

"the rope. 
Reason has granted you nothing ; put forth your finger, 

" you sin : 

And what is so small ? but you will obtain, by no incense, 120 
That a small, half ounce of right should be fixed in fools. 
To mix these is impossibility : nor, when as to other things 

" you are a digger, 
Can you be moved to three measures only of the satyr Ba- 

" thyllus." 
I am free." "Whence take you this for granted, subjected 

" by so many things ? 
Are you ignorant of a master, unless he whom the wand 

" relaxes f 125 

(TO, slave, and carry the scrapers to the baths of Crispinus," 
If he has sounded forth do you loiter, trifler f " Sharp 

yet they could never obtain a single fixed 
principle of what was right. 

122. " To mir these," $&] . e. Wis- 
dom and folly ; there must be either all 
one, or all the other. See above, note 
on 1. 1 1 9. It is impossible they should 
be mixed in the same person. 

"A digger."] Fossor a ditcher, 
delver, and the like q. d. A mere 

<j. d. When, in every thing else 
caetera, i. e. quoad caetera, Graecism 
you are as clumsy and awkward as a 
common lout or clown, it is impossible 
that you should dance, even three steps, 
like the famous dancer Bathyllus. Per- 
haps the poet by fossor, alludes to the 
slaves, who were set to dig with fetters 
on their legs. See Juv. xi. 80. 

123. " The satyr Balhyllus."] He was 
a famous dancer in the time of Nero, 
and, for his great agility and nimble 
movements, was surnamed the Satyr. 
Saltantes Satyros. VIRG. ecL v. 73. 

The Stoic concludes this part of his 
argument with averring, that those who 
are not wise and free, as in every 
thing else they are unable to do what 
is right, so neither can they, in the most 
trivial or indifferent action ; any more 
than an awkward clown could dance 
like Bathyllus for three steps together. 

See Juv. sat. vi. 1. 63. 

124. / am free."] " Aye it is all 
"very well," says Dama: "but I do 
" insist upon it, that I am free, notwith- 
" standing all they say." 

" Whence take you this," 3fc.] Datum 
is a technical term when any thing is 
yielded, agreed, and granted as true, 
it is called a datum. " Now," answers 
the Stoic, "whence had you that datum, 
" for so it appears to you, that you are 
" free, because you have had your free- 
" dom given you by the praetor's wand, 
" you who are put under (subdite) the 
tt power and dominion of so much error 
"and folly." 

Comp. sat. iii. 1. 28, and note. 

125. "Are you ignorant" fyc.~\ "Know 
"you not any other master than he 
" who exercised an outward authority 
" over you till he was released from it 
" by the praetor's wand ?" See before, 
1. 88, note. 

126. " Go, slave, and cany," $.] 
grant you that you have nothing to feai 
from your late master. If he were, in 
a loud and surly manner, to bawl out 
" Here, slave, carry these scrapers," &c. 
and scold you for the least delay 

127. 8. "Sharp servitude,^ #<.] How- 
ever sharp and severe bodily servitude 
may bo, yet you have nothing to do with 



Te nihil impellit ; nee quicquam extrinsecus intrat, 
Quod nervos agitet Sed si intus, et in jecore aegro 
JNascautur domini, qui tu impunitior exis 130 

At(]ue hie, quern ad strigiles scutica et metus egit herilis ? 

Mane piger stertis. " Surge," iuquit Avaritia : " eja 
" Surge." Negas.Instat, "surge," inquit. Nonqueo. "Surge." 
Et quid again 2 " rogitas ? Saperdas advehe Pouto, 
" Castoreum, stuppas, hebenum, thus, lubrica Coa. 135 

" Tolle recens, primus, piper e sitiente camelo. 
" Verte aliquid ; jura." Sed Jupiter audiet. " Eheu, 
" Baro ! regustatum digito terebrare salinum, 
" Contentus perages, si vivere cum Jove tendis." 

Jam pueris pellem succinctus, et oenophorum aptas : IJQ 

it, it can't enforce any such orders upon 

128. " Nor does any thing enter" $c.~] 
Nor can any thing, as threats, or 
menaces, of being punished for not 
obeying, enter into your mind, so as to 
make you uneasy ; all this I grant in 
this sense you are free. 

129. "-Bid if within.' 1 '''] If vice and 
folly, generated within your disordered 
heart, are your masters, and rule over 
you, so as to compel your obedience to 
their commands. 

Jecore segro. See Juv. sat i. L 45, 
and note. The ancients looked on the 
liver as the seat of the concupiscible and 
irascible affections, and therefore jecore 
segro may be understood, inetonymically, 
to denote the diseased or disordered af- 
fections, for vice is the sickness or dis- 
ease of the mind. 

1 30. " How go you forth," #c.] How 
can you be said to be less liable to 
punishi.ient, from the slavery and misery 
of your mind, than the poor slave is, in 
a bodily sense, when compelled to obey 
his master, from the terror of bodily 
punishment. The only difference be- 
tween you is, he serves his master, you 
your vices. 

131. "The scrapers."] Strigiles. 
These were instruments which the 
Greeks and Romans made use of to 
scrape their bodies after bathing, and 
were carried to the baths by their slaves. 
Driven to the scrapers i. e. has forced 
to carry the scrapers to the baths, when 

1 32. " Slothful, you snore."] The poet 
proceeds to illustrate and confirm his 

argument (in which he has been con- 
tending for the " slavery of all but the 
" wise," according to the Stoic doctrine) 
by instancing the power of sloth, avarice, 
and luxury, over the human mind, in 
its corrupted state. 

He introduces a dialogue between 
Dama and Avarice. Avarice is sup- 
posed to find Dama snoring a-bed in the 
morning, in the luxurious ease of his so 
highly-prized freedom. 

" Rise," says Avarice.'] This word 
" Rise," is repeated four times. Thus 
Vice ceases not from its importunity ; 
and the answers of Dama, " I will not" 
" I cannot" " what shall I do if I 
" rise ?" are a lively representation of 
the power of idleness and sloth, when 
indulged. This is finely described, 
Prov. vi. 9, 10. xxii. 13. xxvi. 13, 14. 

1 34. " Fish from Potttus."] Saperdas 
a sort of fish which came from Pontus, 
or the Black sea. 

135. "Castor."'] Castoreum. This 
signifies either beaver's skins, or what 
we call castor t. c. the medicinal part 
of the animal; both of which were 
articles of traffic. See Juv. sat. xii. 1. 

"Flax."] Stuppa, or stupa the 
coarse part of flax, tow, hards, oakum to 
calk ships with. AINSW. 

"Ebony."] A black wood, well 
known among us the tree whereof bears 
neither leaves nor fruit. Aixsw. 

"Slippery Coan wines."] From the 
island Co, or Coos, in the JEgean sea. 
They were soft, and of a laxative quality ; 
hence called lubrica. 

136. " Take frst the recent pejvjvr."} 



"Servitude impels thee nothing 1 , nor does anything enter 

"from without 
" Which may agitate your nerves. But if within, and in a 

" sick liver 

" Mastersare produced, howgo youforth more unpunished, 130 
" Than he, whom the scourge, and fear of his master, has 

" driven to the scrapers 2 

" In the morning, slothful, you snore: "Rise," says Avarice, 
" Rise."" You reftise he urges " Rise, 11 says he. " I 

" cannot. 11 " Rise. 11 
"And what shall I do V do you ask? bring fish from 

" Pontus, 

" Castor, flax, ebony, frankincense, and slippery Coan wines : 
" Take first the recent pepper from the thirsting camel : 136 
"Turn something; swear. 11 "But Jupiter will hear. 11 

" Alas ! 

" Simpleton, to bore with your finger the re-tasted salt-cellar, 
" Content you will pass your time, if you aim to live with 

" Jove. 
" Now, ready, you fit the skin to the slaves, and wine- 

" vessel : 140 

Be sure he at the market first, that you 
may not only have the first choice, but 
return to a better sale, by coming home 
before the other merchants. 

HOR. lib. i. epist. vi. 1. 32, 3. 

Cave ne portus occupet alter, 

Ne Cyttiratica, ne Bithyna negotiaperdas. 

"'Thirsting camel."] The eastern 
people loaded their pepper and other 
spices on the backs of camels. These 
animals are said to endure thirst, in their 
journeys over the deserts, for many days 
together ; wherefore, in a part of the 
world where water is very scarce, they 
are peculiarly useful 

137. " Turn something.' 1 ''] Trade, bar- 
ter i. e. as we say, turn the penny. 

" Su-ear."] Don't mind a little per- 
jury upon occasion^ either with respect 
to the goodness of your wares, or con- 
cerning the first cost, and what you can 
afford to sell them at 

" Jupiter will hear. 1 "] Dama is sup- 
posed to raise a scruple of conscience. 

137, 8. "Alas! simpleton."] Baro, or 
varo a servant that waited upon the 
common soldiers, who was usually very 
stupid and ignorant hence a block- 
head, a dolt, a foolish fellow. 

138. " To bore iritk y,nr finyers," $c.] 

If you aim at living (t. e. living in amity) 
with Jupiter, you must not think of trad- 
ing to increase your fortune, but must 
be content to live in a poor, mean way. 
The poorer sort of people lived upon 
bread, with a little salt. Persius sup- 
poses the Stoic to tell Dama, that if he 
would not perjure himself, in order to 
get money by trade, he must be content 
to put his finger, and endeavour to scrape 
up a little salt from the bottom of his 
own poor salt-cellar ; where there were 
only a few grains left, from his having 
done this so often, in order to give a re- 
lish to his palate, by licking his fingers, 
after they had rubbed the bottom of 
the salt-cellar, as if he meant to bore it 
through. This is proverbial, to express 
very great poverty. Salem lingere signi- 
fied to live in the utmost poverty to 
fare poorly. PLAUT. Curcull. act iv, sc. 
the last Hie hodie apud me nunquam 
delinges salem ; that is as much as to 
Bay " you shan't eat a morsel." 

140. ""Now ready."] Succinctus 
literally, girt, trussed up. The ancients 
wore long, loose garments, which, when 
they prepared to travel, they girded, or 
trussed up, about their loins, that they 
might walk the more freely. Sei- lion. 



Ocius and navem : niliil obstat quin trabe vasta 

^Egaeum rapias, nisi solers Luxuria ante 

Seductum moneat ; " Quo deinde, insane, ruis ? Quo ? 

"Quid tibi vis? calido sub pectore mascula bilis 

" Intumuit, quain lion extinxerit urna cicuta?. 145 

" Tun 1 mare transilias ? Tibi, torta cannabe fulto, 

" Coena sit in transtro ? Veientanumque rubellum 

" Exhalet, vapida lassum pice, sessilis obba ? 

" Quid petis ? ut nummi, quos hie quincunce modesto 

"Nutrieras, pergant avidos sudare deunces? 150 

" Indulge genio : carpamus dulcia ; nostrum est 

lib. ii. sat. ^L 1 07. Hence, being ready, 
prepared ; also nimble, expeditious. See 
Exod. xi. 11, former part. 1 Kings xviii. 
49. Luke xii. 35. 

140. "Fit the skin"fyc.~] They had wal- 
lets, or knapsacks, made of skins, in 
which they packed their clothes, and 
other necessaries, when they travelled 
either by land or sea. 

You put your knapsack, and your 
cask of wine for the voyage, on the backs 
of your slaves, to carry on board. 

141. " Quick to the ship."] You lose 
no time, you hurry to get on board. 

" Nothing hinders."] Nothing stands 
in your way to prevent the immediate 
execution of your plan, or to discourage 
you unless See 1. 142, note 2. 

" A large ship."] Trabs is a beam, 
or any great piece of timber, of which 
ships are built: here, by meton. the 
ship itself. See Juv. sat. xiv. L 276. 
VIRG. JEn. iii. 191. 

142. " The jEgean."] A part of the 
Mediterranean sea, near Greece, dividing 
Europe from Asia. It it now called the 
Archipelago, and, by the Turks, the 
White sea. Its name is supposed to be 
derived from atyos, Dor fluctus, from its 
turbulent waves. From this dangerous 
sea are made two adages ; viz. JEgenm 
scaphula transmittere to cross the 
JEgean sea in a little boat i. e. to under- 
take a weighty business with small abili- 
ties ; and ./Egeum navigare to under- 
take an hazardous enterprize. See AINS. 
Hence our Stoic mentions this sea in 
particular, to shew the power of avarice 
over the mind that is enslaved by it, 
and that no dangers will deter from its 
pursuits Nihil obstat, says he. 

" Sly Lu.rury."~] Solers shrewd, 
wily, cunning. 

We have seen the victory of Ava- 
rice over Sloth, now Luxury is intro- 
duced, as putting in its claim for the 

Thus, says the Stoic, will Avarice lord 
it over you, and drag you in her chains 
over the dangerous ./Egean for lucre's 
sake, unless, being beforehand seduced 
and enthralled by Luxury, you should 
listen to her admonitions. Ante i. e. 
before you put in practice what Avarice 
has advised. 

143. " Whither tJtence," 3fc.] Whither 
from that warm and comfortable bed of 
yours, on which you so delightfully re- 
pose yourself, are you running headlong 
(ruis), like a madman as you are ? See 
L 132. 

144. " Manly Ule," (Sfc.] Masculus 
male ; hence manly, stout, hardy, than 
which nothing is more opposite to luxury. 
Your warm breast i. e. heated and 
inflamed with the ardent desire which 
now possesses you to face the danger 
of the seas ; for this an hardy rage is 
risen up, (intumuit) swells within you, 
says Luxury, and stirs you up to this 
dangerous resolution. 

145. " Urn of hemlock."] An urn was 
a measure of about four gallons. Cicuta 
an herb like our hemlock, the juice of 
which was of an extcmely cold nature, 
so as to be a deadly poison, when taken 
in a certain quantity. See sat. iv. 2. 
Also a sort of hellebore, administered 
medicinally, in madness, or frenzies, 
to cool the brain. See AINSW. Cicuta, 
No. 1, 2. 

QIUE poterunt unquam satis eapurgare 
cicutce. HOR. epist. ii. lib. ii. 53. 

146. " Can you cross the sea 1 "] Can 
you be so forgetful of the blandish- 
ments of ease and luxury, as to subject 



Quick to the ship : nothing hinders, hut in a large ship 
You may hurry over the ^Egean: unless sly Luxury should 
Admonish you before seduced' 1 ' 1 u Whither thence, mad- 

" man, do you rush ? 
Whither ? what would you have? under your warm breast 

" manly bile 
Has swelled up, which an urn of hemlock could not have 

" extinguished. 145 

Can you cross the sea ? to thee shall there be a supper on 

" a bench, 

Propped with twisted hemp ? and red Veientane wine 
Shall the broad-bottomed jug exhale, hurt with nasty 

" pitch ? 
What seek you ? that money, which here with modest 

" five per cent. 
You had nourished, should go on to sweat greedy cent. 

" per cent. ? 150 

Indulge your genius let us pluck sweets It is mine 

yourself to the dangers and inconve- 
niences of a sea- voyage ? 

146. "A supper" $c.] Instead of an 
elegant and well-spread table, can you 
bear to eat your supper upon a rough 
plank ; and instead of an easy couch, 
to be supported by a coil of cable, by 
way of a seat ? 

147. "Red Veientane u-inc."] A coarse, 
bad wine, such as seamen carried with 
them among their sea-stores. See Hon. 
lib. ii. sat. iii. 1. 143. 

148. " The broad-fattomedjuff."] Obba 
a bowl or jug with a great belly and 
broad bottom, that sitteth, as it were 
scssilis. This sort of jug, or bowl, was 
peculiarly useful at sea, because not ea- 
sily thrown down by the motion of the 

" Exhale."] Cast forth the fumes of. 

** Hurt icith nafty pitch."] Smelling 
and tasting of the pitch, with which 
every thing on board a ship is daubed 
this, perhaps, was the case with the 
obba : or the pitch may be meant, with 
which the vessel which held the wine 
was stopped, and which being of a 
coarse sort, might give a disagreeable 
taste to the liquor. 

149. "What seek you?"] What er- 
rand are you going upon ? Is it to make 
letter interest of your money, than you 
can make by staying at home ? 

" Modest five per cent"] This, as 


among us, was not reckoned as usurious, 
but modest '. e. moderate, legal in- 

150. Nourished."] Metaph. from 
nourishing, nursing, fostering a child, 
making it thrive and grow : hence ap- 
plied to money, as increasing it by care. 

"To su-eat."] Metaph. from the 
effect of toil and labour these must 
attend those who endeavour to make ex- 
traordinary interest of their money, by 
trading to foreign countries. 

"Greedy."] Metaph. from an im- 
moderate desire of food. Those who 
strive to make exorbitant interest of 
their money, may well be called greedy 
of gain ; and hence the epithet greedy 
is applied to the gain itself. 

" Cent, per cent."] Deunx a 
pound lacking an ounce. A duodecim, 
una dempta uncia. Eleven ounces 
eleven parts of another thing divided 
into twelve : so that dennces here sig- 
nifies eleven pounds gained by every 
twelve, which is gaining very near cent, 
per cent as we say. 

151. "Indulge your genius."] Here 
genio means natural inclination. In- 
dulgere genio, to make much of himself. 

"Pluck streets"] Metaph. from 
plucking fruits or flowers. HOR, lib. i. 
ode xi. 1. 8. 

Carpt dieni. 



" Quod vivis : cinis, et manes, et fabula fies. 

" VIVE MEMOR LETHI : FUGix BORA : hoc quod loquor, hideest." 

En quid agis ? duplici in diversum scinderis hamo. 
Hunccine, an hunc, sequeris ? subeas alternus oportet, 155 
Ancipiti obsequio, dominos : alternus oberres. 

Nee tu, cum obstiteris semel, instantique negaris 
Parere imperio, " rupi jam vincula," dicas. 
Nam et luctata canis nodum abripit : attamen illi, 
Cum fugit, a collo trahitur pars longa catenae. 160 

Dave, cito, hoc credas jubeo, finire dolores 

q. d. Let us Seize on and enjoy the 
sweets of life. 

This sentiment is finely expressed in 
the apocryphal book of Wisdom, ch. ii. 
6. et seq. 

Luxury has been dissuading Dama 
from attempting his voyage, by repre- 
senting the dangers and inconveniences 
which must attend it : now she invites 
him to stay, that he may not lose the 
pleasures of ease and luxury, which the 
shortness of life affords him but a little 
time for the enjoyment of. 

151,2. "Mine that you live.'" 1 '] i.e. 
It is owing to me, says Luxury, that you 
enjoy the pleasures and sweets of life, 
without which, to live is not life. Btos 
/Blow 5eo/*ecos owe e<rrt BIOS, says the 
Greek proverb. Among us, " May we 
" live all the days of our life," is a com- 
mon convivial expression. 

Horace, on another occasion, says to 
the muse Melpomene, 

Qttod spiro et placeo, si placeo, tuum 

est. Lib. iv. ode iii. 1. 24. 

152. "Become ashes."] You will soon 
die, and be carried to the funeral pile, 
where you will be burnt to ashes. 

" A ghost."] Manes a spirit sepa- 
rated from the body. 

U A fable."'] Fabula, (from for 
-faris, to speak or talk,) a subject of 
discourse. Persius, here, some think to 
allude to Horace's fabulaeque manes 
'. e. manes de quibus multse sunt fabulae 
the manes who are much talked of. 
Lib. i. ode iv. 1. 16. 

But as the Stoic is here speaking as 
an Epicurean, who believes body and 
soul to die together, I should rather 
think that fabula here means an in- 
vented story, a groundless tale for such 
they looked upon the doctrine of a fu- 
ture state. See Wisd. ii. 1-9. 

" A nothing but an old wife's tale." 

Soon u-ilt thou glide a gliost for gossips' 

chat. BREWSTER. 

153. "Live mindful of death:'] q. d. 
Memento mori. 

Dum licet in rebus jucundis vive bca- 

Viva memor quam sis cevi brevis. 

HOR. lib. ii. sat. vi. 1. 96, 7. 
" The hour flies."] 

Currit enim ferox cetas. 

HOR. lib. ii. ode v. 1. 13, 14. 
Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabUe 


VIRG. tjeorg. iii. 1. 284. Comp. JEn. x. 
467, 8. 

" This, which I speak, is from 
" thence."] The time in which I am now 
speaking is taken from thence, i. e. 
from the flying hour. See Hor. lib. i. 
ode xi. 1. 7. 

Dum loquimur fugerit invida 

The late Lord Hervey, in a poetical 
epistle to a friend, applies this very 

" Even now, while I ivrite, time steals 

" on our youth, 
"And a moment's cut off from thy 

"friendship and truth." 
The whole of Luxury's argument 
amounts to, " Let us eat and drink, for 
" to-morrow we die." Isa. xxii. 1 3. 
1 Cor. xv. 3'2. 

154. "Lo, what do you ?"] The Stoic 
now turns his discourse, immediately, as 
from himself, to Dama, whom he has 
represented, as beset by Avarice and 
Luxury, and at a loss which to obey. 
Now, says he, what can you do, under 
these different solicitations ? 

" You are divided" fyc.] Metaph. 
from angling, with two hooks fixed to 



" That you live : you will become ashes, and a ghost, and a 
" fable. 


" I speak, is from thence. 1 " 
" Lo, what do you ? you are divided different ways with 

" a double hook. 
" This do you follow, or this ? By turns it behoves that you 

" go under, 155 

"With doubtful obsequiousness, your masters: by turns, 

" you may wander. 
" Nor can you, when once you have withstood, and have 

" refused to obey 

" An instant command, say ' I now have broken my bonds.' 
" For also a dog, having struggled, breaks the knot : but to 

" him, 

" When he flies, a long part of the chain is drawn by his neck. 
" Davus, quickly (I command that this you believe) to 

" finish griefs 161 

the line, and differently baited, so that 
the fish are doubtful which to take. 

155. " This do you follow,''' 1 fy?.] Hunc 
dominum understood. Which master 
will you follow, Avarice or Luxury ? 

"By turns it behoves" <Sfc] The truth 
is, that you will sometimes go under, or 
yield to," the dominion of the one, some- 
times of the other, alternately ancipiti 
obsequio doubting which you shall 
serve most. Alternus-a-um. SeoAis>\\. 

156. " Wander."] Oberres be like 
one that is at a loss, and wanders up and 
down ; you will wander in your deter- 
minations which to serve, at times, their 
commands being contrary to each other, 
Avarice bids you get more Luxury bids 
you enjoy what you have. 

157. " Withstood,'"' $c.] Perhaps for 
once, or so, you may refuse to obey their 
most importunate solicitations and com- 
mands ; but don't, from this, conclude 
that you are free from their service. It is 
not a single instance, but a whole tenor 
of resistance to vice, which constitutes 
freedom. Instanti earnest, \irgent. 

159. " A dog," 8[c.~\ A dog may strug- 
gle till he breaks his chain, but then runs 
away with a long piece of it hanging to 
him at his neck, by which he is not only 
incommoded in his flight, but easily laid 
hold of, and brought back to his con- 
finement. Canis here feminine lit. a 

So will it be with you ; you may break 
loose, for a while, from the bondage and 
service of vice, but those inbred princi- 
ples of evil, which you will carry about 
you, will hinder your total escape, and 
make it easy for the solicitations of your 
old masters to reduce you again into 
bondage to them. Therefore, while there 
remains any vice and folly within you, 
you will be a slave, however you may 
Gill yourself free. 

161. "Davus," $fc.] The Stoic, in 
confirmation of his main argument, to 
prove that "all but the wise are slaves," 
having instanced sloth, avarice, and 
luxury, as lording it over the minds of 
men, now proceeds to shew that the pas- 
sion of love is another of those chains by 
which the mind is bound. 

He introduces a scene in the Eunuch 
of Menander, from which Terence took 
his Eunuch, where the lover is called 
Chaerestratus (in Terence, Phaedria) com- 
municating to his servant Davus (in 
Terence, Parmeno) his intention of 
leaving his mistress Chrysis (in Terence, 

"Davus," says Chaerestratus, "(and 
" I insist on your believing me to be in 
" earnest,) I am thinking to give up my 
" mistress, and to do this shortly cito 
" and thus to put an end to all the 
" plague and uneasiness which she has 
" cost me." 



Praeteritos meditor : (crudum Chaerestratus unguem 
Abradens, ait hsec.) An siccis dedecus obstem 
Cognatis ? An rem patriam, rumore sinistro, 
Limen ad obscoenum, frangani, dum Chrysidis udas 165 
Ebrius ante fores, extincta cum face, canto 2 

Euge, puer, sapias ; diis depellentibus agnam 
Percute. Sed censen" 1 plorabit, Dave, relicta? 
Nugaris : solea, puer, objurgabere rubra, 
Ne trepidare velis, atque arctos rodere casses. 170 

Nunc ferus, et violens : at si vocet, haud mora dicas, 
" Quidnam igitur faciam ? ne nunc, cum accersat, et ultro 
" Supplicet, accedam f Si totus, et integer, illinc 

162. 3. "His raw nail gnawing? <|e.] 
Biting his nail to the quick ; a very com- 
mon action with people in deep and 
anxious thought. 

163. " Shall I, a disgrace.' 1 '''] q. d. Shall 
I, who have made myself a disgrace to 
my family by keeping this woman 

" Oppose."] Act contrary to the 
wishes and advice of my sober rela-. 
tions ? 

Siccus signifies sober, in opposition 
to uvidus, soaked, mellow with liquor. 
HOR. lib. iv. ode 5. 3 40. 

Dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi 

Cum Sol oceano subest. 
Hence sicci means sober, orderly peo- 
ple in general, in contradistinction to 
rakes and libertines. 

164. ''Paternal estate," fyc.~] Spend 
and diminish my patrimony, at the ex- 
pence of my reputation. Comp. Juv. 
sat. xiv. 1. 1. 

165. "An obscene tJtreshold."] At the 
house of an harlot. Synec. limen for 

" Wet doors" fyc.] The doors wet 
with the dew of the night. " Shall I 
" serenade her at midnight, when I am 
" drunken, and have put out the torch 
" with which my servant is lighting me 
" home, for fear of being seen and known 
" by the passers by ?" 
. 167. " Well done," <Sfc.] " Well done, 
" my young master," says Davus, " I 
" hope you will come to your senses at 
" last." 

" Repelling gods," fyc.] It was usual 
to offer a thank-offering to the gods, on 
a deliverance from any danger: hence 
Daviusbids his master sacrifice a lamb 

diis depellentibus to the gods, whose 
office it was to repel and keep off evil. 
Perhaps Castor and Pollux are here 
meant, as they were reckoned peculiarly 
to avert mischief. See Delph. note. 
Horace sacrificed a lamb to Faunus, the 
god of the fields and woods, for his 
escape from the falling tree. Lib. ii. 
ode xvii. ad fin. Averruncus Deus qui 
mala avertit. AINSW. 

168. " Think you, Davus," Sfc.] Here 
the young man wavers in his resolution, 
and shews that he is still a slave to his 
passion for Chrysis he can't bear the 
thought of making her uneasy. 

169. " You trifle "] Answers Davus. 
Is this the way in which you are to put 
an end to all the plague and uneasiness 
of this amour, to be thus irresolute, and 
unable to bear the thought of her tears 
for the loss of you ? Alas ! how you 
trifle with yourself! 

" You will be children," %c.] fool- 
ish youth, when once Chrysis finds out 
that you are so fond of her, that you 
can't bear to grieve her by forsaking her, 
she will make her advantage of it ; she 
will let you see her imperiousness, and 
will not only scold, but beat you. 

"-Red slipper"] Solea a kind 
of pantofle, or slipper, covering only the 
sole of the foot, and fastened with laces. 
It was a fashion among the fine ladies to 
have these of a red or purple colour, as 
well as to make use of them for the 
chastisement of their humble admirers. 
See Juv. sat. vi. 1. 611. 

Thraso is represented by Terence 
(Eun. act. v. sc. vii.) as intending, after 
his quarrel with the courtezan Thais, to 
surrender himself to her at discretion, 

SAT. V. 


' Past I meditate : (Chrcrestratus, his raw nail 

' Gnawing, says these words) shall I, a disgrace, oppose my 

" sober 

; Relations ? Shall I my paternal estate, with an ill report, 
1 Spend at an obscene threshold, while, before the wet doors 
; Of Chrysis, drunken I sing with an extinguished torch f 
" Well done, boy, be wise : to the repelling gods a lamb 
; Smite:" "But think you, Davus, she will weep, being leftf 1 
You trifle you will, boy, be chidden with a red slipper, 
; Lest you should have a mind to struggle, and bite the tight 

"toils: 170 

; Now fierce and violent : but, if she should call, without 

" delay you would say 
What therefore shall I do ? now, when she can send for 

"me, and willingly 
Supplicate, shalllnotgof 1 "If whole andentire from thence 

and to do whatever she commanded. The 
parasited GNATHO says, Quid est ? 

THRASO. Qui minus quam Hercules 
servivit Omphale ? 

GN. Exemplum placet : 
Utinam tibi commitigari videam sandalio 

From this answer of Gnatho, it seems 
likely that there was represented, on the 
Athenian stage, some comedy on the 
loves of Hercules and Omphale, in which 
that hero was seen spinning of wool, and 
his mistress sitting by, and beating him 
with her sandal, or slipper, when he did 
wrong. To this our poet may probably 
allude. See the ingenious Mr. COL- 
WAN'S translation of this passage, and 
the note. 

170. " To struggk"] f. e. That you 
may not again attempt your liberty. Me- 
taph. from the fluttering of birds when 
caught on lime-twigs, who flutter their 
wings to free themselves, by which they 
are the more limed, and rendered more 
unable to escape. MARSHALL. 

Sic aves dum viscum trepidantes ex- 
cutiunt, plumis omnibus illinunt. SE- 
NECA, Je Ira. 

Trepido does not always signify 
trembling through fear, but sometimes 
to hasten, to bustle, to keep a clutter. 

Dum trepiilant al-te. 
VIRG. JEn. iv. 121 ; and ix. 114. 
So struggling to get free from a haughty 
mistress : 

AiTcluliprimo Tuurua dctmctalaralro. 

Mox venit assueto mottis ad arvajugo. 
Sic prime juvenes trepidant in amore 

Dehinc domitiposthac eeqita et iniqua 
ferunt. PROPERT. lib. ii. 

"And bite," fyc.~] Metaph. from 
wild beasts taken in nets, or toils, who 
endeavour to free themselves by biting 
them asunder. 

In short, Chrysis will so use you, if 
you again put yourself in her power, that 
you will not dare to attempt a second 
time to escape her. 

171. "Fierce and violent."] Now you 
are not with her you can bluster-stoutly. 

" Call."] f. e. Invite you to come 
to her 

" Without delay" Sfc.] You would 
instantly change your note, and say 

172. " What therefore" tyc.] These are 
almost the words of Phaedria, in TER. 
Eun. act i. sc. i. L 1,2. 

Quid iffitur faciam ? non earn, ne nunc 

Cum nccersor ultra ? 

173. Whole and entire," $c.] "If 
" when you left her, you had been en- 
" tirely heart whole, and had shaken off 
" the yoke of lust and passion, you would 
" not nee nunc, not even now return 
"to her, even though she has sent to 
" entreat you to it ; but, from your 
" thought of yielding to her entreaties, 
" I see very plainly that, notwithstand- 
" ing all your deliberations about leaving 
" her, you are still a slave to her.'' 



Exieras, nee nunc. Hie, hie, quern quserimus, hie est : 
Non in festuca, lictor quam jactat ineptus. 

Jus habet ille sui, palpo quern ducit hiantem 
Cretata Ambitio ? Vigila, et cicer ingere large 
Eixanti populo, nostra ut Floralia possint 
Aprici meminisse senes ! quid pulchrius ? At cum 
Herodis venere dies, unctaque fenestra 
Dispositse, pinguem nebulam vomuere lucernae, 



174. " Whom we seek."] The man who 
can so far emancipate himself from his 
passion, as to free himself from its do- 
minion, so as no longer to be a slave 
to it, which Chaerestratus would have 
proved himself, if he could have kept his 
resolution against all solicitations to 
break it ; this is the man I mean, says 
the Stoic, this is the man I allow to be 

175. "Not in the wand" fyc.] The 
better to explain this place, as well as 
1. 88 of this Satire, it may not be amiss 
to mention, particularly, the ceremony 
of manumission. 

" The slave was brought before the 
consul, and, in after-times, before the 
praetor, by his master, who, laying his 
hand upon his servant's head, said to the 
praetor, Hunc hominem liberum esse 
volo, and, with that, let him go out of 
his hand, which they termed, e maiiu 
emittere, whence manumission : then 
the praetor, laying a rod upon his head, 
called vindicta, said, Dico eum liberum 
esse more Quiritum ; and turned him 
round on his heel. See 1. 75, 6. After 
this, the lictor, taking the rod out of the 
praetor's hand, struck the servant several 
blows upon the head, face, and back, 
(which part of the ceremony Persius re- 
fers to in this line,) and nothing now 
remained but pileo donare, to present 
him with a cap in token of liberty, and 
to have his name entered in the com- 
mon roll of freemen, with the reason of 
his obtaining that favour." See before, 
L 88. See KENNKTT, Antiq. p. 100. 

" The foolish lictor"] Ineptus, here, 
is either used in contempt of the lictor, 
who was a sort of beadle, that carried 
the fasces before the praetor, and usually, 
perhaps, an ignorant, illiterate fellow ; 
or it may be used in the sense of unapt, 
unfit, improper f. e. to convey true li- 
berty on the slave, whom he struck with 

the rod, in that part of the ceremony 
which fell to his share. 

" Shakes"] Jacto, is to shake 

or move ; to move to and fro, as in the 
action of striking often ; also to brag or 

176. "Right of himself."} The poet 
now instances, in the vice of ambition, 
another chain which binds the enslaved 
mind, and which hinders that freedom 
for which our Stoic is contending. 

Can he call himself his own master 
meus, 1. 88 ; or say that he is sui juris 
i. e. that he can dispose of himself as he 
pleases, as having a sovereign propriety 
in his person. 

" Whom gaping"] Hiantem gap- 
ing after, coveting greatly, like a crea- 
ture gaping for food. 

" With his lure.""] Palpum -i, lit. a 
gentle, soft stroking with the hand ; 
hence obtrudere palpam alicui to 
wheedle, flatter, or coax. AINSW. 

176, 7. "Chalked ambition."] This 
expression alludes to the white garments 
worn by candidates for offices ; in these 
they went about to ask the people's 
votes, and from these white garments, 
which to make still whiter they rub- 
bed over with chalk, they were called 

177. "Ambition."] Literally signifies 
a going about, from am bio : hence a suing 
or canvassing for favour hence that de- 
sire of honour and promotion, which is 
called ambition. 

" Watch "] Says Ambition ; al- 
ways be upon the look out ; lose no op- 
portunity to make yourself popular. 

"Heap vetcJies largely."] Those 
who aspired to public offices, endeavoured 
to gain the votes of the people by do- 
nations and largesses. These kinds of 
public bribes consisted in pease, beans, 
lupines, or vetches, given away among 
the people. The Romans ran to such 



"You had come forth, not now." " This, this, this is he 

" whom we seek, 

" Not in the wand which the foolish lictor shakes. 175 

*' Has he the right of himself, whom gaping 1 , with its lure, 


" Ambition leads ? Watch : and heap vetches largely on the 
" Quarrelling people, that our feasts of Flora sunny old 


" May remember : what more glorious ? but when 
" The days of Herod have come, and in the greasy window iso 
" The candles disposed, have vomited a fat cloud, 

extravagance on these occasions, that 
several of the richest entirely ruined 
themselves. J. Caesar employed in such 
largesses near a million and an half more 
than his estate was worth. 

In dcere atque fuba bona tu perdasque 

Lattis tu in circo spatiere, aut cencus 

HOR. lib, ii. sat iii. 1. 182, 3. 

17 ft. "Quarrelling people. 1 "] Quarrel- 
ling about their shares in the largesses 
and donations ; of, as we see at our 
elections, about the interests of the 
several candidates, whom they severally 

" Our feasts,' 1 '' 3fc.] That the feasts 
which we gave, marked by our great li- 
berality, may never be forgotten, to 
the latest old age of those who attended 

" Feasts of Flora."] Flora was a noted 
courtezan in Rome, who having gotten 
a large sum of money by prostitution, 
made the Roman people her heir : but 
they, being ashamed of her profession, 
made her the goddess of flowers. 

In honour of her, feasts were held, 
and games exhibited, which were pro- 
vided by the aedile, who, on this occa- 
sion, was very liberal in his donations to 
the people, in hopes of gaining their 
votes for an higher place in the ma- 
gistracy. The Floralia were held on the 
28th of April. 

"Sunny old men."] Aprici senes 
old men who loved to bask in the sun, 
the warmth of which was very accept- 
able to their cold habit of body, which 
old age brought on ; their delight was 
to bask on a sunny bank, and talk 
over old times. Comp. Jfv. sat. xi. L 

In the well-known, beautiful ballad of 
Darby and Joan, the poet has made use 
of this idea, as one description of the 
amusement of old age ; 

TogetJier they totter about, 

Or sit in the sun at the door, fyc. 

179. " What more glorious ?"] Than 
thus to recommend ourselves to the 
people, gain their favour, and leave 
a lasting memory of our ^munificence ? 

180. The days of Herod," $c.] 
Another chain in which the human mind 
is holden in superstition ; to this all 
but the wise are slaves. He instances 
this in those Romans who had addicted 
themselves to many of the Jewish rites 
and superstitions, for such their whole 
religion appeared to the heathen. See 
Juv. sat xiv. 1. 96106. We find, 
by Matt xiv. 6. and Mark vi. 21. that 
the king's birth-day was an high festival, 
observed at Herod's court ; and, by this 
passage of Persius, it appears to have 
been celebrated by the Jews at Rome 
also, particularly by the Herodians, who 
constituted a society in honour of Herod, 
after the manner of the Sodalitia at 
Rome. Sec BROUGHTON, Bibliotheca 
tit Herodians. 

" Greasy window."] They stuck up 
candles, or lamps, in their windows, in 
token of a rejoicing-day they lighted 
them early in the day (corop. Juv. sat 
xii. 92.), and by their flaring and gut- 
tering they made the frames of the win- 
dows on which they stood all over 

181. "Fat cloud"] i. e. Of smoke 
An exact description of the smoke of a 
candle, or lamp, which is impregnated 
with particles of the fat, or grease, from 
which it ascends; as may be seen on 



Portantes violas ; rubrumque amplexa catinum, 
Cauda natat thynni, tumet alba fidelia vino ; 
Labra moves tacitus, recutitaque sabbata palles : 
Tune nig'ri lemures, ovoque pericula rupto : 
Hinc grandes Galli, et cum sistro lusca sacerdos, 
Incussere deos inflantes corpora, si non 
Prffidictum, ter mane, caput gustaveris alii. 

Dixeris hsec inter varicosos centuriones, 
Continue crassum ridet Pulfenius ingens, 


ceilings, or other places, on which this 
smoke has alighted, and which, when they 
are attempted to be cleaned, are found 
to be soiled with a mixture of soot and 

Vomuere is a word well adapted to 
express the discharge of the thick and 
filthy smoke from the wicks. So Vmo. 
JEn. v. 682. 

Stupa vomens tardumfumum. 

The tow disgorging tardy, languid smoke. 

182. "Bearing violets."] They adorned 
their lamps with wreaths of violets, and 
other flowers, on these occasions. 

"Embraced a reddish."] Hypallage, 
for the dish embracing the toil of the 
fish. Thynnus, a large coarse fish ; the 
poet mentions only the tail of it, which 
was the worst part this he does, pro- 
bably, by way of derision of the Jews' 
festal-dinner. The dish, of red earthen- 

103. "Su-ims"] In sauce. 

" White pitcher."] An earthen ves- 
sel, a white crock of earth. 

" SiveUs."] Is filled up to the brim 
or tumet may imply, that the wine 
was bad, and in a fermenting state, 
frothing up above the brim. Every 
circumstance of the entertainment seems 
to be mentioned with a thorough air of 
contempt, and to denote the poverty of 
the Jews. 

184. "Silentyou move your lips."] You 
join in the solemnity, you attend at their 
proseuchse, and, like them, mutter 
prayers inwardly, only moving your lips. 
See sat. ii. 1. 6. 

"And fear."] Pallus is used by 
our poet elsewhere to denote hard study, 
which occasions paleness. See sat. i. 1. 
124 ; and sat. iii. 85. Here it is used 
to denote that superstitious fear, which 
occasions, from yielding to it, a pale and 
wan appearance in the countenance. 

"Circumcised noUotibL"] Reeutita 
sabbata. Hypall. for sabbata recutitorum 
the sabbaths of the circumcised. 
Palles sabbata, here, is equivalent to 
metuentem sabbata. Juv. sat. xiv. 1. 96. 
q. d. By degrees you will enter into 
all the Jewish superstition. 

The word sabbata, in the plural, may 
here denote, not only the sabbath-days, 
but all the Jewish holidays, which were 
days of rest from labour ; among others, 
the festival which they had instituted in 
honour of Herod's birth-day. 

185. " Then black hobgoblins.-"] The 
mind enslaved by superstition, falls from 
one degree of it into another. 

Lemures ghosts, spirits that walk by 
night, hobgoblins. AINSW. Noctnrnos 
lemures. HOR. ep. ii. lib. ii. 1. 209. 
They are only supposed to appear by 
night hence called black. 

" Dangers from a broken effff."] The 
ancients had a superstition about egg- 
shells ; they thought, that if an egg-shell 
were cracked, or had an hole bored 
through at the bottom of it, they were 
subject to the power of sorcery. 

This is contrary to the superstition of 
those, who, in the days when witches 
were believed in, always broke the bot- 
tom of an egg-shell, and crossed it, after 
having eaten the egg, lest some witch 
should make use of it in bewitching 
them, or sailing over the sea in it, if 
it were whole. See DRYDEN'S note. 

For an instance of national supersti- 
tion, as ridiculous as any that can be 
imagined, I would refer the reader to 
the solemn public statute of 1 Jac. I. c. 
12, against witchcraft, now repealed by 
9 Geo. II. c. ,5. 

"Hence."] i. e. From this super- 
stitious principle in the minds of men, 
they are led from one degree of credu- 
lity to another: of this advantage has 



Bearing violets ; and, having embraced a red dish, 

The tail of a tunny-fish swims, the white pitcher swells 

" with wine ; 

Silent you move your lips, and fear circumcised sabhaths : 
Then black hobgoblins, and dangers from a broken egg: 185 
Hence huge priests of Cybele, and a one-eyed priestess with 

" a sistrum, 

Have inculcated gods inflating bodies, if you have not 
Tasted, three times in the morning, an appointed head of 

" garlick. 

" If you say these things among the veiny centurions, 
Immediately huge Pulfenius rudely laughs, 190 

been taken by the priests of Cybele, 
and of Isis, to fill them with groundless 

186. "Huge priests of Cybele."'] See 
these described at large, Juv. sat vL 
51020. They were called Galli, from 
Callus, a river of Phrygia, the drinking 
of which made people furious. So 
OVID, Fast iv. 

Inter, ait, viridem Cybden altasque Ce- 


Amnis it insatiia nomine Gallus a- 

Qui bibit indefurit, fyc. 

Persius calls them grandes Juvenal 
says, ingens semivir, &c. They were 
uswilly of great stature, owing, as has 
been said, to their castration, which in- 
creased their bulk. Their strange, mad 
gestures, and their extraordinary ap- 
pearance, as well as their loud and wild 
vociferation, had great effect upon weak 
and superstitious minds. See Juv. sat 
vi. 5215. 

" One-eyed priestess with a sistrum."] 
The superstition of the Egyptian god- 
dess Isis had been transferred to Rome, 
where she had a temple. She was re- 
presented with a sistrum, a sort of brazen 
or iron ti